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[PMID]:28250720
[Au] Autor:Zeng B; Yan H; Liu X; Zang W; Zhang A; Zhou S; Huang L; Liu J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Animal Science, Southwest University, Rongchang, Chongqing, 402460 China.
[Ti] Título:Genome-wide association study of rust traits in orchardgrass using SLAF-seq technology.
[So] Source:Hereditas;154:5, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1601-5223
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: While orchardgrass ( L.) is a well-known perennial forage species, rust diseases cause serious reductions in the yield and quality of orchardgrass; however, genetic mechanisms of rust resistance are not well understood in orchardgrass. RESULTS: In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology in orchardgrass. A total of 2,334,889 SLAF tags were generated to produce 2,309,777 SNPs. ADMIXTURE analysis revealed unstructured subpopulations for 33 accessions, indicating that this orchardgrass population could be used for association analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed an average r of 0.4 across all SNP pairs, indicating a high extent of LD in these samples. Through GWAS, a total of 4,604 SNPs were found to be significantly ( < 0.01) associated with the rust trait. The bulk analysis discovered a number of 5,211 SNPs related to rust trait. Two candidate genes, including cytochrome P450, and prolamin were implicated in disease resistance through prediction of functional genes surrounding each high-quality SNP ( < 0.01) associated with rust traits based on GWAS analysis and bulk analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of SNPs associated with rust traits and these two candidate genes may provide the basis for further research on rust resistance mechanisms and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for rust-resistant lineages.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dactylis/genética
Resistência à Doença/genética
Doenças das Plantas/genética
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Basidiomycota
DNA de Plantas/genética
Dactylis/microbiologia
Genes de Plantas
Estudos de Associação Genética
Ligação Genética
Desequilíbrio de Ligação
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Plant)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170718
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170718
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s41065-017-0027-3


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[PMID]:28215522
[Au] Autor:Sun M; Zhang C; Zhang X; Fan Y; Fu K; Wu W; Bai S; Zhang J; Peng Y; Huang L; Yan Y; Ma X
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China.
[Ti] Título:AFLP assessment of genetic variability and relationships in an Asian wild germplasm collection of Dactylis glomerata L.
[So] Source:C R Biol;340(3):145-155, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1768-3238
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), an excellent perennial and cool season forage species distributed in most temperate regions, has been cultivated widely in Western China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were employed to determine the genetic variability and population structure among 41 indigenous orchardgrass accessions from Central Asia and Western China. On the basis of 531 polymorphic fragments resulted from eight primer combinations, polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP) averaged 0.252, 16.34 and 25.27 per primer combination, respectively, demonstrating the high efficiency and reliability of the markers used. We found relatively low differentiation (Fst=0.135) for three geographical groups, where Central Asia (CA) and Southwest China (SWC) group exhibited higher intra-population diversity (He=0.20 and 0.21) than that of the Xinjiang (XJ) group (He=0.14). We also did not detect a clear pattern of isolation by distance with a low value of r=0.301 in the Mantel test. STRUCTURE, FLOCK, UPGMA clustering and PCoA analyses showed that CA group is more related to the SWC Group rather than to the XJ Group. In addition, this study strongly suggests that geographical and ecological environmental factors together could better explain the genetic differentiation between different geographical regions than geographic isolation alone, especially for Xinjiang accessions. The present study also could support that Southwest China might be the internal diversity center of D. glomerata in China. The knowledge about the genetic variability of the Asian accessions examined contributes to rapid characterization, defining gene pools of wild accessions, and selecting appropriate germplasms for plant improvement.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dactylis/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados
Ásia
Variação Genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170606
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170606
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28152389
[Au] Autor:Mårtensson LM; Carlsson G; Prade T; Kørup K; Lærke PE; Jensen ES
[Ad] Endereço:Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biosystems and Technology, Box 103, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden. Electronic address: Linda.Maria.Martensson@slu.se.
