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[PMID]:27719923
[Au] Autor:Edwards HD; Shelver WL; Choi S; Nisbet DJ; Krueger NA; Anderson RC; Smith SB
[Ad] Endereço:United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food & Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, TX 77845, United States; Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, United States. Elect
[Ti] Título:Immunogenic inhibition of prominent ruminal bacteria as a means to reduce lipolysis and biohydrogenation activity in vitro.
[So] Source:Food Chem;218:372-377, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:0308-8146
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Lipolysis and biohydrogenation in ruminal animals promote the accumulation of saturated fatty acids in their meat and milk. Antibodies were generated against key ruminal lipase contributors Anaerovibrio lipolyticus, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Propionibacterium avidum and acnes. An anti-Pseudomonas lipase antibody was generated to determine if an antibody against a purified protein would be more effective. Each bacterium was cultured and assayed without or with increasing levels of each antibody. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17C also participates in biohydrogenation and therefore the antibody was tested to determine if it could effectively reduce biohydrogenation. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was assayed without and with the anti-B. fibrisolvens antibody and linoleic or α-linolenic acid. All antibodies were effective at reducing lipolysis with the anti-Pseudomonas lipase averaging a 78% reduction. The anti-B. fibrisolvens showed a tendency for a reduction (P=0.0713) in biohydrogenation products of α-linolenic acid. Results demonstrate that lipolysis and biohydrogenation can be immunologically inhibited in vitro.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Antibacterianos/química
Ácidos Graxos/química
Lipólise/fisiologia
Propionibacterium/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Butyrivibrio/efeitos dos fármacos
Hidrogenação
Ácido Linoleico/química
Lipase/metabolismo
Ácido alfa-Linolênico/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0RBV727H71 (alpha-Linolenic Acid); 9KJL21T0QJ (Linoleic Acid); EC 3.1.1.3 (Lipase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171008
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171008
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161011
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27417742
[Au] Autor:Grilli DJ; Fliegerová K; Kopecný J; Lama SP; Egea V; Sohaefer N; Pereyra C; Ruiz MS; Sosa MA; Arenas GN; Mrázek J
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Ambientales, Universidad Juan Agustín Maza, Av. Acceso Este Lateral Sur 2245, CP 5519, Mendoza, Argentina; Instituto de Histología y Embriología de Mendoza, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Casilla de Correo 56, CP 5500, Mendoza, Argentina. Electronic address: diegog
[Ti] Título:Analysis of the rumen bacterial diversity of goats during shift from forage to concentrate diet.
[So] Source:Anaerobe;42:17-26, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8274
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:High-grain feeding used in the animal production is known to affect the host rumen bacterial community, but our understanding of consequent changes in goats is limited. This study was therefore aimed to evaluate bacterial population dynamics during 20 days adaptation of 4 ruminally cannulated goats to the high-grain diet (grain: hay - ratio of 40:60). The dietary transition of goats from the forage to the high-grain-diet resulted in the significant decrease of rumen fluid pH, which was however still higher than value established for acute or subacute ruminal acidosis was not diagnosed in studied animals. DGGE analysis demonstrated distinct ruminal microbial populations in hay-fed and grain-fed animals, but the substantial animal-to-animal variation were detected. Quantitative PCR showed for grain-fed animals significantly higher number of bacteria belonging to Clostridium leptum group at 10 days after the incorporation of corn into the diet and significantly lower concentration of bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria phylum at the day 20 after dietary change. Taxonomic distribution analysed by NGS at day 20 revealed the similar prevalence of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in all goats, significantly higher presence of the unclassified genus of groups of Bacteroidales and Ruminococcaceae in grain-fed animals and significantly higher presence the genus Prevotella and Butyrivibrio in the forage-fed animals. The three different culture-independent methods used in this study show that high proportion of concentrate in goat diet does not induce any serious disturbance of their rumen ecosystem and indicate the good adaptive response of caprine ruminal bacteria to incorporation of corn into the diet.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
Poaceae/metabolismo
Rúmen/microbiologia
Zea mays/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinobacteria/classificação
Actinobacteria/genética
Actinobacteria/metabolismo
Ração Animal/análise
Animais
Bacteroidetes/classificação
Bacteroidetes/genética
Bacteroidetes/metabolismo
Butyrivibrio/classificação
Butyrivibrio/genética
Butyrivibrio/metabolismo
Clostridium/classificação
Clostridium/genética
Clostridium/metabolismo
Fermentação
Firmicutes/classificação
Firmicutes/genética
Firmicutes/metabolismo
Fístula Gástrica
Cabras
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Filogenia
Poaceae/química
Prevotella/classificação
Prevotella/genética
Prevotella/metabolismo
Ruminococcus/classificação
Ruminococcus/genética
Ruminococcus/metabolismo
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Zea mays/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161107
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27283157
[Au] Autor:Jeyanathan J; Escobar M; Wallace RJ; Fievez V; Vlaeminck B
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory for Animal Nutrition and Animal Product Quality, Ghent University, Proefhoevestraat 10, 9090, Melle, Belgium.
