Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : B01.650.940.800.575.912.250.341.937.099 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:26460808
[Au] Autor:Miller DG; Lawson SP; Rinker DC; Estby H; Abbot P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Water and the Environment, California State University, Chico, CA, 95929, USA.
[Ti] Título:The origin and genetic differentiation of the socially parasitic aphid Tamalia inquilinus.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol;24(22):5751-66, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1365-294X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Social and brood parasitisms are nonconsumptive forms of parasitism involving the exploitation of the colonies or nests of a host. Such parasites are often related to their hosts and may evolve in various ecological contexts, causing evolutionary constraints and opportunities for both parasites and their hosts. In extreme cases, patterns of diversification between social parasites and their hosts can be coupled, such that diversity of one is correlated with or even shapes the diversity of the other. Aphids in the genus Tamalia induce galls on North American manzanita (Arctostaphylos) and related shrubs (Arbutoideae) and are parasitized by nongalling social parasites or inquilines in the same genus. We used RNA sequencing to identify and generate new gene sequences for Tamalia and performed maximum-likelihood, Bayesian and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct the origins and patterns of diversity and host-associated differentiation in the genus. Our results indicate that the Tamalia inquilines are monophyletic and closely related to their gall-forming hosts on Arctostaphylos, supporting a previously proposed scenario for origins of these parasitic aphids. Unexpectedly, population structure and host-plant-associated differentiation were greater in the non-gall-inducing parasites than in their gall-inducing hosts. RNA-seq indicated contrasting patterns of gene expression between host aphids and parasites, and perhaps functional differences in host-plant relationships. Our results suggest a mode of speciation in which host plants drive within-guild diversification in insect hosts and their parasites. Shared host plants may be sufficient to promote the ecological diversification of a network of phytophagous insects and their parasites, as exemplified by Tamalia aphids.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Afídeos/genética
Arctostaphylos/parasitologia
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
Filogenia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Arizona
Teorema de Bayes
California
Variação Genética
Funções Verossimilhança
Nevada
Parasitos/genética
Filogeografia
Tumores de Planta/parasitologia
Análise de Sequência de RNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151014
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mec.13423


