Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : B01.650.940.800.575.912.250.825.850 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 243 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28822946
[Au] Autor:Xu ZR; Cai SW; Huang WX; Liu RX; Xiong ZT
[Ad] Endereço:School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Título:Differential expression of vacuolar and defective cell wall invertase genes in roots and seeds of metalliferous and non-metalliferous populations of Rumex dentatus under copper stress.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;147:17-25, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Acid invertase activities in roots and young seeds of a metalliferous population (MP) of Rumex dentatus were previously observed to be significantly higher than those of a non-metalliferous population (NMP) under Cu stress. To date, no acid invertase gene has been cloned from R. dentatus. Here, we isolated four full-length cDNAs from the two populations of R. dentatus, presumably encoding cell wall (RdnCIN1 and RdmCIN1 from the NMP and MP, respectively) and vacuolar invertases (RdnVIN1 and RdmVIN1 from the NMP and MP, respectively). Unexpectedly, RdnCIN1 and RdmCIN1 most likely encode special defective invertases with highly attenuated sucrose-hydrolyzing capacity. The transcript levels of RdmCIN1 were significantly higher than those of RdnCIN1 in roots and young seeds under Cu stress, whereas under control conditions, the former was initially lower than the latter. Unexpected high correlations were observed between the transcript levels of RdnCIN1 and RdmCIN1 and the activity of cell wall invertase, even though RdnCIN1 and RdmCIN1 do not encode catalytically active invertases. Similarly, the transcript levels of RdmVIN1 in roots and young seeds were increased under Cu stress, whereas those of RdnVIN1 were decreased. The high correlations between the transcript levels of RdnVIN1 and RdmVIN1 and the activity of vacuolar invertase indicate that RdnVIN1 and RdmVIN1 might control distinct vacuolar invertase activities in the two populations. Moreover, a possible indirect role for acid invertases in Cu tolerance, mediated by generating a range of sugars used as nutrients and signaling molecules, is discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Cobre/toxicidade
Rumex/efeitos dos fármacos
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos
beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Parede Celular/enzimologia
Parede Celular/genética
Cobre/metabolismo
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
Genes de Plantas
Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia
Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
Rumex/genética
Rumex/metabolismo
Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
Sementes/enzimologia
Sementes/genética
Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
Vacúolos/enzimologia
Vacúolos/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil Pollutants); 789U1901C5 (Copper); EC 3.2.1.26 (beta-Fructofuranosidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170821
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29070038
[Au] Autor:Shim KS; Lee B; Ma JY
[Ad] Endereço:KM Application Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 70 Chemdan-ro, Dong-gu, 41062, Daegu, 701-300, Republic of Korea. angeloshim@kiom.re.kr.
[Ti] Título:Water extract of Rumex crispus prevents bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inducing osteoblast mineralization.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):483, 2017 Oct 26.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Rumex crispus root has traditionally been used in Asian medicine for the treatment of hemorrhage and dermatolosis. The aim of this study was to explore the pharmaceutical effects of water extract of Rumex crispus (WERC) on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone destruction mice model. METHODS: High performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to identify three compounds (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion) of WERC. The in vivo effect of WERC was examined using an administration of WERC or vehicle on the ICR mice with bone loss induced by intraperitoneal RANKL injection on day 0 and 1. All mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at day 7 and the femurs of mice were isolated for soft X-ray and Micro-CT analysis. The in vitro effect of WERC on osteoblast mineralization or osteoclast differentiation was examined by alizarin red S staining or by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and assay. To determine the transcription level of osteoblast or osteoclast-specific genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling molecules. RESULTS: The presence of three compounds in WERC was determined. WERC significantly suppressed RANKL-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing microstructural deterioration. In vitro, WERC increased osteoblast mineralization by enhancing the transcription of runt-related transcription factor 2 and its transcriptional coactivators, and by stimulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Furthermore, WERC significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the activation of the RANKL signalings (MAPK and NF-κB) and the increasing inhibitory factors of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. CONCLUSION: This study showed that WERC could protect against osteoporosis and suggested that the possible mechanism of WERC might be related to increased osteoblast differentiation by activating Runx2 signaling and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by suppression of RANKL signaling.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo
Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos
Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos
Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos
Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Rumex/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo
Extratos Vegetais/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (NFATC Transcription Factors); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171027
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1986-7