[Ti] Título:Biohydrogenation of 22:6n-3 by Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18.
[So] Source:BMC Microbiol;16:104, 2016 Jun 10.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2180
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Rumen microbes metabolize 22:6n-3. However, pathways of 22:6n-3 biohydrogenation and ruminal microbes involved in this process are not known. In this study, we examine the ability of the well-known rumen biohydrogenating bacteria, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens D1 and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, to hydrogenate 22:6n-3. RESULTS: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens D1 failed to hydrogenate 22:6n-3 (0.5 to 32 µg/mL) in growth medium containing autoclaved ruminal fluid that either had or had not been centrifuged. Growth of B. fibrisolvens was delayed at the higher 22:6n-3 concentrations; however, total volatile fatty acid production was not affected. Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18 hydrogenated 22:6n-3 in growth medium containing autoclaved ruminal fluid that either had or had not been centrifuged. Biohydrogenation only started when volatile fatty acid production or growth of B. proteoclasticus P18 had been initiated, which might suggest that growth or metabolic activity is a prerequisite for the metabolism of 22:6n-3. The amount of 22:6n-3 hydrogenated was quantitatively recovered in several intermediate products eluting on the gas chromatogram between 22:6n-3 and 22:0. Formation of neither 22:0 nor 22:6 conjugated fatty acids was observed during 22:6n-3 metabolism. Extensive metabolism was observed at lower initial concentrations of 22:6n-3 (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL) whereas increasing concentrations of 22:6n-3 (40 and 80 µg/mL) inhibited its metabolism. Stearic acid formation (18:0) from 18:2n-6 by B. proteoclasticus P18 was retarded, but not completely inhibited, in the presence of 22:6n-3 and this effect was dependent on 22:6n-3 concentration. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our study identified ruminal bacteria with the ability to hydrogenate 22:6n-3. The gradual appearance of intermediates indicates that biohydrogenation of 22:6n-3 by B. proteoclasticus P18 occurs by pathways of isomerization and hydrogenation resulting in a variety of unsaturated 22 carbon fatty acids. During the simultaneous presence of 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, B. proteoclasticus P18 initiated 22:6n-3 metabolism before converting 18:1 isomers into 18:0.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Butyrivibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Butyrivibrio/química
Meios de Cultura/química
Hidrogenação
Ácidos Esteáricos/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Culture Media); 0 (Stearic Acids); 25167-62-8 (Docosahexaenoic Acids); 4ELV7Z65AP (stearic acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160611
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12866-016-0720-9


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[PMID]:27258373
[Au] Autor:Niu Y; Meng Q; Li S; Ren L; Zhou B; Schonewille T; Zhou Z
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Beijing, 100193, P. R. China.
[Ti] Título:Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(6):e0156836, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%), Firmicutes (39.06%), Proteobacteria (4.31%), and Tenericutes (2.04%), and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%), Ruminococcus (2.51%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), and Succiniclasticum (2.26%). Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001); however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932), Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330), Tenericutes (p = 0.2811), or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680) levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431). At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280), Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639), Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433), or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431) levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or archaeal community composition of finishing steers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Archaea/efeitos dos fármacos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Dieta/veterinária
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
Morus/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Archaea/isolamento & purificação
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos
Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação
Butyrivibrio/efeitos dos fármacos
Butyrivibrio/isolamento & purificação
Bovinos
Firmicutes/efeitos dos fármacos
Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação
Frutas/química
Folhas de Planta/química
Prevotella/efeitos dos fármacos
Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Ruminococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
Ruminococcus/isolamento & purificação
Tenericutes/efeitos dos fármacos
Tenericutes/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160604
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156836


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[PMID]:26965186
[Au] Autor:Escobar M; Vlaeminck B; Jeyanathan J; Thanh LP; Shingfield KJ; Wallace RJ; Fievez V
[Ad] Endereço:1Laboratory for Animal Nutrition and Animal Product Quality,Department of Animal Production,Ghent University,Proefhoevestraat 10,9090 Melle,Belgium.