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[PMID]:25702282
[Au] Autor:Panusa A; Petrucci R; Marrosu G; Multari G; Gallo FR
[Ad] Endereço:Dipartimento del Farmaco, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: alessia.panusa@iss.it.
[Ti] Título:UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS metabolic profiling of Arctostaphylos pungens and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. A comparative study of phenolic compounds from leaf methanolic extracts.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;115:79-88, 2015 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to get a rapid metabolic fingerprinting and to gain insight into the metabolic profiling of Arctostaphylos pungens H. B. K., a plant morphologically similar to Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry) but with a lower arbutin (Arb) content. According to the European Pharmacopoeia the Arb content in the dried leaf of A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. must be at least 7% (wt/wt) but other species, like A. pungens, are unintentionally or fraudulently marketed instead of it. Therefore, methanolic leaf extracts of nine A. uva-ursi and six A. pungens samples labeled and marketed as "bearberry leaf" have been analyzed. A five-minute gradient with a UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS on an Acquity BEH C18 (50×2.1 mm i.d.) 1.7 µm analytical column has been used for the purpose. A comprehensive assignment of secondary metabolites has been carried out in a comparative study of the two species. Among twenty-nine standards of natural compounds analyzed, fourteen have been identified, while other fifty-five metabolites have been tentatively assigned. Moreover, differences in both metabolic fingerprinting and profiling have been evidenced by statistical multivariate analysis. Specifically, main variations have been observed in the relative content for Arb, as expected, and for some galloyl derivative like tetra- and pentagalloylglucose more abundant in A. uva-ursi than in A. pungens. Furthermore, differences in flavonols profile, especially in myricetin and quercetin glycosilated derivatives, were observed. Based on principal component analysis myricetrin, together with a galloyl arbutin isomer and a disaccharide are herein proposed as distinctive metabolites for A. pungens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arctostaphylos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Arbutina/análise
Arctostaphylos/química
Arctostaphylos/genética
Arctostaphylos/metabolismo
Ericaceae/química
Flavonoides/análise
Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise
Metabolômica
Metanol
Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
Fenóis/análise
Extratos Vegetais/química
Folhas de Planta/química
Quercetina/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Hydrolyzable Tannins); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Plant Extracts); 76XC01FTOJ (myricetin); 9IKM0I5T1E (Quercetin); C5INA23HXF (Arbutin); Y4S76JWI15 (Methanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150609
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150609
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150223
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 44 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25050710
[Au] Autor:Treberg MA; Turkington R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Botany, and Biodiversity Research Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Species-specific responses to community density in an unproductive perennial plant community.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102430, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Most studies of density dependent regulation in plants consider a single target species, but regulation may also occur at the level of the entire community. Knowing whether a community is at carrying capacity is essential for understanding its behaviour because low density plant communities may behave quite differently than their high density counterparts. Also, because the intensity of density dependence may differ considerably between species and physical environments, generalizations about its effects on community structure requires comparisons under a range of conditions. We tested if: (1) density dependent regulation occurs at the level of an entire plant community as well as within individual species; (2) the intensity (effect of increasing community density on mean plant mass) and importance (the effect of increasing density, relative to other factors, on mean plant mass) of competition increases, decreases or remains unchanged with increasing fertilization; (3) there are species-specific responses to changes in community density and productivity. In 63 1 m2 plots, we manipulated the abundance of the nine most common species by transplanting or removing them to create a series of Initial Community Densities above and below the average natural field density, such that the relative proportion of species was consistent for all densities. Plots were randomly assigned to one of three fertilizer levels. At the community level, negative density dependence of mean plant size was observed for each of the 4 years of the study and both the intensity and importance of competition increased each year. At the species level, most species' mean plant mass were negatively density dependent. Fertilizer had a significant effect only in the final year when it had a negative effect on mean plant mass. Our data demonstrate a yield-density response at the entire community-level using perennial plant species in a multi-year experiment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Achillea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Arctostaphylos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biomassa
Fertilizantes
Especificidade da Espécie
Yukon
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fertilizers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1603
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170809
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170809
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140723
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102430


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[PMID]:25039203
[Au] Autor:Hosseini S; Shrivastava M; Qi L; Weise DR; Cocker DR; Miller JW; Jung HS
[Ti] Título:Effect of low-density polyethylene on smoke emissions from burning of simulated debris piles.
[So] Source:J Air Waste Manag Assoc;64(6):690-703, 2014 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1096-2247
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:UNLABELLED: Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic is used to keep piled debris from silvicultural activities--activities associated with development and care of forests--dry to enable efficient disposal by burning. The effects of inclusion of LDPE in this manner on smoke emissions are not well known. In a combustion laboratory experiment, 2-kg mixtures of LDPE and manzanita (Arctostaphylos sp.) wood containing 0, 0.25, and 2.5% LDPE by mass were burned. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled in real time during the entire flaming, mixed combustion phase--when the flaming and smoldering phases are present at the same time--and during a portion of the smoldering phase. Analysis of variance was used to test significance of modified combustion efficiency (MCE)--the ratio of concentrations of fire-integrated excess CO2 to CO2 plus CO--and LDPE content on measured individual compounds. MCE ranged between 0.983 and 0.993, indicating that combustion was primarily flaming; MCE was seldom significant as a covariate. Of the 195 compounds identified in the smoke emissions, only the emission factor (EF) of 3M-octane showed an increase with increasing LDPE content. Inclusion of LDPE had an effect on EFs of pyrene and fluoranthene, but no statistical evidence of a linear trend was found. Particulate emission factors showed a marginally significant linear relationship with MCE (0.05 < P-value < 0.10). Based on the results of the current and previous studies and literature reviews, the inclusion of small mass proportions of LDPE in piled silvicultural debris does not appear to change the emissions produced when low-moisture-content wood is burned. In general, combustion of wet piles results in lower MCEs and consequently higher levels of emissions. IMPLICATIONS: Current air quality regulations permit the use of burning to dispose of silvicultural piles; however, inclusion of low-density polyethyelene (LDPE) plastic in silvicultural piles can result in a designation of the pile as waste. Waste burning is not permitted in many areas, and there is also concern that inclusion of LDPE leads to toxic air emissions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química
Monóxido de Carbono/análise
Incineração
Polietileno/química
Fumaça/análise
Resíduos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Análise de Variância
Arctostaphylos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Fogo
Modelos Químicos
Estados Unidos
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
Madeira
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Smoke); 0 (Waste Products); 7U1EE4V452 (Carbon Monoxide); 9002-88-4 (Polyethylene)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1408
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140721
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140721
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140722
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:24450490
[Au] Autor:Giordano MR; Asa-Awuku A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California - Riverside , Riverside, California 92521, United States.
[Ti] Título:Rebuttal to correspondence on "Changes in droplet surface tension affect the observed hygroscopicity of photochemically aged biomass burning aerosol".
[So] Source:Environ Sci Technol;48(3):2084-5, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5851
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arctostaphylos
Rosaceae
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMMENT; LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1504
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140204
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140204
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140124
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/es405374r


