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Pesquisa : B01.650.940.800.575.912.250.780 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29295712
[Au] Autor:Ovais M; Ayaz M; Khalil AT; Shah SA; Jan MS; Raza A; Shahid M; Shinwari ZK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan.
[Ti] Título:HPLC-DAD finger printing, antioxidant, cholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of a novel plant Olax nana.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):1, 2018 Jan 03.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The medicinal importance of a novel plant Olax nana Wall. ex Benth. (family: Olacaceae) was revealed for the first time via HPLC-DAD finger printing, qualitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, cholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays. METHODS: The crude methanolic extract of O. nana (ON-Cr) was subjected to qualitative phytochemical analysis and HPLC-DAD finger printing. The antioxidant potential of ON-Cr was assessed via 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and hydrogen peroxide (H O ) free radical scavenging assays. Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were performed using Ellman's assay, while α- glucosidase inhibitory assay was carried out using a standard protocol. RESULTS: The qualitative phytochemical analysis of ON-Cr revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, saponins and terpenoids. The HPLC-DAD finger printing revealed the presence of 40 potential compounds in ON-Cr. Considerable anti-radical activities was revealed by ON-Cr in the DPPH, ABTS and H O free radical scavenging assays with IC values of 71.46, 72.55 and 92.33 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, ON-Cr showed potent AChE and BChE inhibitory potentials as indicated by their IC values of 33.2 and 55.36 µg/mL, respectively. In the α-glucosidase inhibition assay, ON-Cr exhibited moderate inhibitory propensity with an IC value of 639.89 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: This study investigated Olax nana for the first time for detailed qualitative phytochemical tests, HPLC-DAD finger printing analysis, antioxidant, anticholinesterase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays. The antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory results were considerable and can provide scientific basis for further studies on the neuroprotective and anti-Alzheimer's potentials of this plant. ON-Cr may further be subjected to fractionation and polarity guided fractionation to narrow down the search for isolation of bioactive compounds.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antioxidantes/análise
Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise
Olacaceae/química
Extratos Vegetais/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antioxidantes/química
Antioxidantes/metabolismo
Benzotiazóis/análise
Benzotiazóis/metabolismo
Compostos de Bifenilo/análise
Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo
Inibidores da Colinesterase/química
Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo
Picratos/análise
Picratos/metabolismo
Extratos Vegetais/química
Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise
Ácidos Sulfônicos/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Benzothiazoles); 0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors); 0 (Picrates); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Sulfonic Acids); 28752-68-3 (2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide); DFD3H4VGDH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-2057-9


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[PMID]:28880962
[Au] Autor:Gaisberger H; Kindt R; Loo J; Schmidt M; Bognounou F; Da SS; Diallo OB; Ganaba S; Gnoumou A; Lompo D; Lykke AM; Mbayngone E; Nacoulma BMI; Ouedraogo M; Ouédraogo O; Parkouda C; Porembski S; Savadogo P; Thiombiano A; Zerbo G; Vinceti B
[Ad] Endereço:Bioversity International, Via dei Tre Denari 472/a, Maccarese (Rome), Italy.
[Ti] Título:Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184457, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in the central part where the current threat level is high due to overexploitation. In the same way, population-specific recommendations can be derived from the individual and combined threat maps of the other 15 food tree species. The approach can be easily transferred to other countries and can be used to analyze general and species specific threats at finer and more local as well as at broader (continental) scales in order to plan more selective and efficient conservation actions in time. The concept can be applied anywhere as long as appropriate spatial data are available as well as knowledgeable experts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Alimentos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acacia
Adansonia
Anacardiaceae
Annona
Balanites
Bombax
Burkina Faso
Mudança Climática
Ecossistema
Olacaceae
Tamarindus
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184457


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[PMID]:28300877
[Au] Autor:Castro Souza Junior Neto J; Estevão LR; Baratella-Evêncio L; Vieira MG; Simões RS; Florencio-Silva R; Evêncio-Luz L; Evêncio-Neto J
[Ad] Endereço:Postgraduate Program in Animal Bioscience, Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Recife, PE, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Mast cell concentration and skin wound contraction in rats treated with Ximenia americana L.