[Ti] Título:Water use efficiency and shoot biomass production under water limitation is negatively correlated to the discrimination against C in the C grasses Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundinacea and Phalaris arundinacea.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol Biochem;113:1-5, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2690
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Climate change impacts rainfall patterns which may lead to drought stress in rain-fed agricultural systems. Crops with higher drought tolerance are required on marginal land with low precipitation or on soils with low water retention used for biomass production. It is essential to obtain plant breeding tools, which can identify genotypes with improved drought tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). In C plant species, the variation in discrimination against C (Δ C) during photosynthesis has been shown to be a potential indicator for WUE, where discrimination against C and WUE were negatively correlated. The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the discrimination against C between species and cultivars of three perennial C grasses (Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)) and test the relationships between discrimination against C, season-long water use WUE , shoot and root biomass production in plants grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions. The grasses were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to two irrigation regimes, which corresponded to 25% and 60% water holding capacity, respectively. We found negative relationships between discrimination against C and WUE and between discrimination against C and shoot biomass production, under both the well-watered and water-limited growth conditions (p < 0.001). Discrimination against C decreased in response to water limitation (p < 0.001). We found interspecific differences in the discrimination against C, WUE , and shoot biomass production, where the cocksfoot cultivars showed lowest and the reed canary grass cultivars highest values of discrimination against C. Cocksfoot cultivars also showed highest WUE , shoot biomass production and potential tolerance to water limitation. We conclude that discrimination against C appears to be a useful indicator, when selecting C grass crops for biomass production under drought conditions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomassa
Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo
Poaceae/fisiologia
Água/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Isótopos de Carbono/análise
Dactylis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Dactylis/metabolismo
Dactylis/fisiologia
Secas
Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Festuca/metabolismo
Festuca/fisiologia
Phalaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Phalaris/metabolismo
Phalaris/fisiologia
Fotossíntese/fisiologia
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Poaceae/metabolismo
Estações do Ano
Solo/química
Estresse Fisiológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Carbon Isotopes); 0 (Soil); 059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170203
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28091361
[Au] Autor:Al-Mamun M; Shibuya K; Kajita M; Tamura Y; Sano H
[Ad] Endereço:1Deptartment of Animal Science,Iwate University,Morioka 020-8550,Japan.
[Ti] Título:Responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep-fed forage herb plantain and exposed to heat.
[So] Source:Animal;11(8):1287-1294, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The use of herbal plants as traditional medicines has a century long history. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is a perennial herb containing bioactive components with free radical scavenging activities. An isotope dilution technique using [U-13C]glucose was conducted to determine the effect of plantain on the responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep. Six crossbred sheep (three wethers and three ewes; mean initial BW=40±2 kg) were fed either a mixed hay of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) (MH-diet) or mixed hay and fresh plantain (1 : 1 ratio, dry matter basis, PL-diet) and exposed to a thermoneutral (TN, 20°C; 70% relative humidity (RH)) environment or a heat exposure (HE, 30°C; 70% RH) for 5 days using a crossover design for two 23-day periods. The isotope dilution was conducted on days 18 and 23 of the experimental period during TN and HE, respectively. Plasma concentration of α-tocopherol was greater (P<0.0001) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet and remained comparable between environmental treatments. Plasma glucose concentration before isotope dilution technique was reduced for sheep (P=0.05) during HE compared with TN and remained comparable between diets. Plasma glucose turnover rate during the preinfusion period of insulin did not differ (P=0.10) between dietary treatments and between environments (P=0.65). The response of plasma glucose utilization to exogenous insulin administration was lower (P=0.04) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet. Under present experimental conditions, the plantain group was found to be resistant to the effects of insulin infusion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos
Insulina/administração & dosagem
Plantago
Ovinos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Dactylis
Dieta/veterinária
Feminino
Temperatura Alta
Masculino
Phalaris
alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Insulin); H4N855PNZ1 (alpha-Tocopherol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1751731116002846


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[PMID]:28082283
[Au] Autor:Prieto I; Litrico I; Violle C; Barre P
[Ad] Endereço:CNRS, CEFE UMR 5175, Université de Montpellier-Université Paul Valéry-EPHE, 1919 Route de Mende 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France philippe.barre@inra.fr iprietoaguilar@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Five species, many genotypes, broad phenotypic diversity: When agronomy meets functional ecology.