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[PMID]:29023590
[Au] Autor:Liu J; Xu Y; Zhang L; Li W; Cai Z; Li F; Peng M; Li F; Hu B
[Ad] Endereço:College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.
[Ti] Título:De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome of Rumex patientia L. during cold stress.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186470, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Rumex patientia L. is consumed as a green vegetable in several parts of the world, and can withstand extremely low temperatures (-35°C). However, little or no available genomic data for this species has been reported to date. Here, we used Illumina Hiseq technology for transcriptome assembly in R. patientia under normal and cold conditions to evaluate how it responds to cold stress. RESULTS: After an in-depth RNA-Seq analysis, 115,589 unigenes were produced from the assembled transcripts. Based on similarity search analysis with seven databases, we obtained and annotated 60,157 assembled unigenes to at least one database. In total, 1,179 unigenes that were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including up-regulated (925) and down-regulated ones (254), were successfully assigned GO annotations and classified into three major metabolic pathways. Ribosome, carbon metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and biosynthesis of amino acids were the most highly enriched pathways according to KEGG analysis. Overall, 66 up-regulated genes were identified as putatively involved in the response to cold stress, including members of MYB, AP2/ERF, CBF, Znf, bZIP, NAC and COR families. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this investigation was the first to provide a cold-responsive (COR) transcriptome assembly in R. patientia. A large number of potential COR genes were identified, suggesting that this species is suitable for cultivation in northern China. In summary, these data provide valuable information for future research and genomic studies in R. patientia.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Rumex/metabolismo
Transcriptoma
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temperatura Baixa
Bases de Dados Genéticas
Regulação para Baixo
Proteínas de Plantas/classificação
Proteínas de Plantas/genética
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
RNA de Plantas/química
RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação
RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Rumex/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Estresse Fisiológico
Fatores de Transcrição/classificação
Fatores de Transcrição/genética
Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
Regulação para Cima
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (RNA, Plant); 0 (Transcription Factors)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171105
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171105
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171013
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186470


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[PMID]:28854968
[Au] Autor:Sahreen S; Khan MR; Khan RA
[Ad] Endereço:Botanical Sciences Division, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Garden Avenue, Shakarparian, Islamabad, Pakistan.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of Rumex hastatus leaves against hepatic fibrosis: a rat model.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):435, 2017 Aug 30.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Rumex hastatus leaves have been widely used as food additive and for the treatment of various liver ailments. According to our previous studies, ethyle acetate (ERL) and methanolic (MRL) fractions of R. hastatus leaves are an accessible source of natural antioxidants. In the present research work we arranged to investigate the R. hastatus leaves as hepaptoprotective agent verse hepatic damages caused by CCl . METHODS: During this project we divided 48 rats into eight groups randomly. CCl -induced damages were assessed through liver function markers viz.; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Changes in lipid profile were checked by measuring serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). Antioxidant status was checked by the activities of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damages and cellular abnormalities at histo level. RESULTS: Administration of CCl in rats caused significant increase in liver function and lipid profile indicating hepatic damages which were restored by co-administration of R. hastatus extracts. Cellular and DNA damages in hepatic tissues were caused by CCl which shown clear hepatic fibrosis in addition to disturb antioxidant enzyme level. Co-treatment with various fractions of R. hastatus leaves regulated these markers of oxidative dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: From the present report it was inferred that R. hastatus leaves have the ability to reverse CCl induced hepatic damages.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico
Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
Rumex/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo
Animais
Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos
Seres Humanos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/enzimologia
Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente
Masculino
Folhas de Planta/química
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts); CL2T97X0V0 (Carbon Tetrachloride); EC 2.3.2.2 (gamma-Glutamyltransferase); EC 2.6.1.1 (Aspartate Aminotransferases); EC 2.6.1.2 (Alanine Transaminase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170913
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170913
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1943-5