[So] Source:Acta Cir Bras;32(2):148-156, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1678-2674
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To evaluate wound contraction and the concentration of mast cells in skin wounds treated with wild plum (Ximenia americana) essential oil-based ointment in rats. METHODS: Sixty rats were submitted to two cutaneous wounds in the thoracic region, on the right and left antimeres. Thereon, they were divided into three groups: GX (wounds treated once a day with hydro alcoholic branch extract of Ximenia americana), GP (wounds that received vehicle), and GC (wounds without product application). Wounds were measured immediately after the injury as well as 4, 7, 14 and 21 days post-topical application of the extract. At these days, five rats from each group were euthanatized. Thereafter, samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with H.E, Masson's Trichrome and toluidine blue for morphological, morphometrical and histopathological analysis, under light microscopy. The degree of epithelial contraction was measured and mast cell concentrations were also evaluated with an image analyzer (Image Pro-plus®software) . RESULTS: The extract treated group showed lower mast cell concentrations in the 4th day of lesion, as compared to GP (GX GP = GC; p<0.05) . CONCLUSION: Ointment containing 10% X. americana induces a decrease in mast cell concentration, at the beginning of the healing process, and promotes early skin wound contraction in rats.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
Olacaceae/química
Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
Pele/lesões
Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Contagem de Células
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Masculino
Fitoterapia/métodos
Ratos
Pele/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170317
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28167291
[Au] Autor:Odoma S; Umar Zezi A; Mohammed Danjuma N; Ahmed A; Garba Magaji M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria. Electronic address: odoma.s@ksu.edu.ng.
[Ti] Título:Elucidation of the possible mechanism of analgesic actions of butanol leaf fraction of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;199:323-327, 2017 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Preparations of Olax subscorpioidea have been used traditionally for the management of pains, inflammatory diseases, yellow fever, cancer and rheumatism. Previously, the analgesic activity of its leaf extract have been reported. Furthermore, an analgesic assay guided fractionation showed that the butanol soluble fraction is the most active. However, the mechanism of this activity remains to be elucidated. This present study investigated the possible pharmacological mechanisms involved in the analgesic activity of the butanol leaf fraction of Olax subscorpioidea (BFOS) using the acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were orally administered distilled water (10ml/kg), BFOS (1,000mg/kg) and morphine (10mg/kg) 60minutes before i.p administration of acetic acid and the resulting writhing were counted for 10minutes. To establish the possible mechanism(s) of action of BFOS, separate group of animals were pretreated with naloxone (2mg/kg, i.p), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p), propranolol (20mg/kg, i.p), metergoline (2mg/kg, i.p), glibenclamide (5mg/kg, i.p) and l-arginine (50mg/kg, i.p) 15minutes before BFOS. RESULTS: BFOS and morphine showed marked analgesic activities (p<0.001); the pretreatment of animals with naloxone, metergoline and l-arginine significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.001) reduced the analgesic activity of BFOS; however, pretreatment with prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol and glinbenclamide showed no effect on its analgesic activity. CONCLUSION: Results obtained in this study suggest the involvement of opioidergic, serotonergic and nitric oxide-l-arginine pathways in the analgesic effect of butanol leaf fraction of Olax subscorpioidea.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos/farmacologia
Butanóis/farmacologia
Olacaceae
Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Folhas de Planta
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação
Animais
Butanóis/isolamento & purificação
Feminino
Masculino
Camundongos
Medição da Dor/métodos
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics); 0 (Butanols); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170714
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27927065
[Au] Autor:Saliu JA; Olabiyi AA
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Biochemistry , Adekunle Ajasin University , Akungba Akoko , Nigeria.
