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[PMID]:29458668
[Au] Autor:Al-Ahmad A; Muzafferiy F; Anderson AC; Wölber JP; Ratka-Krüger P; Fretwurst T; Nelson K; Vach K; Hellwig E
[Ad] Endereço:1​Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Shift of microbial composition of peri-implantitis-associated oral biofilm as revealed by 16S rRNA gene cloning.
[So] Source:J Med Microbiol;67(3):332-340, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1473-5644
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: Micro-organisms are important triggers of peri-implant inflammation and analysing their diversity is necessary for peri-implantitis treatment. This study aimed to analyse and compare the microbiota associated with individuals with peri-implantitis, as well as clinically healthy implant sites. METHODOLOGY: Subgingival biofilm samples were taken from 10 individuals with peri-implantitis and from at least 1 clinically healthy implant. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal primers. After cloning the PCR-products, amplified inserts of positive clones were digested using restriction endonucleases, and the chosen clones were sequenced. The 16S rDNA-sequences were compared to those from the public sequence databases GenBank, EMBL and DDBJ to determine the corresponding taxa. RESULTS: Differing distributions of taxa belonging to the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes, Spirochaetae and TM 7 were detected in both the healthy implant (HI) and the peri-implantitis (PI) groups. A significantly higher relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, as well as of the species Fusobacterium nucleatum, were found in the PI group (P<0.05). The putative periodontal red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia) was also detected at significantly higher levels in the PI group (P<0.05), whereas the yellow group, as well as the species Veillonella dispar, tended to be associated with the HI group. CONCLUSION: A shift in the healthy subgingival microbiota was shown in peri-implantitis-associated biofilm. Anaerobic Gram-negative periopathogens, including P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, seem to play an important role in peri-implantitis development and should be considered in treatment and prevention strategies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Biofilmes
Microbiota/genética
Peri-Implantite/microbiologia
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Bactérias/classificação
Bactérias/genética
Carga Bacteriana
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos
Bacteroides/genética
Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação
Feminino
Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética
Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação
Genes de RNAr
Gengiva/microbiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética
Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação
Prevotella intermedia/genética
Prevotella intermedia/isolamento & purificação
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000682


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[PMID]:29053971
[Au] Autor:Hebbandi Nanjundappa R; Ronchi F; Wang J; Clemente-Casares X; Yamanouchi J; Sokke Umeshappa C; Yang Y; Blanco J; Bassolas-Molina H; Salas A; Khan H; Slattery RM; Wyss M; Mooser C; Macpherson AJ; Sycuro LK; Serra P; McKay DM; McCoy KD; Santamaria P
[Ad] Endereço:Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre (JMDRC), University of Calgary, Calgary AB T2N 4N1, Canada; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infectious Diseases, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary AB T2N 4N1, Canada.
[Ti] Título:A Gut Microbial Mimic that Hijacks Diabetogenic Autoreactivity to Suppress Colitis.