[Ti] Título:Effect of adsorbants on in vitro biohydrogenation of 22:6n-3 by mixed cultures of rumen microorganisms.
[So] Source:Animal;10(9):1439-47, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Studies on microbial biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen are of importance as this process lowers the availability of nutritionally beneficial unsaturated fatty acids for incorporation into meat and milk but also might result in the accumulation of biologically active intermediates. The impact was studied of adsorption of 22:6n-3 (DHA) to particulate material on its disappearance during 24 h in vitro batch incubations with rumen inoculum. Four adsorbants were used in two doses (1 and 5 mg/ml of mucin, gum arabic, bentonite or silicic acid). In addition, the distribution of 22:6n-3 in the pellet and supernatant of diluted rumen fluid was measured. Bentonite and silicic acid did not alter the distribution of 22:6n-3 between pellet and supernatant nor increased the disappearance of 22:6n-3 during the incubation. Both mucin and gum arabic increased the recovery of 22:6n-3 in the supernatant, indicating that these compounds lowered the adsorption of the fatty acid to ruminal particles. This was associated with an increased disappearance of 22:6n-3, when initial 22:6n-3 was 0.06 or 0.10 mg/ml, and an increased formation of 22:0, when initial 22:6n-3 was 0.02 mg/ml, during the 24 h batch culture experiment. Addition of gum arabic to pure cultures of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens or Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus did not negate the inhibitory effect of 22:6n-3 on growth. As both mucin and gum arabic provide fermentable substrate for ruminal bacteria, an additional experiment was performed in which mucin and gum arabic were replaced by equal amounts of starch, cellulose or xylan. No differences in disappearance of 22:6n-3 were observed, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of mucin and gum arabic on disappearance of 22:6n-3 most probably is not due to provision of an alternative site of adsorption but related to stimulation of bacterial growth. A relatively high proportion of 22:6n-3 can be reduced to 22:0 provided the initial concentration is low.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Bactérias/metabolismo
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo
Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo
Carneiro Doméstico/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adsorção
Animais
Butyrivibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Butyrivibrio/metabolismo
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
Goma Arábica/metabolismo
Hidrogenação
Rúmen/metabolismo
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids, Nonesterified); 9000-01-5 (Gum Arabic)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170127
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170127
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160312
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1751731116000367


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[PMID]:26542074
[Au] Autor:Huws SA; Edwards JE; Creevey CJ; Rees Stevens P; Lin W; Girdwood SE; Pachebat JA; Kingston-Smith AH
[Ad] Endereço:Animal and Microbial Sciences, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3FG, UK sharon.huws@aber.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Temporal dynamics of the metabolically active rumen bacteria colonizing fresh perennial ryegrass.
[So] Source:FEMS Microbiol Ecol;92(1), 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1574-6941
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study investigated successional colonization of fresh perennial ryegrass (PRG) by the rumen microbiota over time. Fresh PRG was incubated in sacco in the rumens of three Holstein × Friesian cows over a period of 8 h, with samples recovered at various times. The diversity of attached bacteria was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA (cDNA). Results showed that plant epiphytic communities either decreased to low relative abundances or disappeared following rumen incubation, and that temporal colonization of the PRG by the rumen bacteria was biphasic with primary (1 and 2 h) and secondary (4-8 h) events evident with the transition period being with 2-4 h. A decrease in sequence reads pertaining to Succinivibrio spp. and increases in Pseudobutyrivibrio, Roseburia and Ruminococcus spp. (the latter all order Clostridiales) were evident during secondary colonization. Irrespective of temporal changes, the continually high abundances of Butyrivibrio, Fibrobacter, Olsenella and Prevotella suggest that they play a major role in the degradation of the plant. It is clear that a temporal understanding of the functional roles of these microbiota within the rumen is now required to unravel the role of these bacteria in the ruminal degradation of fresh PRG.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/metabolismo
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética
Lolium/microbiologia
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinobacteria/genética
Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação
Actinobacteria/metabolismo
Animais
Bactérias/genética
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Butyrivibrio/genética
Butyrivibrio/isolamento & purificação
Butyrivibrio/metabolismo
Bovinos
Feminino
Fibrobacter/genética
Fibrobacter/isolamento & purificação
Fibrobacter/metabolismo
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
Prevotella/genética
Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
Prevotella/metabolismo
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Ruminococcus/genética
Ruminococcus/isolamento & purificação
Ruminococcus/metabolismo
Succinivibrionaceae/genética
Succinivibrionaceae/isolamento & purificação
Succinivibrionaceae/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151217
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151217
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151107
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26481197
[Au] Autor:Kasperowicz A; Stan-Glasek K; Taciak M; Michalowski T
[Ad] Endereço:The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jablonna, Poland.
