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[PMID]:29329564
[Au] Autor:Owolabi OO; James DB; Sani I; Andongma BT; Fasanya OO; Kure B
[Ad] Endereço:Bioresources Development Centre, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Ya'adua way, Lugbe, Airport Road, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria. drealyinks@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of FERETIA APODANTHERA root bark extracts.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):12, 2018 Jan 12.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been implicated in many disorders, including cancer and available therapies elicit adverse effects. Plants of the family Rubiaceae have shown potency against inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: The phytochemical, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of root bark (n-Hexane, diethyl ether, ethanol and aqueous) extracts of Feretia apodanthera was investigated in this study. The extracts were subjected to various chemical tests for phytochemical constituents; their antioxidant activity was determined using in-vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity assay and their anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan induced paw oedema model. FTIR and GCMS analysis was done to determine the compounds present. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of unsaturated steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponin and alkaloids. Vitamin C had a median inhibitory concentration (IC ) of 0.038 mg/ml which was lower than IC of all the extracts. Of all the extracts, ethanol extract had the lowest IC (0.044 mg/ml) which is comparable to vitamin C. Anti-inflammatory studies showed that the inflammation inhibition potential of 400 mg/kg body weight of all the extracts was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the standard ketoprofen (50 mg/kg) at the first three hours but significantly higher (p < 0.05) at the fourth hour. At the fifth hour, the inflammation inhibition potential of diethyl ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the standard. FTIR analysis showed the presence of ketones, amines, alkenes and carboxylic groups. GCMS analysis revealed compounds that are potential anti-inflammatory agents. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that extracts of Feretia apodanthera possess anti-inflammatory effects against right hind paw oedema of albino rats and can act as an effective antioxidant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Inflamatórios/química
Antioxidantes/química
Extratos Vegetais/química
Raízes de Plantas/química
Rubiaceae/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Edema/patologia
Feminino
Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos
Inflamação/patologia
Masculino
Casca de Planta/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Ratos
Ratos Wistar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180114
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-2070-z


  2 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29199255
[Au] Autor:Tanahashi T
[Ad] Endereço:Kobe Pharmaceutical University.
[Ti] Título:[Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Some Medicinal Plants and Cultivated Lichen Mycobionts].
[So] Source:Yakugaku Zasshi;137(12):1443-1482, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5231
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Ab] Resumo:Studies on the structural determination, biosynthesis, and biological activities of secondary metabolites from natural sources are significant in the field of natural products chemistry. This review focuses on diverse secondary metabolites isolated from medicinal plants and cultivated mycobionts of lichens in our laboratory. Monoterpene-tetrahydroisoquinoline glycosides and alkaloids isolated from Cephaelis acuminata and Alangium lamarckii gave important information on the biosynthesis of ipecac alkaloids. A variety of glycosides linked with a secologanin unit and indole alkaloids were obtained from medicinal plants belonging to the families of Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae, and Loganiaceae. Plant species of the four genera Fraxinus, Syringa, Jasminum, and Ligustrum of the family Oleaceae were chemically investigated to provide several types of secoiridoid and iridoid glucosides. The biosynthetic pathway leading from protopine to benzophenanthridine alkaloids in suspension cell cultures of Eschscholtzia californica was elucidated. The structures and biological activities of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of Stephania cepharantha and Nelumbo nucifera were also investigated. In addition, the mycobionts of lichens were cultivated to afford various types of metabolites that differ from the lichen substances of intact lichens but are structurally similar to fungal metabolites. The biosynthetic origins of some metabolites were also studied. These findings suggest that cultures of lichen mycobionts could be sources of new bioactive compounds and good systems for investigating secondary metabolism in lichens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação
Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação
Líquens/metabolismo
Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alangiaceae/metabolismo
Alcaloides/biossíntese
Alcaloides/química
Benzilisoquinolinas
Cephaelis/metabolismo
Eschscholzia/metabolismo
Glicosídeos/biossíntese
Glicosídeos/química
Iridoides
Monoterpenos
Oleaceae/metabolismo
Rubiaceae/metabolismo
Stephania/metabolismo
Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Benzylisoquinolines); 0 (Glycosides); 0 (Iridoids); 0 (Monoterpenes); 0 (Tetrahydroisoquinolines); 56W89FBX3E (1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180112
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180112
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1248/yakushi.17-00147


  3 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29207340
[Au] Autor:Santi MD; Paulino Zunini M; Vera B; Bouzidi C; Dumontet V; Abin-Carriquiry A; Grougnet R; Ortega MG
[Ad] Endereço:Farmacognosia, Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Haya de La Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio Ciencias II, X5000HUA Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV-CONICET), Ciudad
[Ti] Título:Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of natural and hemisynthetic flavonoids from Gardenia oudiepe (Rubiaceae) in vitro and molecular docking studies.