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[PMID]:28605979
[Au] Autor:Orbán-Gyapai O; Forgo P; Hohmann J; Vasas A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Szeged , H-6720 Szeged , Hungary.
[Ti] Título:Phytochemical investigation of Rumex thyrsiflorus Fingerh.
[So] Source:Acta Biol Hung;68(2):232-236, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0236-5383
[Cp] País de publicação:Hungary
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the course of our pharmacological screening of Polygonaceae species occurring in the Carpathian Basin the extracts prepared from the roots of Rumex thyrsiflorus showed promising antiproliferative, xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antibacterial activities. The present work deals with the isolation of compounds from the root of the plant. After multistep separation process, four compounds were obtained from the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the methanol extract of the root. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as 1-palmitoylglycerol, ß-sitosterol, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B5.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Raízes de Plantas/química
Rumex/química
Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antibacterianos/química
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química
Linhagem Celular Tumoral
Proliferação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química
Seres Humanos
Extratos Vegetais/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Plant Extracts); EC 1.17.3.2 (Xanthine Oxidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170814
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170814
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170614
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1556/018.68.2017.2.10


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[PMID]:28573232
[Au] Autor:Shahat AA; Mahmoud EA; Al-Mishari AA; Alsaid MS
[Ad] Endereço:Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451.
[Ti] Título:ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME SAUDI ARABIAN HERBAL PLANTS.
[So] Source:Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med;14(2):161-165, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2505-0044
[Cp] País de publicação:Nigeria
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Several edible plants are used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since early time to control microbial infections. In the present study, twenty-four Saudi Arabian medicinal plants d according to traditionally used were select and investigated for the antimicrobial activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed at evaluating the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts of twenty-four species of sixteen plant families used in the traditional medicine by Saudi Arabian people for the treatment of numerous ailments of the microbial and non-microbial origin against four Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi and yeast using the agar well diffusion method. RESULTS: Of most of the plants tested were found to be active against two to eight organisms. Five plants were active against eight organisms. The data appeared that extracts of (SY-176), (SY- (SY-181), (SY-188), (SY-197) and (SY-198) have anti-microbial activity against the most of tested bacteria, fungi and yeast. Whereas (SY-, the extracts of (SY-175), (SY-187), and (SY-195) have poor action against the tested bacteria, fungi and yeast. CONCLUSION: The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against bacteria was more effective than against fungi.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Antifúngicos/farmacologia
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos
Magnoliopsida
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Plantas Medicinais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Artemisia
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Echium
Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Resedaceae
Rumex
Arábia Saudita
Ziziphus
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.21010/ajtcam.v14i2.17


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[PMID]:28530181
[Au] Autor:Rostami-Vartooni A
[Ad] Endereço:Center of Environmental Researches, University of Qom, Qom, Iran. a.rostami127@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles loaded on the seashell surface using seeds extract and its catalytic applications for reduction of dyes.
[So] Source:IET Nanobiotechnol;11(4):349-359, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1751-8741
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, CuO nanoparticles supported on the seashell (CuO NPs/seashell) was prepared using seeds extract as a chelating and capping agent. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The particle size of CuO NPs on the seashell sheets was in the range of 8-60 nm. Catalytic ability of CuO NPs/seashell was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and Congo red (CR). It was observed that catalyst can be easily recovered and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic efficiency.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exoesqueleto/química
Corantes/química
Cobre/química
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
Extratos Vegetais/química
Rumex/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Catálise
Química Verde/métodos
Teste de Materiais
Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura
Tamanho da Partícula
Sementes/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Coloring Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 789U1901C5 (Copper); V1XJQ704R4 (cupric oxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170523
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1049/iet-nbt.2016.0149