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[PMID]:24450447
[Au] Autor:Raatikainen T; Laaksonen A
[Ad] Endereço:Finnish Meteorological Institute , 00101 Helsinki, Finland.
[Ti] Título:Comment on "Changes in droplet surface tension affect the observed hygroscopicity of photochemically aged biomass burning aerosol".
[So] Source:Environ Sci Technol;48(3):2082-3, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5851
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arctostaphylos
Rosaceae
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMMENT; LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1504
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140204
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140204
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140124
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/es404971u


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[PMID]:23916388
[Au] Autor:Samoilova Z; Smirnova G; Muzyka N; Oktyabrsky O
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Goleva 13, Perm 614081, Russia.
[Ti] Título:Medicinal plant extracts variously modulate susceptibility of Escherichia coli to different antibiotics.
[So] Source:Microbiol Res;169(4):307-13, 2014 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1618-0623
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Antioxidant activity of green and black tea and extracts of medicinal plants and their ability to modulate antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli were studied. Among a number of extracts tested the maximal capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate iron in chemical tests was found in green and black tea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These extracts contained high level of polyphenols and in aerobic conditions exhibited prooxidant features, producing H2O2 and inducing expression of the katG gene encoding catalase HPI in E. coli cells. A good correlation between the polyphenol content and the ability of extracts to protect bacteria against peroxide stress was observed (r = 0.88). Polyphenol-rich extracts and iron chelators demonstrated the highest modulating effect on the antibiotic susceptibility by changing the time period before lysis started and by influencing the colony-forming ability of bacteria. The direction of the modulating effect was dependent on nature of antibiotic applied: under treatment with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin the extracts predominantly provided protective effects, while under treatment with kanamycin a bactericidal action was enhanced. Mechanism of modulating action of extracts on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility probably involves antioxidant, preferentially iron-chelating, or prooxidant properties of polyphenols.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Arctostaphylos/química
Sinergismo Farmacológico
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Plantas Medicinais/química
Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação
Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo
Quelantes/isolamento & purificação
Quelantes/farmacologia
Antagonismo de Drogas
Radicais Livres/metabolismo
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Picratos/metabolismo
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação
Polifenóis/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Chelating Agents); 0 (Free Radicals); 0 (Picrates); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Polyphenols); DFD3H4VGDH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1410
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130807
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:24296864
[Au] Autor:de Arriba SG; Naser B; Nolte KU
[Ad] Endereço:Schaper & Brümmer GmbH & Co KG, Bahnhofstr 35, D-38259 Salzgitter, Germany. Email: susana.garciadearriba@schaper-bruemmer.de.
[Ti] Título:Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations.
[So] Source:Int J Toxicol;32(6):442-53, 2013 Nov-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1092-874X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Uva-ursi folium (bearberry leaf) has been traditionally used to treat symptoms of lower urinary tract infections. The most representative constituent of this herbal drug is arbutin that is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and undergoes hepatic conjugation to form hydroquinone (HQ) conjugates. As free HQ is crucial for the safety of the herbal preparation, we reviewed published and unpublished experimental and human studies to clarify some outdated assumptions and to support the safety of therapeutic daily doses of Uva-ursi folium extract. Specifically, data on pharmacokinetics and the human exposure of arbutin and HQ were reviewed. A therapeutic recommended human daily dose of bearberry leaf extract (420 mg hydroquinone derivatives calculated as anhydrous arbutin) liberates free HQ in urine at a maximum exposure level of 11 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d. By means of an experimental no observed effect level value, a permitted daily exposure dose below which there is a negligible risk to human health was estimated for free HQ (100 µg/kg bw/d). Dietary sources of arbutin/HQ that are regularly consumed long term by humans generate comparable free HQ exposure levels. There is no direct evidence, regarding human data, supporting the fact that free HQ causes convulsion, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or promotion of tumors in humans. Free HQ had no activity promoting pancreatic, bladder, stomach, or liver carcinogenesis. In conclusion, under the recommended use conditions Uva-ursi folium is a safe therapeutic option for treating lower urinary tract infections.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arctostaphylos
Hidroquinonas/toxicidade
Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Arbutina/farmacocinética
Seres Humanos
Hidroquinonas/farmacocinética
Neoplasias
Folhas de Planta
Medição de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hydroquinones); 0 (Plant Preparations); C5INA23HXF (Arbutin); XV74C1N1AE (hydroquinone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1407
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:131204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1091581813507721