[So] Source:Cell;171(3):655-667.e17, 2017 Oct 19.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4172
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The gut microbiota contributes to the development of normal immunity but, when dysregulated, can promote autoimmunity through various non-antigen-specific effects on pathogenic and regulatory lymphocytes. Here, we show that an integrase expressed by several species of the gut microbial genus Bacteroides encodes a low-avidity mimotope of the pancreatic ß cell autoantigen islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase-catalytic-subunit-related protein (IGRP ). Studies in germ-free mice monocolonized with integrase-competent, integrase-deficient, and integrase-transgenic Bacteroides demonstrate that the microbial epitope promotes the recruitment of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells to the gut. There, these effectors suppress colitis by targeting microbial antigen-loaded, antigen-presenting cells in an integrin ß7-, perforin-, and major histocompatibility complex class I-dependent manner. Like their murine counterparts, human peripheral blood T cells also recognize Bacteroides integrase. These data suggest that gut microbial antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells may have therapeutic value in inflammatory bowel disease and unearth molecular mimicry as a novel mechanism by which the gut microbiota can regulate normal immune homeostasis. PAPERCLIP.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Autoantígenos/imunologia
Bacteroides/imunologia
Colite/imunologia
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Glucose-6-Fosfatase/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Animais
Bacteroides/classificação
Bacteroides/enzimologia
Colite/microbiologia
Feminino
Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética
Seres Humanos
Tecido Linfoide/imunologia
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD
Meia-Idade
Mimetismo Molecular
Linfócitos T/imunologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Autoantigens); EC 3.1.3.9 (Glucose-6-Phosphatase); EC 3.1.3.9. (G6PC2 protein, human); EC 3.1.3.9. (G6pc2 protein, mouse)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171021
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28892827
[Au] Autor:Kugadas A; Wright Q; Geddes-McAlister J; Gadjeva M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
[Ti] Título:Role of Microbiota in Strengthening Ocular Mucosal Barrier Function Through Secretory IgA.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;58(11):4593-4600, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanisms controlling secretory IgA (SIgA) production, thereby ensuring maintenance of ocular surface health. Methods: To determine whether the presence of specific gut commensal species regulates SIgA levels and IgA transcripts in the eye-associated lymphoid tissues (EALT), specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice were treated with antibiotic cocktails, germ-free (GF) SW mice were reconstituted with diverse commensal gut microbiota, or monocolonized with gut-specific commensals. Proteomic profiling and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to quantify SIgA and IgA levels. 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to characterize commensal microbiota. Results: Commensal presence regulated ocular surface SIgA levels and mRNA IgA transcripts in EALT. Oral antibiotic cocktail intake significantly reduced gut commensal presence, while maintaining ocular surface commensal levels reduced SIgA and IgA transcripts in EALT. Analysis of gut microbial communities revealed that SPF SW mice carried abundant Bacteroides organisms when compared to SPF C57BL6/N mice, with B. acidifaciens being the most prominent species in SPF SW mice. Monocolonization of GF SW mice with B. acidifaciens, a strict gut anaerobe, resulted in significant increase of IgA transcripts in the EALT, implying generation of B-cell memory. Conclusions: These data illustrated a "gut-eye" axis of immune regulation. Exposure of the host to gut commensal species may serve as a priming signal to generate B-cell repertoires at sites different from the gut, such as EALT, thereby ensuring broad protection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Túnica Conjuntiva/imunologia
Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia
Microbiota/fisiologia
Membrana Mucosa/imunologia
Lágrimas/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bacteroides/fisiologia
DNA Ribossômico/genética
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Feminino
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
Imunoglobulina A/imunologia
Imunoglobulina A Secretora/genética
Tecido Linfoide/imunologia
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Proteômica
RNA Mensageiro/genética
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
Simbiose
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ribosomal); 0 (Immunoglobulin A); 0 (Immunoglobulin A, Secretory); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170912
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.17-22119


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[PMID]:28789729
[Au] Autor:Mitsou EK; Kakali A; Antonopoulou S; Mountzouris KC; Yannakoulia M; Panagiotakos DB; Kyriacou A
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics,Harokopio University,70 El. Venizelou str.,17671 Kallithea,Greece.
[Ti] Título:Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with the gut microbiota pattern and gastrointestinal characteristics in an adult population.