[So] Source:Eur J Med Chem;143:577-582, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1768-3254
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme widely distributed among mammalian tissues, is associated with the oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine to form uric acid. Reactive oxygen species are also released during this process, leading to oxidative damages and to the pathology called gout. Available treatments mainly based on allopurinol cause serious side effects. Natural products such as flavonoids may represent an alternative. Thus, a series of polymethoxyflavones isolated and hemisynthesized from the bud exudates of Gardenia oudiepe has been evaluated for in vitro XO inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were more active than the reference inhibitor, Allopurinol (IC = 0.25 ± 0.004 µM) with IC values of (0.004 ± 0.001) µM, (0.05 ± 0.01) µM and (0.09 ± 0.003) µM, respectively. Structure-activity relationships were established. Additionally, a molecular docking study using MOE™ tool was carried out to establish the binding mode of the most active flavones with the enzyme, showing important interactions with its catalytic residues. These promising results, suggest the use of these compounds as potential leads for the design and development of novel XO inhibitors.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia
Flavonoides/farmacologia
Leite/enzimologia
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
Rubiaceae/química
Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Produtos Biológicos/síntese química
Produtos Biológicos/química
Bovinos
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Flavonoides/síntese química
Flavonoides/química
Estrutura Molecular
Relação Estrutura-Atividade
Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biological Products); 0 (Flavonoids); EC 1.17.3.2 (Xanthine Oxidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29211790
[Au] Autor:Sanz-Veiga PA; Ré Jorge L; Benitez-Vieyra S; Amorim FW
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratório de Ecologia da Polinização e Interações-LEPI, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Botânica), Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Pericarpial nectary-visiting ants do not provide fruit protection against pre-dispersal seed predators regardless of ant species composition and resource availability.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188445, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Extrafloral nectaries can occur in both vegetative and reproductive plant structures. In many Rubiaceae species in the Brazilian Cerrado, after corolla abscission, the floral nectary continues to secret nectar throughout fruit development originating post-floral pericarpial nectaries which commonly attract many ant species. The occurrence of such nectar secreting structures might be strategic for fruit protection against seed predators, as plants are expected to invest higher on more valuable and vulnerable parts. Here, we performed ant exclusion experiments to investigate whether the interaction with ants mediated by the pericarpial nectaries of Tocoyena formosa affects plant reproductive success by reducing the number of pre-dispersal seed predators. We also assessed whether ant protection was dependent on ant species composition and resource availability. Although most of the plants were visited by large and aggressive ant species, such as Ectatomma tuberculatum and species of the genus Camponotus, ants did not protect fruits against seed predators. Furthermore, the result of the interaction was neither related to ant species composition nor to the availability of resources. We suggest that these results may be related to the nature and behavior of the most important seed predators, like Hemicolpus abdominalis weevil which the exoskeleton toughness prevent it from being predated by most ant species. On the other hand, not explored factors, such as reward quality, local ant abundance, ant colony characteristics and/or the presence of alternative energetic sources could also account for variations in ant frequency, composition, and finally ant protective effects, highlighting the conditionality of facultative plant-ant mutualisms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Formigas/fisiologia
Frutas
Comportamento Predatório
Rubiaceae
Sementes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171207
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188445


  5 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28806604
[Au] Autor:Berger A; Tanuhadi E; Brecker L; Schinnerl J; Valant-Vetschera K
[Ad] Endereço:Chemodiversity Research Group, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: andi.berger@univie.ac.at.