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[PMID]:23957441
[Au] Autor:Giordano MR; Short DZ; Hosseini S; Lichtenberg W; Asa-Awuku AA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California-Riverside , Riverside, California United States.
[Ti] Título:Changes in droplet surface tension affect the observed hygroscopicity of photochemically aged biomass burning aerosol.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Technol;47(19):10980-6, 2013 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5851
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study examines the hygroscopic and surface tension properties as a function of photochemical aging of the aerosol emissions from biomass burning. Experiments were conducted in a chamber setting at the UC-Riverside Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) Atmospheric Processes Lab using two biomass fuel sources, manzanita and chamise. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements and off-line filter sample analysis were conducted. The water-soluble organic carbon content and surface tension of the extracted filter samples were measured. Surface tension information was then examined with Köhler theory analysis to calculate the hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Laboratory measurement of biomass burning smoke from two chaparral fuels is shown to depress the surface tension of water by 30% or more at organic matter concentrations relevant at droplet activation. Accounting for surface tension depression can lower the calculated κ by a factor of 2. This work provides evidence for surface tension depression in an important aerosol system and may provide closure for differing sub- and supersaturated κ measurements.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arctostaphylos
Rosaceae
Raios Ultravioleta
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aerossóis
Biomassa
Fumaça
Tensão Superficial
Molhabilidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Aerosols); 0 (Smoke)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1405
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131001
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131001
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130821
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/es401867j


  10 / 44 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:22712621
[Au] Autor:Gallo FR; Multari G; Pagliuca G; Panusa A; Palazzino G; Giambenedetti M; Petitto V; Nicoletti M
[Ad] Endereço:Dipartimento del Farmaco, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Bearberry identification by a multidisciplinary study on commercial raw materials.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;27(8):735-42, 2013 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Herbal species different from the official bearberry, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, are sold through conventional markets and also through non-controlled Internet websites, putting consumer safety at risk owing to the lack of quality control. Recently, Arctostaphylos pungens has become one of the most used species as a raw material for herbal medicines and dietary supplements in the place of official bearberry, a plant used for the treatment of various urinary disorders. A fingerprint identification based on an integrated application of different analytical techniques (HPTLC, NMR, HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS) is here described to distinguish A. uva-ursi from A. pungens. The HPTLC and HPLC-DAD fingerprints resulted the simplest methods to differentiate the two species, whereas LC-ESI-MS was more useful to quantify arbutin, the main component of bearberry, and to evaluate its different content in the two species. This multidisciplinary study showed for the first time a specific phytochemical fingerprint of the new species A. pungens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arctostaphylos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação
Medicina Herbária/normas
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Flavonoids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1402
[Cu] Atualização por classe:130501
[Lr] Data última revisão:
130501
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:120621
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2012.696253



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