[So] Source:Br J Nutr;117(12):1645-1655, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2662
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study aimed to explore the potential associations of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with gut microbiota characteristics and gastrointestinal symptomatology in an adult population. Other long-term dietary habits (e.g. consumption of snacks and junk food or stimulant intake) were also evaluated in terms of the gut microbiota profile. Participants (n 120) underwent anthropometric, dietary, physical activity and lifestyle evaluation. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a Mediterranean diet score, the MedDietScore, and subjects were classified into three tertiles according to individual adherence scoring. Gut microbiota composition was determined using quantitative PCR and plate-count techniques, and faecal SCFA were analysed using GC. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. Participants with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet had lower Escherichia coli counts (P=0·022), a higher bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio (P=0·025), increased levels and prevalence of Candida albicans (P=0·039 and P=0·050, respectively), greater molar ratio of acetate (P=0·009), higher defaecation frequency (P=0·028) and a more pronounced gastrointestinal symptomatology compared with those reporting low adherence. A lower molar ratio of valerate was also observed in the case of high adherence to the Mediterranean diet compared with the other two tertiles (P for trend=0·005). Positive correlations of MedDietScore with gastrointestinal symptoms, faecal moisture, total bacteria, bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio, relative share of Bacteroides, C. albicans and total SCFA, as well as negative associations with cultivable E. coli levels and valerate were indicated. Fast food consumption was characterised by suppressed representation of lactobacilli and butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, our findings support a link between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and gut microbiota characteristics.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta Mediterrânea
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia
Cooperação do Paciente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação
Índice de Massa Corporal
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
Estudos Transversais
Dieta
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
Exercício
Ácidos Graxos/análise
Fezes/química
Fezes/microbiologia
Feminino
Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia
Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle
Seres Humanos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Avaliação Nutricional
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170810
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0007114517001593


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[PMID]:28771155
[Au] Autor:Cantor J; Krometis LA; Sarver E; Cook N; Badgley B
[Ad] Endereço:Biological System Engineering, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA E-mail: krometis@vt.edu.
[Ti] Título:Tracking the downstream impacts of inadequate sanitation in central Appalachia.
[So] Source:J Water Health;15(4):580-590, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1477-8920
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Poor sanitation in rural infrastructure is often associated with high levels of fecal contamination in adjacent surface waters, which presents a community health risk. Although microbial source tracking techniques have been widely applied to identify primary remediation needs in urban and/or recreational waters, use of human-specific markers has been more limited in rural watersheds. This study quantified the human source tracking marker Bacteroides-HF183, along with more general fecal indicators (i.e. culturable Escherichia coli and a molecular Enterococcus marker), in two Appalachian streams above and below known discharges of untreated household waste. Although E. coli and Enterococcus were consistently recovered in samples collected from both streams, Bacteroides-HF183 was only detected sporadically in one stream. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the concentration of E. coli and the proximity and number of known waste discharge points upstream; this correlation was not significant with respect to Bacteroides-HF183, likely due to the low number of quantifiable samples. These findings suggest that, while the application of more advanced source targeting strategies can be useful in confirming the influence of substandard sanitation on surface waters to justify infrastructure improvements, they may be of limited use without concurrent traditional monitoring targets and on-the-ground sanitation surveys.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação
Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação
Monitoramento Ambiental
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
Fezes/microbiologia
Rios/microbiologia
Esgotos/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Rios/química
Esgotos/análise
Virginia
Qualidade da Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Sewage)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170804
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2166/wh.2017.005


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[PMID]:28669823
[Au] Autor:Wefers D; Cavalcante JJV; Schendel RR; Deveryshetty J; Wang K; Wawrzak Z; Mackie RI; Koropatkin NM; Cann I
[Ad] Endereço:Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology (Microbiome Metabolic Engineering Theme), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; Department of Animal Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
[Ti] Título:Biochemical and Structural Analyses of Two Cryptic Esterases in Bacteroides intestinalis and their Synergistic Activities with Cognate Xylanases.
[So] Source:J Mol Biol;429(16):2509-2527, 2017 Aug 04.