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[PMID]:28300698
[Au] Autor:Orbán-Gyapai O; Liktor-Busa E; Kúsz N; Stefkó D; Urbán E; Hohmann J; Vasas A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary.
[Ti] Título:Antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds from Rumex aquaticus.
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;118:101-106, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Plants belonging to the genus Rumex (family Polygonaceae) are used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases caused by different microorganisms (e.g. bacteria-related dermatologic conditions, dysentery and enteritis). The present study focused on the antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin, and isolation of compounds from one of the most efficient species, Rumex aquaticus. The antibacterial effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of methanol extracts prepared from different parts of 14 Rumex species (R. acetosella, R. acetosa, R. alpinus, R. aquaticus, R. conglomeratus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathum, R. obtusifolius subsp. obtusifolius, R. obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus, R. patientia, R. pulcher, R. scutatus, R. stenophyllus and R. thyrsiflorus) were investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, MRSA, Bacillus subtilis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the disc diffusion method. Mainly the n-hexane and chloroform extracts prepared from the roots of the plants displayed high antibacterial activity (inhibition zones>15mm) against one or more bacterial strains. The highly active extracts of the aerial part and root of R. aquaticus were subjected to a multistep separation procedure. 19 Compounds, among them naphthalenes (musizin, and its glucoside, torachrysone-glucoside, 2-methoxystypandrone), anthraquinones (emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, citreorosein, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside), flavonoids (quercetin, quercetin-3,3'-dimethylether, isokaempferide, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, catechin), stilbenes (resveratrol, piceid), and 1-stearoylglycerol were isolated from the plant. The antibacterial activities of isolated compounds were determined, and it was observed that especially naphthalenes exerted remarkable antibacterial effects against several bacterial strains.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/química
Extratos Vegetais/química
Rumex/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Naftalenos/química
Naftalenos/isolamento & purificação
Plantas Medicinais/química
Rumex/classificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Naphthalenes); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170425
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170425
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170317
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28160090
[Au] Autor:Burns JH; Brandt AJ; Murphy JE; Kaczowka AM; Burke DJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA. jbm122@case.edu.
[Ti] Título:Spatial heterogeneity of plant-soil feedbacks increases per capita reproductive biomass of species at an establishment disadvantage.
[So] Source:Oecologia;183(4):1077-1086, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1939
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Plant-soil feedbacks have been widely implicated as a driver of plant community diversity, and the coexistence prediction generated by a negative plant-soil feedback can be tested using the mutual invasibility criterion: if two populations are able to invade one another, this result is consistent with stable coexistence. We previously showed that two co-occurring Rumex species exhibit negative pairwise plant-soil feedbacks, predicting that plant-soil feedbacks could lead to their coexistence. However, whether plants are able to reproduce when at an establishment disadvantage ("invasibility"), or what drivers in the soil might correlate with this pattern, are unknown. To address these questions, we created experimental plots with heterogeneous and homogeneous soils using field-collected conditioned soils from each of these Rumex species. We then allowed resident plants of each species to establish and added invader seeds of the congener to evaluate invasibility. Rumex congeners were mutually invasible, in that both species were able to establish and reproduce in the other's resident population. Invaders of both species had twice as much reproduction in heterogeneous compared to homogeneous soils; thus the spatial arrangement of plant-soil feedbacks may influence coexistence. Soil mixing had a non-additive effect on the soil bacterial and fungal communities, soil moisture, and phosphorous availability, suggesting that disturbance could dramatically alter soil legacy effects. Because the spatial arrangement of soil patches has coexistence implications, plant-soil feedback studies should move beyond studies of mean effects of single patch types, to consider how the spatial arrangement of patches in the field influences plant communities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomassa
Solo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ecossistema
Plantas
Rumex
Sementes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00442-017-3828-1


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[PMID]:28158772
[Au] Autor:Crowson D; Barrett SCH; Wright SI
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Purifying and Positive Selection Influence Patterns of Gene Loss and Gene Expression in the Evolution of a Plant Sex Chromosome System.
[So] Source:Mol Biol Evol;34(5):1140-1154, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1537-1719
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sex chromosomes are unique regions of the genome, with a host of properties that distinguish them from autosomes and from each other. Although there is extensive theory describing sex chromosome formation and subsequent degeneration of the Y chromosome, the relative importance of processes governing degeneration is poorly understood. In particular, it is not known whether degeneration occurs solely as a direct result of inefficient selection due to loss of recombination, or whether adaptive gene silencing on the Y chromosome results in most degeneration occurring neutrally. We used comparative transcriptome data from two related annual plants with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, Rumex rothschildianus and Rumex hastatulus, to investigate the patterns and processes underlying Y chromosome degeneration. The rate of degeneration varied greatly between the two species. In R. rothschildianus, we infer widespread gene loss, higher than previously reported for any plant. Gene loss was not random: genes with lower constraint and those not expressed during the haploid phase were more likely to be lost. There was indirect evidence of adaptive evolution on the Y chromosome from the over-expression of Y alleles in certain genes with sex-biased gene expression. There was no complete dosage compensation, but there was evidence for targeted dosage compensation occurring in more selectively constrained genes. Overall, our results are consistent with selective interference playing the dominant role in the degeneration of the Y chromosome, rather than adaptive gene silencing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cromossomos de Plantas/genética
Rumex/genética
Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alelos
Evolução Biológica
Compensação de Dosagem (Genética)
Evolução Molecular
Deleção de Genes
Genoma de Planta/genética
Plantas/genética
Transcriptoma/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/molbev/msx064



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