[Ti] Título:Aqueous extract of Securidaca longipendunculata Oliv. and Olax subscropioidea inhibits key enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) linked with Alzheimer's disease in vitro.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;55(1):252-257, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:CONTEXT: Plants have historically been used to treat neurodegerative diseases which include Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of Securidaca longipendunculata root and Olax subscropioidea leaf on the cholinergic system in rat brain in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts (1:20 w/v) of S. longipendunculata root and O. subscropioidea leaf was prepared and the ability of the extract to inhibit the activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase was evaluated as well as antioxidants as typified by 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS ) radical scavenging ability and Fe chelation spectophotometrically. RESULTS: ABTS radical scavenging ability showed that S. longipendunculata (0.075 Mmol TEAC/100 g) had a higher scavenging ability than O. subscropioidea (0.07 Mmol TEAC/100 g). Also, the Fe chelating ability of both extracts revealed that S. longipendunculata (IC = 105.57 g/mL) had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher Fe chelating ability than O. subscropioidea (IC = 255.84 g/mL). Extracts of S. longipendunculata and O. subscropioidea inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities. However, S. longipendunculata (IC = 108.02 g/mL) has the higher AChE inhibitory activity than O. subscropioidea (IC = 110.35 g/mL). Also, both extracts inhibit BChE activity in vitro but S. longipendunculata (IC = 82.55 g/mL) had a higher BChE inhibitory activity than O. subscropioidea (IC = 108.44 g/mL). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism by which S. longipendunculata root and O. subscropioidea leaf perform their anti-Alzheimer's disease activity may be by their inhibition on the key enzymes linked to this disease.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo
Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Olacaceae/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Securidaca/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doença de Alzheimer/enzimologia
Animais
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação
Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Benzotiazóis/química
Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Compostos Ferrosos/química
Quelantes de Ferro/isolamento & purificação
Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
Masculino
Fitoterapia
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Folhas de Planta
Raízes de Plantas
Plantas Medicinais
Ratos Wistar
Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Benzothiazoles); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Ferrous Compounds); 0 (Iron Chelating Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Sulfonic Acids); 0 (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances); 28752-68-3 (2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid); 39R4TAN1VT (ferrous sulfate); EC 3.1.1.7 (Acetylcholinesterase); EC 3.1.1.8 (Butyrylcholinesterase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161209
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27686270
[Au] Autor:Popoola TD; Awodele O; Omisanya A; Obi N; Umezinwa C; Fatokun AA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Electronic address: tdpopoola@cmul.edu.ng.
[Ti] Título:Three indigenous plants used in anti-cancer remedies, Garcinia kola Heckel (stem bark), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (root) and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (root) show analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;194:440-449, 2016 Dec 24.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Phytochemicals with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties are known to inhibit tumour initiation, promotion and progression. Hence, there is an increasingly-convincing rationale for employing remedies containing those phytochemicals in the treatment of cancers and also as analgesic and anti-inflammatory adjuvants in therapy. The plants Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae), stem bark; Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (Annonaceae), root; and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (Olacaceae), root, have been documented to be part of various indigenous anti-cancer regimens. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine if the three plants exhibit significant anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using established models, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the three plants were investigated. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with the plant extracts at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg produced inhibition of writhes; G. kola and U. chamae showed no significant effect on formalin-induced pain, but O. subscorpioidea produced inhibition in both phases of the formalin test. Similarly, while G. kola and U. chamae did not produce any significant inhibitory effect in the xylene-induced ear oedema model, the oedema was significantly reduced by O. subscorpioidea pre-treatment. However, all the three plants significantly inhibited the time-dependent increase in paw circumference in the carrageenan- and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema tests, with peak effects observed at 400mg/kg, 6h after the induction of oedema, comparable in some cases to the effects of two standard drugs, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the anti-inflammatory antibiotic doxycycline. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the three plant extracts possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, thus providing a scientific rationale for their inclusion in some traditional anti-cancer regimens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos/uso terapêutico
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico
Garcinia kola/química
Olacaceae/química
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
Uvaria/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Masculino
Camundongos
Estruturas Vegetais/química
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170421
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170421
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161001
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26944235
[Au] Autor:Maroyi A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Electronic address: amaroyi@ufh.ac.za.