[Is] ISSN:1089-8638
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Arabinoxylans are constituents of the human diet. Although not utilizable by the human host, they can be fermented by colonic bacteria. The arabinoxylan backbone is decorated with arabinose side chains that may be substituted with ferulic acid, thus limiting depolymerization to fermentable sugars. We investigated the polypeptides encoded by two genes upregulated during growth of the colonic bacterium Bacteroides intestinalis on wheat arabinoxylan. The recombinant proteins, designated BiFae1A and BiFae1B, were functionally assigned esterase activities. Both enzymes were active on acetylated substrates, although each showed a higher ferulic acid esterase activity on methyl-ferulate. BiFae1A showed a catalytic efficiency of 12mM s on para-nitrophenyl-acetate, and on methyl-ferulate, the value was 27 times higher. BiFae1B showed low catalytic efficiencies for both substrates. Furthermore, the two enzymes released ferulic acid from various structural elements, and NMR spectroscopy indicated complete de-esterification of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides from wheat bran. BiFae1A is a tetramer based on the crystal structure, whereas BiFae1B is a dimer in solution based on size exclusion chromatography. The structure of BiFae1A was solved to 1.98Å resolution, and two tetramers were observed in the asymmetric unit. A flexible loop that may act as a hinge over the active site and likely coordinates critical interactions with the substrate was prominent in BiFae1A. Sequence alignments of the esterase domains in BiFae1B with the feruloyl esterase from Clostridium thermocellum suggest that both domains lack the flexible hinge in BiFae1A, an observation that may partly provide a molecular basis for the differences in activities in the two esterases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bacteroides/enzimologia
Esterases/química
Esterases/metabolismo
Xilosidases/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo
Cromatografia em Gel
Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo
Cristalografia por Raios X
Cinética
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Conformação Proteica
Multimerização Proteica
Alinhamento de Sequência
Especificidade por Substrato
Xilanos/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Caffeic Acids); 0 (Coumaric Acids); 0 (Xylans); 9040-27-1 (arabinoxylan); AVM951ZWST (ferulic acid); EC 3.1.- (Esterases); EC 3.2.1.- (Xylosidases); Y98BUA66RX (methyl ferulate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170704
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28628112
[Au] Autor:Liu R; Hong J; Xu X; Feng Q; Zhang D; Gu Y; Shi J; Zhao S; Liu W; Wang X; Xia H; Liu Z; Cui B; Liang P; Xi L; Jin J; Ying X; Wang X; Zhao X; Li W; Jia H; Lan Z; Li F; Wang R; Sun Y; Yang M; Shen Y; Jie Z; Li J; Chen X; Zhong H; Xie H; Zhang Y; Gu W; Deng X; Shen B; Xu X; Yang H; Xu G; Bi Y; Lai S; Wang J; Qi L; Madsen L; Wang J; Ning G; Kristiansen K; Wang W
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomes, National Clinical Research Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
[Ti] Título:Gut microbiome and serum metabolome alterations in obesity and after weight-loss intervention.
[So] Source:Nat Med;23(7):859-868, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1546-170X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Emerging evidence has linked the gut microbiome to human obesity. We performed a metagenome-wide association study and serum metabolomics profiling in a cohort of lean and obese, young, Chinese individuals. We identified obesity-associated gut microbial species linked to changes in circulating metabolites. The abundance of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a glutamate-fermenting commensal, was markedly decreased in obese individuals and was inversely correlated with serum glutamate concentration. Consistently, gavage with B. thetaiotaomicron reduced plasma glutamate concentration and alleviated diet-induced body-weight gain and adiposity in mice. Furthermore, weight-loss intervention by bariatric surgery partially reversed obesity-associated microbial and metabolic alterations in obese individuals, including the decreased abundance of B. thetaiotaomicron and the elevated serum glutamate concentration. Our findings identify previously unknown links between intestinal microbiota alterations, circulating amino acids and obesity, suggesting that it may be possible to intervene in obesity by targeting the gut microbiota.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: DNA Bacteriano/análise
Disbiose/microbiologia
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética
Metaboloma
Obesidade/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adiposidade
Adulto
Animais
Bacteroides/genética
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron/genética
Cirurgia Bariátrica
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Disbiose/metabolismo
Feminino
Fusobacterium/genética
Gastrectomia
Ácido Glutâmico/sangue
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Metagenoma
Camundongos
Obesidade/metabolismo
Obesidade/cirurgia
Ganho de Peso
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 3KX376GY7L (Glutamic Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170620
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nm.4358


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[PMID]:28596023
[Au] Autor:Nicolucci AC; Hume MP; Martínez I; Mayengbam S; Walter J; Reimer RA
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.