[So] Source:Am J Bot;104(1):62-71, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2197
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Current ecological theory can provide insight into the causes and impacts of plant domestication. However, just how domestication has impacted intraspecific genetic variability (ITV) is unknown. We used 50 ecotypes and 35 cultivars from five grassland species to explore how selection drives functional trait coordination and genetic differentiation. METHODS: We quantified the extent of genetic diversity among different sets of functional traits and determined how much genetic diversity has been generated within populations of natural ecotypes and selected cultivars. KEY RESULTS: In general, the cultivars were larger (e.g., greater height, faster growth rates) and had larger and thinner leaves (greater SLA). We found large (average 63%) and trait-dependent (ranging from 14% for LNC to 95.8% for growth rate) genetic variability. The relative extent of genetic variability was greater for whole-plant than for organ-level traits. This pattern was consistent within ecotypes and within cultivars. However, ecotypes presented greater ITV variability. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that genetic diversity is large in domesticated species with contrasting levels of heritability among functional traits and that selection for high yield has led to indirect selection of some associated leaf traits. These findings open the way to define which target traits should be the focus in selection programs, especially in the context of community-level selection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/métodos
Ecologia/métodos
Variação Genética
Pradaria
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos
Algoritmos
Biomassa
Dactylis/classificação
Dactylis/genética
Dactylis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ecologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Festuca/classificação
Festuca/genética
Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Genótipo
Lolium/classificação
Lolium/genética
Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Medicago sativa/classificação
Medicago sativa/genética
Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Análise Multivariada
Fenótipo
Folhas de Planta/genética
Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Análise de Componente Principal
Especificidade da Espécie
Trifolium/classificação
Trifolium/genética
Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170815
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170815
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170114
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3732/ajb.1600354


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[PMID]:27939544
[Au] Autor:Dillard SL; Hafla AN; Roca-Fernández AI; Brito AF; Rubano MD; Soder KJ
[Ad] Endereço:Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, University Park, PA 16802-3702.
[Ti] Título:Effect of feeding warm-season annuals with orchardgrass on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;100(2):1179-1188, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A 4-unit, dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane (CH ) output of warm-season annual grasses. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 7 d for adaptation to treatment and 3 d for sample collection. Treatments were (1) 100% orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; ORD); (2) 50% orchardgrass + 50% Japanese millet [Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz; MIL]; (3) 50% orchardgrass + 50% brown midrib sorghum × sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench × S. bicolor var. sudanense; SSG]; or (4) 50% orchardgrass + 25% millet + 25% sorghum × sudangrass (MIX). Fermentors were fed 60 g of dry matter (DM)/d in equal portions of herbage 4 times daily (0730, 1030, 1400, and 1900 h). To replicate a typical 12-h pasture rotation, fermentors were fed the orchardgrass at 0730 and 1030 h and the individual treatment herbage (orchardgrass, Japanese millet, sorghum × sudangrass, or 50:50 Japanese millet and sorghum × sudangrass) at 1400 and 1900 h. Gas samples for CH analysis were collected 6 times daily at 0725, 0900, 1000, 1355, 1530, and 1630 h. Fermentor pH was determined at the time of feeding, and fermentor effluent samples for NH -N and VFA analyses were taken daily at 1030 h on d 8, 9, and 10. Samples were also analyzed for DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein, and fiber fractions to determine nutrient digestibilities. Bacterial efficiency was estimated by dividing bacterial N by truly digested OM. True DM and OM digestibilities and pH were not different among treatments. Apparent OM digestibility was greater in ORD than in MIL and SSG. The concentration of propionate was greater in ORD than in SSG and MIX, and that of butyrate was greatest in ORD and MIL. Methane output was greatest in MIL, intermediate in ORD, and lowest in SSG and MIX. Nitrogen intake did not differ across treatments, whereas bacterial N efficiency per kilogram of truly digestible OM was greatest in MIL, intermediate in SSG and MIX, and lowest in ORD. True crude protein digestibility was greater in ORD versus MIL, and ORD had lower total N, non-NH -N, bacterial N, and dietary N in effluent flows than MIL. Overall, we detected little difference in true nutrient digestibility; however, SSG and MIX provided the lowest acetate to propionate ratio and lower CH output than MIL and ORD. Thus, improved warm-season annual pastures (i.e., brown midrib sorghum × sudangrass) could provide a reasonable alternative to orchardgrass pastures during the summer months when such perennial cool-season grass species have greatly reduced productivity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dactylis
Fermentação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Dieta
Suplementos Nutricionais
Digestão
Metano/metabolismo
Nitrogênio/metabolismo
Rúmen/metabolismo
Estações do Ano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
N762921K75 (Nitrogen); OP0UW79H66 (Methane)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27573890
[Au] Autor:Castagnino DS; Kammes KL; Allen MS; Gervais R; Chouinard PY; Girard CL
[Ad] Endereço:1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada,Sherbrooke Research and Development Centre,2000 College,Sherbrooke,QC,CanadaJ1M 0C8.