[Ti] Título:The fructanolytic abilities of the rumen bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain 3071.
[So] Source:J Appl Microbiol;120(1):29-40, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2672
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIMS: To determine if Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain 3071 is able to use fructose polymers for growth and to identify the enzymes involved in their digestion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Strain 3071 utilized 97, 89, 85 and 60% of sucrose, timothy grass fructan, inulin oligosaccharides and inulin, respectively, in the growth medium. A cell extract from timothy grass fructan-grown bacteria was used for identification of fructanolytic enzymes by anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, zymography and thin-layer chromatography. The bacterium synthesizes a specific endolevanase and a nonspecific ß-fructofuranosidase. Both enzymes occurred in two forms differing in molecular weight. The ß-fructofuranosidase was not able to digest long-chain inulin or timothy grass fructan, but degraded inulin oligosaccharides and sucrose. Addition of 1,4-dithioerythritol to an enzyme solution did not affect the activity of endolevanase(s), but increased the ability of ß-fructofuranosidase to digest sucrose. The digestion of timothy grass fructan by endolevanase(s) was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics in which Km  = 2·82 g l(-1) and Vmax  = 4·01 µmoles reducing sugar equivalents × mg(-1)  × min(-1) . CONCLUSION: Strain 3071 synthesizes enzymes enabling it to use grass fructans for growth. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain 3071 can be considered a member of the rumen fructanolytic guild.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Butyrivibrio/metabolismo
Frutanos/metabolismo
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
Butyrivibrio/classificação
Butyrivibrio/genética
Butyrivibrio/isolamento & purificação
Bovinos
Frutose/metabolismo
Inulina/metabolismo
Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo
Sacarose/metabolismo
beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Fructans); 0 (Oligosaccharides); 30237-26-4 (Fructose); 57-50-1 (Sucrose); 9005-80-5 (Inulin); EC 3.2.1.26 (beta-Fructofuranosidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151021
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jam.12976


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[PMID]:25639507
[Au] Autor:Lv X; Mao S; Zhu W
[Ad] Endereço:College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, China.
[Ti] Título:Impairment of rumen biohydrogenation and bacteria of the Butyrivibrio group in the rumen of goats through a 20:5 n-3 (EPA) rich supplement.
[So] Source:J Sci Food Agric;96(2):474-83, 2016 Jan 30.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0010
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Marine products can inhibit biohydrogenation in the rumen, but the mechanism is not clear. This study investigated a 20:5 n-3 rich supplement effects on rumen biohydrogenation, microbial change and fermentation characteristics in goats. RESULTS: The supplementation decreased 18:0 proportions in rumen fatty acids (P < 0.001), while it increased cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (P < 0.001) and trans-10, cis-12 CLA proportions (P < 0.001). The supplement reduced the number of Butyrivibrio spp. and B. proteoclasticus (P < 0.01). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis redundancy analysis indicated that some species, mainly from the rumen of goats receiving the 2.5 and 5.0 g d(-1) supplement, were positively correlated with cis-9, trans-11 CLA proportions; some species, mainly from the rumen of control goats, were positively correlated with 18:0 proportions. The supplement reduced the NH3 -N concentrations and acetate molar proportions in the rumen (P < 0.05), but increased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01), and had no effect on total volatile fatty acid concentration. CONCLUSION: The supplement rich in 20:5 n-3 reduced the biohydrogenation of 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids with a significant reduction of the 18:0 proportion and this was coupled with the suppression of the abundance of biohydrogenating bacteria and unknown bacteria.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal/análise
Butyrivibrio/efeitos dos fármacos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia
Cabras
Rúmen/microbiologia
Rúmen/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Animais
Estudos Cross-Over
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Dieta/veterinária
Suplementos Nutricionais
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/química
Ácidos Graxos
Fermentação
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Fatty Acids); AAN7QOV9EA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jsfa.7113


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[PMID]:26409956
[Au] Autor:Minuti A; Palladino A; Khan MJ; Alqarni S; Agrawal A; Piccioli-Capelli F; Hidalgo F; Cardoso FC; Trevisi E; Loor JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Istituto di Zootecnica, Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, 29122, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Abundance of ruminal bacteria, epithelial gene expression, and systemic biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation are altered during the peripartal period in dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;98(12):8940-51, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Seven multiparous Holstein cows with a ruminal fistula were used to investigate the changes in rumen microbiota, gene expression of the ruminal epithelium, and blood biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation during the transition period. Samples of ruminal