[Ti] Título:Ximenia caffra Sond. (Ximeniaceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;184:81-100, 2016 May 26.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ximenia caffra Sond. (Ximeniaceae), commonly known as "sour plum" is traditionally used, both topically and orally to treat a wide range of human diseases and ailments such as wounds, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), infertility, stomach ache, fever, eye problems, diarrhoea, bilharzia, menorrhagia, malaria, intestinal worms, impotence and coughs. The bark and fruits are used by small-scale farmers as ethnoveterinary medicine to treat dermatophilosis, foot rot, saddle sores and control ectoparasites. Oil from X. caffra seed is traditionally used as a moisturiser, soap and shampoo for dry, fragile and damaged hair. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this study was to comprehensively summarize the research that has been done on the botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of X. caffra in different locations throughout its geographical range in the sub-Saharan African region so as to understand its importance and potential in primary healthcare systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out using a comprehensive and systematic literature search on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the species throughout its distributional range. Literature sources included papers published in international journals, reports from international, regional and national organizations, conference papers, books and theses. PubMed and Scopus, search engines such as Google Scholar and online collection ScienceDirect were used. RESULTS: This study showed that X. caffra is used as traditional medicine in 83.3% of the countries in tropical Africa where it is indigenous. A total of 65 human and animal ailments and diseases are recorded for X. caffra, with a high degree of consensus for wounds, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), infertility, stomach ache, fever, eye problems, diarrhoea, bilharzia, menorrhagia, malaria, intestinal worms and coughs. Phytochemical investigation of X. caffra revealed that the species has various compounds including flavonoids, phenols, phytosterols, tannins and fatty acids. Different plant parts, aqueous and organic extracts exhibited anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiproliferative, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory, insecticidal, non-mutagenic and toxicity activities. CONCLUSION: In this review, the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicity of different extracts and compounds of X. caffra have been summarized. Although many of the ethnomedicinal uses of X. caffra have been validated by phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are still some gaps where current knowledge could be improved. There are very few to nil experimental animal studies, randomized clinical trials and target-organ toxicity studies involving X. caffra and its derivatives that have been carried out so far. At the present moment, there is not sufficient evidence to interpret the specific chemical mechanisms associated with some of the documented biological activities of the species. Therefore, future studies should identify the bioactive components, details of the molecular modes or mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics and physiological pathways for specific bioactives of X. caffra.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicina Tradicional Africana
Olacaceae
Fitoterapia
Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África ao Sul do Saara
Animais
Seres Humanos
Olacaceae/química
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
Preparações de Plantas/química
Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Phytochemicals); 0 (Plant Preparations)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160306
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26921197
[Au] Autor:de Vargas FS; Almeida PD; de Boleti AP; Pereira MM; de Souza TP; de Vasconcellos MC; Nunez CV; Pohlit AM; Lima ES
[Ad] Endereço:Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas - UFAM, Rua Alexandre Amorim, 330, Bairro Aparecida, Cep: 69010-300, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Antioxidant activity and peroxidase inhibition of Amazonian plants extracts traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;16:83, 2016 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The Amazon is the largest rainforest in the world and is home to a rich biodiversity of medicinal plants. Several of these plants are used by the local population for the treatment of diseases, many of those with probable anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-peroxidases potential of the ethanol extracts of five plants from the Brazilian Amazon (Byrsonima japurensis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Maytenus guyanensis, Passiflora nitida and Ptychopetalum olacoides). METHODS: DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical, singlet oxygen and the ß-carotene bleaching methods were employed for characterization of free radical scavenging activity. Also, total polyphenols were determined. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cell. Inhibition of HRP and MPO were evaluated using amplex red® as susbtract. RESULTS: The stem bark extracts of C. spruceanum and M. guyanensis provided the highest free radical scavenging activities. C. spruceanum exhibited IC50 = 7.5 ± 0.9, 5.0 ± 0.1, 18.2 ± 3.0 and 92.4 ± 24.8 µg/mL for DPPH(•), ABTS(+•), O2 (-•) and (1)O2 assays, respectively. P. olacoides and C. spruceanum extracts also inhibited free radicals formation in the cell-based assay. At a concentration of 100 µg/mL, the extracts of C. spruceanum, B. japurensis inhibited horseradish peroxidase by 62 and 50 %, respectively. C. spruceanum, M. guyanensis, B. japurensis also inhibited myeloperoxidase in 72, 67 and 56 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This work supports the folk use these species that inhibited peroxidases and exhibited significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities what can be related to treatment of inflammation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Malpighiaceae/química
Maytenus/química
Olacaceae/química
Passiflora/química
Peroxidases/antagonistas & inibidores
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
Brasil
Seres Humanos
Medicina Tradicional
Camundongos
Células NIH 3T3
Peroxidase
Fitoterapia
Plantas Medicinais/química
Polifenóis/análise
Polifenóis/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Polyphenols); EC 1.11.1.- (Peroxidases); EC 1.11.1.7 (Peroxidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-016-1061-9


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[PMID]:26624003
[Au] Autor:Adeoluwa OA; Aderibigbe AO; Agu GO
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
[Ti] Título:Pharmacological Evaluation of Central Nervous System Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Olax Subscorpioidea in Experimental Animals.