[Ti] Título:High-concentrate diets based on forages harvested at different maturity stages affect ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.
[So] Source:Animal;11(4):608-615, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Effects of plant maturity on apparent ruminal synthesis and post-ruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in two feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (Trial 1) or orchardgrass (Trial 2) silages harvested either (1) early cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. In Trial 1, conducted with 16 cows (569±43 kg of empty BW (ruminal content removed) and 43.7±8.6 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 17-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~22% forage NDF and 27% total NDF, and the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 53 : 47 and 42 : 58 for EC and LC, respectively. In Trial 2, conducted with 13 cows (588±55 kg of empty BW and 43.7±7.7 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 18-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~25% forage NDF and 31% total NDF; the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 58 : 42 and 46 : 54 for EC and LC, respectively. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. Diets based on EC alfalfa decreased the amounts of thiamin, niacin and folates reaching the duodenum, whereas diets based on EC orchardgrass increased riboflavin duodenal flow. Daily apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting a microbial regulation of their concentration in the rumen. Vitamin B12 apparent ruminal synthesis was correlated negatively with total volatile fatty acids concentration, but positively with ruminal pH and microbial N duodenal flow.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bovinos/fisiologia
Dactylis/química
Medicago sativa/química
Rúmen/fisiologia
Complexo Vitamínico B/biossíntese
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
Animais
Dieta/veterinária
Feminino
Lactação
Silagem/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
12001-76-2 (Vitamin B Complex)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160831
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1751731116001798


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[PMID]:27809251
[Au] Autor:Yan D; Zhao X; Cheng Y; Ma X; Huang L; Zhang X
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. yandfoo001l@163.com.
[Ti] Título:Phylogenetic and Diversity Analysis of Dactylis glomerata Subspecies Using SSR and IT-ISJ Markers.
[So] Source:Molecules;21(11), 2016 Oct 31.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The genus , an important forage crop, has a wide geographical distribution in temperate regions. While this genus is thought to include a single species, , this species encompasses many subspecies whose relationships have not been fully characterized. In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of nine representative subspecies were examined using SSR and IT-ISJ markers. In total, 21 pairs of SSR primers and 15 pairs of IT-ISJ primers were used to amplify 295 polymorphic bands with polymorphic rates of 100%. The average polymorphic information contents (PICs) of SSR and IT-ISJ markers were 0.909 and 0.780, respectively. The combined data of the two markers indicated a high level of genetic diversity among the nine subspecies, with a Nei's gene diversity index value of 0.283 and Shannon's diversity of 0.448. Preliminarily phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the 20 accessions could be divided into three groups (A, B, C). Furthermore, they could be divided into five clusters, which is similar to the structure analysis with K = 5. Phylogenetic placement in these three groups may be related to the distribution ranges and the climate types of the subspecies in each group. Group A contained eight accessions of four subspecies, originating from the west Mediterranean, while Group B contained seven accessions of three subspecies, originating from the east Mediterranean.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: DNA de Plantas/genética
Dactylis/genética
Variação Genética
Filogenia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Marcadores Genéticos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Plant); 0 (Genetic Markers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170406
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170406
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161104
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27236755
[Au] Autor:Castagnino DS; Kammes KL; Allen MS; Gervais R; Chouinard PY; Girard CL
[Ad] Endereço:Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke Research and Development Centre, 2000 College, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada, J1M 0C8; Département des sciences animales, Université Laval, 2425 rue de l'Agriculture, Québec, Québec, Canada, G1V 0A6.