[So] Source:Gastroenterology;153(3):711-722, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1528-0012
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND & AIMS: It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. METHODS: We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. RESULTS: After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of interleukin 6 from baseline (decrease of 15%) compared with the placebo group (increase of 25%). There was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (decrease of 19%) in the OI group. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium spp. in the OI group compared with controls. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significant increases in species of the genus Bifidobacterium and decreases in Bacteroides vulgatus within the group who consumed OI. In fecal samples, levels of primary bile acids increased in the placebo group but not in the OI group over the 16-week study period. CONCLUSIONS: In a placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we found a prebiotic (OI) to selectively alter the intestinal microbiota and significantly reduce body weight z-score, percent body fat, percent trunk fat, and serum level of interleukin 6 in children with overweight or obesity (Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02125955).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
Inulina/farmacologia
Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia
Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico
Obesidade Pediátrica/tratamento farmacológico
Prebióticos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise
Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos
Criança
Fezes/química
Fezes/microbiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Interleucina-6/sangue
Inulina/efeitos adversos
Masculino
Oligossacarídeos/efeitos adversos
Sobrepeso/sangue
Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue
Prebióticos/efeitos adversos
Triglicerídeos/sangue
Circunferência da Cintura/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bile Acids and Salts); 0 (Interleukin-6); 0 (Oligosaccharides); 0 (Prebiotics); 0 (Triglycerides); 0 (oligofructose); 9005-80-5 (Inulin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170610
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28566659
[Au] Autor:Sato W; Ishibashi KI; Yamanaka D; Adachi Y; Ohno N
[Ad] Endereço:School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.
[Ti] Título:Effects of Natural and Chemically Defined Nutrients on Candida albicans Water-soluble Fraction (CAWS) Vasculitis in Mice.
[So] Source:Med Mycol J;58(2):E47-E62, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1882-0476
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory disease that was identified by Professor Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1961. Candida albicans-derived substances, such as C. albicans water-soluble fraction (CAWS) , induce coronary arteritis similar to KD in mice. CAWS functions as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) by acting as a ligand for dectin-2. A gut-associated immunological system has developed specifically to segregate advantageous and detrimental stimuli, and the microbial flora has been found to markedly affect the development and severity of diseases. We herein investigated whether diet affects the onset and progression of CAWS vasculitis in mice. A standard diet, CE-2, and chemically defined diet, AIN93G, which is free of ß-glucan, were used. Although all mice administered with CAWS died, the mean number of survival days was smaller in the AIN93G group because vasculitis was induced earlier than in the CE-2 group. Bacteroides, which are inflammatory flora, were enriched in the microbial flora of the AIN93G group. The results of the present study suggest that diet quality affects not only microbial flora changes, but also the progression of systemic disease.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Candida albicans/patogenicidade
Dieta
Alimentos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Vasculite/etiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bacteroides
Candida albicans/química
Candida albicans/citologia
Progressão da Doença
Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia
Lectinas Tipo C
Ligantes
Masculino
Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA
Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos
Solubilidade
Frações Subcelulares
Vasculite/microbiologia
Água
beta-Glucanas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Lectins, C-Type); 0 (Ligands); 0 (beta-Glucans); 0 (dectin-2, mouse); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 37361-00-5 (beta-1,6-glucan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170602
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3314/mmj.16-00014


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[PMID]:28541806
[Au] Autor:Barie PS
[Ad] Endereço:Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine , New York, New York.
[Ti] Título:Atypical Wound Pathogens.
[So] Source:Surg Infect (Larchmt);18(4):455-460, 2017 May/Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8674
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Atypical wound pathogens may be so described because they are uncommon pathogens of soft tissue among human beings, or because they may be fastidious and difficult to recover/isolate in the laboratory. METHODS: A review of pertinent English-language literature was performed. RESULTS: These wound pathogens are a diverse lot, including aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacilli, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, and bacteria that cannot be characterized conventionally because they lack a cell wall (the Mycoplasmataceae). They are diverse with respect to their virulence, but many are opportunistic pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Among these atypical pathogens, clinical reports are most common of wound infections caused by Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma (sometimes as co-infecting agents), and the so-called rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (Runyon Type IV; e.g., M. chelonae).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bacteroides
Seres Humanos
Mycoplasma
Micobactérias não Tuberculosas
Ureaplasma
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/sur.2017.100



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