[Ti] Título:Chemodiversity of tryptamine-derived alkaloids in six Costa Rican Palicourea species (Rubiaceae-Palicoureeae).
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;143:124-131, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We report 14 harmala and tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids with various tri-, tetra- and pentacyclic cores from leaves and stem bark of six species of the large and complex neotropical genus Palicourea. Among them is the previously undescribed compound deoxostrictosamide which is related to strictosamide, a key intermediate in camptothecin biosynthesis. In addition, we describe the occurrence of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronorharman-1-one for the first time within Rubiaceae and ophiorine A and B, two alkaloids with an unusual core bearing a betaine function and a zwitterion as new for the genus. Although the other compounds are already known from other species, their degree of structural diversity highlights the remarkable biosynthetic capabilities of the genus Palicourea. Furthermore, the present paper provides additional support for the hypothesis that tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids represent a distinct chemosystematic feature for the genus Palicourea.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Rubiaceae/química
Triptaminas/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alcaloides/análise
Alcaloides/química
Biodiversidade
Camptotecina
Costa Rica
Iridoides/análise
Estrutura Molecular
Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
Extratos Vegetais/química
Folhas de Planta/química
Alcaloides de Vinca/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Iridoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Tryptamines); 0 (Vinca Alkaloids); 0 (strictosamide); 422ZU9N5TV (tryptamine); XT3Z54Z28A (Camptothecin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171002
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171002
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170815
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28800757
[Au] Autor:Ngouateu Teufack SE; NMbogning Tayo G; Ngangout Alidou M; Yondo J; Djiomene AF; Wabo Poné J; Mbida FM
[Ad] Endereço:Research Unit of Biology and Applied Ecology, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 067, Dschang, Cameroon.
[Ti] Título:Anthelminthic properties of Methylene chloride-methanol (1:1) extracts of two Cameroonians medicinal plants on Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidea).
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):400, 2017 Aug 11.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The resistance of some medico-veterinary parasite strains as well as the unavailability and toxicity of synthetic anthelminthics on humans, animals and the impacts of their residues in the environment have pushed scientists to turn to plants with anthelminthic properties. Hence, the aim of this work was to contribute to the fight against helminths of medical and veterinary importance in general, and also to clear the environment of their free living stages. METHODS: Fresh eggs of Heligmosomoides bakeri were obtained from the faeces of experimentally infected mice. L and L larval stages were obtained after 48 and 72 h of coproculture respectively. Methylene Chloride-Methanol (1:1) extracts of Annona senegalensis and Nauclea latifolia were diluted in DMSO or Tween 80 to prepare the following concentrations: 625, 1250, 2500, 3750 and 5000 µg/ml. The effects of extract solutions were evaluated on the embryonation of eggs, egg hatching and on L and L survival after 48, 10 and 24 h of incubation. Negative controls were 1.5% DMSO, 4% Tween 80 and a mixture of these solvents. The TLC was carried out and the profiles of secondary metabolites were made. RESULTS: Negative controls had no effect on the embryonation, eggs hatching and on larval mortality. However, it was found that, the extracts affected the free living stages of H. bakeri in a concentration-dependant manner. At the highest concentration (5000 µg/ml), the rate of inhibition of embryonation obtained were 20.80%, 38.15% and 84.83% for Methylene Chloride-Methanol of Annona senegalensis (MCM As), Nauclea latifolia (MCM Nl) extracts and mixture of Annona senegalensis and Nauclea latifolia (MCM As-Nl) extract respectively. For egg hatch, the inhibition rate was 16.10%, 46.24% and 87.07% for the above three extracts respectively at the same concentration of 5000 µg/ml. On L and L larval stages after 24 h of exposure to extracts, the mortality rates of 100%, 54.76% and 96.77% against 98%, 51.44% and 100% were obtained for MCM As, MCM Nl and MCM As-Nl respectively at the highest concentration. The Methylene Chloride-Methanol of A.senegalensis, N. latifolia extracts showed the presence of alkaloids except in N. latifolia extract, flavonoids, sterols, triterpens, tanins, polyphenols, anthraquinons, saponins and terpenoids. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that, the mixture of the two plant extracts showed an additive (synergetic effect) ovicidal effect and a slight larval mortality on L as compared to the effect of MCM As extract alone. These effects were due to the presence ao secondary metabolites identifies in the plant extracts. Thus, they may be used as possible «disinfectants¼ for soil transmitted nematodes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Annona/química
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos
Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Rubiaceae/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Camarões
Sinergismo Farmacológico
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos
Medicina Tradicional Africana
Camundongos
Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anthelmintics); 0 (Phytochemicals); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170901
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170901
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170813
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1908-8


  7 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28726398
[Au] Autor:Onozawa T; Kitajima M; Kogure N; Peerakam N; Santiarworn D; Takayama H
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biofunctional Molecular Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University , 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675, Japan.