[So] Source:Drug Res (Stuttg);66(4):203-10, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2194-9387
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (Olacaceae) is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine in the management of pain, mental illness, and convulsion. We evaluated neurosedative and anticonvulsant properties of the ethanol leaf extract of O. subscorpioidea (ELEOS). METHODS: Effects of ELEOS (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 mg/kg) on novelty-induced behaviors were determined using open field test. Anxiolytic effect of ELEOS (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 mg/kg) was assessed using hole-board and elevated-plus maze paradigms. The effect of O. subscorpioidea on pentobarbitone sleeping time was also investigated. Anticonvulsant property of ELEOS (12.5-50 mg/kg) was evaluated using pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin and strychnine-induced convulsions assays. The extract was administered once intraperitoneally. RESULTS: The LD50 of ELEOS was 300 mg/kg. ELEOS (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 mg/kg) significantly reduced rearing (99.8±2.8, 76.2±2.9, 37.4±1.2, 5.8±0.8) and grooming (48.0±3.6, 33.8±2.9, 25.4±1.6, 7.6±0.8) as compared with controls (185.8±5.1; 63.8±4.3). Treatment with ELEOS (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 mg/kg) significantly reduced head-dipping on hole-board (10.6±1.9, 8.8±1.2, 7.2±0.9, 6.0±1.1) as compared with control (27.8±1.5). However, there was no anxiolytic effect on EPM. ELEOS (12.5, 25, 50 mg/kg) significantly prolonged pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time (43.0±1.4, 51.0±1.2, 61.0±1.8) as compared with control (31.0±0.7). At 50 mg/kg, ELEOS significantly prolonged onset of seizure (2.72±2.07) and latency to death (9.20±1.24) as compared with controls (0.54±0.02; 2.00±0.44) in pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions with no effect on picrotoxin and strychnine-induced convulsions. CONCLUSION: The ELEOS is sedative and has mild anticonvulsant activity and this study supports pharmacological basis for its use in the management of mental illness and convulsion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ansiolíticos/farmacologia
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia
Etanol/química
Olacaceae/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Folhas de Planta/química
Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Sinergismo Farmacológico
Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos
Masculino
Camundongos
Pentobarbital/farmacologia
Extratos Vegetais/química
Convulsões/induzido quimicamente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Anxiety Agents); 0 (Anticonvulsants); 0 (Plant Extracts); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); I4744080IR (Pentobarbital)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1564137


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[PMID]:26344703
[Au] Autor:Chivandi E; Moyo D; Dangarembizi R; Erlwanger K
[Ad] Endereço:School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Effect of dietary Ximenia caffra kernel meal on blood and liver metabolic substrate content and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley rats.
[So] Source:J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl);100(3):471-7, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0396
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We investigated (at the University of the Witwatersrand: GPS coordinates 26°10' 52.96″S; 28°2' 33.61″E) the effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) as a dietary protein source on blood and liver metabolic substrates content, serum markers of liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Five diets with similar energy and protein content were formulated (D1-D5) where XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Forty weanling male SD rats were randomly assigned to diets D1-D5, fed for 37 days and weighed twice weekly. The rats were then fasted overnight, and fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations were determined from tail-vein-drawn blood. Immediately thereafter, the rats were euthanised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Serum was used to assay for markers of the general health profile. Livers were removed and weighed, and samples were used to determine lipid and glycogen content. Rats fed D4 (75% substitution level) had significantly lower (p < 0.05) blood triglyceride content compared with rats fed D2 (25% level of substitution). The substitution of SBM with XCKM did not affect (p > 0.05) fasting blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations, liver glycogen and lipid content. Additionally, it had no effect (p > 0.05) on serum activity/concentration of surrogate markers of liver (alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and urea, total bilirubin, globulin and albumin concentrations) and kidney (phosphorus, calcium and creatinine concentrations) function and the general clinical biochemistry of the rats. Defatted XCKM could substitute SBM in rat diets without compromising blood glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of growing male Sprague Dawley rats.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal/análise
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/metabolismo
Olacaceae/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Dieta
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170803
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170803
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jpn.12393



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