[Ti] Título:Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;99(8):6229-6236, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. Folate ARS followed the opposite correlation pattern. Nevertheless, in spite of differences in intake and ARS, with both forages, decreasing particle length of silages had limited effects on the amounts of B vitamins reaching the sites of absorption in the small intestine of dairy cows.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta/veterinária
Rúmen/metabolismo
Silagem/análise
Complexo Vitamínico B/biossíntese
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Estudos Cross-Over
Dactylis
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem
Fibras na Dieta/análise
Duodeno/metabolismo
Duodeno/microbiologia
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise
Feminino
Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem
Ácido Fólico/análise
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Lactação
Medicago sativa/química
Niacina/administração & dosagem
Niacina/análise
Riboflavina/administração & dosagem
Riboflavina/análise
Tiamina/administração & dosagem
Tiamina/análise
Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem
Vitamina B 12/análise
Vitamina B 6/administração & dosagem
Vitamina B 6/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dietary Fiber); 0 (Fatty Acids, Volatile); 12001-76-2 (Vitamin B Complex); 2679MF687A (Niacin); 8059-24-3 (Vitamin B 6); 935E97BOY8 (Folic Acid); P6YC3EG204 (Vitamin B 12); TLM2976OFR (Riboflavin); X66NSO3N35 (Thiamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160530
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27070939
[Au] Autor:Costa R; Pereira G; Garrido I; Tavares-de-Sousa MM; Espinosa F
[Ad] Endereço:Unidade Estratégica de Investigação e Serviços de Biotecnologia e Recursos genéticos, INIAV-Pólo de Elvas, Estrada Gil Vaz, 6. 7351-901, Elvas, Portugal.
[Ti] Título:Comparison of RAPD, ISSR, and AFLP Molecular Markers to Reveal and Classify Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) Germplasm Variations.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(4):e0152972, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Three different DNA-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers, were used for fingerprinting Dactylis glomerata genotypes and for detecting genetic variation between the three different subspecies. In this study, RAPD assays produced 97 bands, of which 40 were polymorphic (41.2%). The ISSR primers amplified 91 bands, and 54 showed polymorphism (59.3%). Finally, the AFLP showed 100 bands, of which 92 were polymorphic (92%). The fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0), and those readings were entered in a computer file as a binary matrix (one for each marker). Three cluster analyses were performed to express--in the form of dendrograms--the relationships among the genotypes and the genetic variability detected. All DNA-based techniques used were able to amplify all of the genotypes. There were highly significant correlation coefficients between cophenetic matrices based on the genetic distance for the RAPD, ISSR, AFLP, and combined RAPD-ISSR-AFLP data (0.68, 0.78, 0.70, and 0.70, respectively). Two hypotheses were formulated to explain these results; both of them are in agreement with the results obtained using these three types of molecular markers. We conclude that when we study genotypes close related, the analysis of variability could require more than one DNA-based technique; in fact, the genetic variation present in different sources could interfere or combine with the more or less polymorphic ability, as our results showed for RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers. Our results indicate that AFLP seemed to be the best-suited molecular assay for fingerprinting and assessing genetic relationship among genotypes of Dactylis glomerata.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dactylis/classificação
Dactylis/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados
Análise por Conglomerados
Impressões Digitais de DNA
DNA de Plantas/genética
Marcadores Genéticos
Variação Genética
Repetições de Microssatélites
Polimorfismo Genético
Portugal
Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Plant); 0 (Genetic Markers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160413
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0152972



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