[Ti] Título:A Cyclopeptide and a Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloid from Ophiorrhiza nutans.
[So] Source:J Nat Prod;80(7):2156-2160, 2017 Jul 28.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6025
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A new cyclopeptide, ophiorrhisine A (1), a new tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, 7',10-dide-O-methylcephaeline (2), two known ß-carboline alkaloids, and four known tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Ophiorrhiza nutans (Rubiaceae). Compound 1 is a tetrapeptide possessing a 14-membered paracyclophane ring and a novel N,N,N-trimethyltyrosine residue in the side chain. The stereochemistry at the aryl-alkyl ether bond was different from that of other known 14-membered paracyclophanes. The structure of 2 was established by spectroscopic analysis and semisynthesis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação
Rubiaceae/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alcaloides/química
Carbolinas
Estrutura Molecular
Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
Peptídeos Cíclicos/química
Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas
Tailândia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (7',10-dide-O-methylcephaeline); 0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Carbolines); 0 (Peptides, Cyclic); 0 (Tetrahydroisoquinolines); 0 (ophiorrhisine A); 94HMA1I78O (norharman)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170721
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00290


  8 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28629354
[Au] Autor:Elisha IL; Botha FS; Madikizela B; McGaw LJ; Eloff JN
[Ad] Endereço:Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 0110, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Acetone leaf extracts of some South African trees with high activity against Escherichia coli also have good antimycobacterial activity and selectivity index.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):327, 2017 Jun 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a world-wide problem affecting humans and animals. There is increasing development of resistance of the pathogens to current antimycobacterial agents. Many authors have investigated activities of extracts and isolated compounds from plants. The traditional uses of plants have frequently been the criterion to select plants investigated. In this contribution, we investigate whether plant extracts with very good activity against Escherichia coli may also be active against mycobacteria. METHODS: The antimycobacterial activity of eight South African tree leaf extracts with high activity against Escherichia coli were determined in vitro against Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. fortuitum and M. aurum, using a serial microdilution method. The cellular cytotoxicity was also determined by the MTT assay using Vero monkey kidney cells. The selectivity index was determined by dividing the cytotoxicity of extracts by MIC. RESULTS: The antimycobacterial activity of the extracts ranged from 0.02 to 2.5 mg/ml. Mycobacterium smegmatis was more sensitive to the extracts (Average MIC = 0.96 mg/ml) and Mycobacterium aurum was comparatively resistant (Average MIC = 2.04 mg/ml). The extracts of Cremaspora triflora had strong antimycobacterial activity with a MIC of 0.05 mg/ml that compared reasonably well with that of streptomycin (0.01 mg/ml) and rifampicin (0.03 mg/ml), p > 0.05. Cremaspora triflora had the best selectivity index of 2.87 against Mycobacterium fortuitum. CONCLUSION: The high activity of C. triflora extracts against the fast-growing mycobacteria and good cellular safety is promising. It may be interesting to investigate extracts against pathogenic M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. avium cultures and to isolate active antimycobacterial compounds.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Árvores/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação
Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Folhas de Planta/química
Rubiaceae/química
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170821
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170821
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170621
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1831-z


  9 / 824 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28592249
[Au] Autor:Banag CI; Mouly A; Alejandro GJD; Bremer B; Meve U; Grimm GW; Liede-Schumann S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, España Boulevard, 1015, Manila, Philippines. cibanag@ust.edu.ph.
[Ti] Título:Ixora (Rubiaceae) on the Philippines - crossroad or cradle?
[So] Source:BMC Evol Biol;17(1):131, 2017 Jun 07.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The Philippine archipelago is globally one of the most important model island systems for studying evolutionary processes. However, most plant species on this archipelago have not yet been studied in sufficient detail. The main aim of this study is to unravel the evolutionary history and biogeographic relationships of the Philippine members of the pantropical genus Ixora. RESULTS: The complex plastid and nuclear divergence patterns in Philippine Ixora, documented using tree and network approaches, reveal a highly dynamic evolution in Ixora, involving several phases of radiation and recolonization. Philippine Ixora comprises at least five lineages, of which one is most closely related to species from Wallacea, and the remaining four to species from Asia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of Philippine species for understanding phytogeographic patterns in the Indomalayan-Australasian eco-region. The overall genetic differentiation, as well as the incongruence between genealogies based on the biparentally inherited nucleome and the maternally inherited plastome in Ixora, reflect the complex tectonic history of the Philippine archipelago. The Ixora lineage related to Wallacean species supports the delimitation of different ecozones along Huxley's line, because it is absent from Palawan. The remaining four lineages are all allied with Asian taxa, reflecting several waves of colonization. Close relationships between some widespread Philippine species and locally adapted narrow endemics suggest that the widespread, genetically diverse species act as pools for the formation of new species in a process of ongoing speciation. Our results suggest that the species concepts of some of the more widespread taxa need to be revised.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Rubiaceae/classificação
Rubiaceae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Cloroplastos/genética
DNA de Plantas/genética
Variação Genética
Filipinas
Filogenia
Rubiaceae/citologia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Plant)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170609
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12862-017-0974-3


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[PMID]:28573243
[Au] Autor:Ndhlovu DN; Masika PJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X 1314, Alice, 5700 RSA, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, MP 167 Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe.
[Ti] Título:IN VITRO EFFICACY OF EXTRACTS FROM PLANTS USED BY SMALL-HOLDER FARMERS IN THE TREATMENT OF DERMATOPHILOSIS IN CATTLE.
[So] Source:Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med;14(2):263-272, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2505-0044
[Cp] País de publicação:Nigeria
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Bovine dermatophilosis, an important skin disease of cattle caused by , negatively impacts the livelihoods of small-holder farmers in Zimbabwe. This impact is through, morbidity, loss of draught animal power, costs incurred to manage the disease, losses associated with devalued damaged hides and the resultant culling of some of the affected cattle. Due to the inaccessibility of conventional drugs to manage bovine dermatophilosis, farmers have been reported to use local medicinal plants to manage the disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of three plants that small-holder farmers in Zimbabwe used to manage bovine dermatophilosis. METHODS: Dried plant materials were ground into powder and extracted individually using, water, 80 % acetone and 80 % methanol. The antimicrobial properties of the plants were evaluated against two Gram-negative and and one Gram-positive reference bacterial strains. They were further evaluated against a field isolate of . The assays used were the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). RESULTS: Acetone and methanol extracts had superior inhibitory activities than did those of water. DC extracts had better inhibitory properties with absolute MIC values of 0.156 - 5 mg/ml, L had MIC values in the range 0.156 - 5 mg/ml while that of Thunb, Terveng was 0.156 - 10 mg/ml. was more sensitive to DC average MIC = 0.63 mg/ml than to L average MIC = 1.25 mg/ml and Thunb, Terveng average MIC = 2.08 mg/ml. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the potential antibacterial activities of extracts of the three plants and hence farmers are, in a way, justified in using the plants. Better results (lower MIC) could be obtained by extracting and evaluating pure active compounds of the plants.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
Cissus
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Pterocarpus
Rubiaceae
Dermatopatias/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Criação de Animais Domésticos
Animais
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Bovinos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico
Etnobotânica
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
Plantas Medicinais
Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico
Dermatopatias/veterinária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170816
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170816
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.21010/ajtcam.v14i2.28



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