digesta, biopsies of ruminal epithelium, and blood were obtained during -14 through 28d in milk (DIM). A total of 35 genes associated with metabolism, transport, inflammation, and signaling were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Among metabolic-related genes, expression of HMGCS2 increased gradually from -14 to a peak at 28 DIM, underscoring its central role in epithelial ketogenesis. The decrease of glucose and the increase of nonesterified fatty acids and ß-hydroxybutyrate in the blood after calving confirmed the state of negative energy balance. Similarly, increases in bilirubin and decreases in albumin concentrations after calving were indicative of alterations in liver function and inflammation. Despite those systemic signs, lower postpartal expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD45, and NFKB1 indicated the absence of inflammation within the epithelium. Alternatively, these could reflect an adaptation to react against inducers of the immune system arising in the rumen (e.g., bacterial endotoxins). The downregulation of RXRA, INSR, and RPS6KB1 between -14 and 10 DIM indicated a possible increase in insulin resistance. However, the upregulation of IRS1 during the same time frame could serve to restore sensitivity to insulin of the epithelium as a way to preserve its proliferative capacity. The upregulation of TGFB1 from -14 and 10 DIM coupled with upregulation of both EGFR and EREG from 10 to 28 DIM indicated the existence of 2 waves of epithelial proliferation. However, the downregulation of TGFBR1 from -14 through 28 DIM indicated some degree of cell proliferation arrest. The downregulation of OCLN and TJP1 from -14 to 10 DIM indicated a loss of tight-junction integrity. The gradual upregulation of membrane transporters MCT1 and UTB to peak levels at 28 DIM reflected the higher intake and fermentability of the lactation diet. In addition, those changes in the diet after calving resulted in an increase of butyrate and a decrease of ruminal pH and acetate, which partly explain the increase of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Prevotella bryantii, and Megasphaera elsdenii and the decrease of fibrolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus). Overall, these multitier changes revealed important features associated with the transition into lactation. Alterations in ruminal epithelium gene expression could be driven by nutrient intake-induced changes in microbes; microbial metabolism; and the systemic metabolic, hormonal, and immune changes. Understanding causes and mechanisms driving the interaction among ruminal bacteria and host immunometabolic responses merits further study.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Epitélio/metabolismo
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Expressão Gênica
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue
Animais
Biomarcadores/sangue
Glicemia/metabolismo
Butyrivibrio/isolamento & purificação
Bovinos
Proliferação Celular
Regulação para Baixo
Ingestão de Energia
Metabolismo Energético
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue
Feminino
Fermentação
Fibrobacter/isolamento & purificação
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Sintase/genética
Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Sintase/metabolismo
Inflamação/veterinária
Insulina/metabolismo
Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética
Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo
Resistência à Insulina
Lactação
Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética
Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo
Megasphaera/isolamento & purificação
Leite/química
Leite/secreção
Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética
Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo
Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética
Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo
Receptor de Insulina/genética
Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo
Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética
Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo
Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética
Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
Regulação para Cima
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Fatty Acids, Nonesterified); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins); 0 (NF-kappa B p50 Subunit); 0 (Toll-Like Receptor 2); 0 (Toll-Like Receptor 4); EC 2.3.3.10 (Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptor, Insulin); EC 2.7.11.1 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa); EC 2.7.11.1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kD, polypeptide 1); EC 3.1.3.48 (Leukocyte Common Antigens); TZP1275679 (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150928
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26188565
[Au] Autor:Oh J; Giallongo F; Frederick T; Pate J; Walusimbi S; Elias RJ; Wall EH; Bravo D; Hristov AN
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802.
[Ti] Título:Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;98(9):6327-39, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum ß-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In addition, CAP increased neutrophil activity and immune cells related to acute phase immune response.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal/análise
Capsicum/química
Dieta/veterinária
Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue
Animais
Bacteroides/metabolismo
Butyrivibrio/metabolismo
Bovinos
Suplementos Nutricionais
Fezes/química
Feminino
Fermentação
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Lactação
Leite/química
Nitrogênio/urina
Prevotella/metabolismo
Rúmen/metabolismo
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (oleoresins); N762921K75 (Nitrogen); TZP1275679 (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150720
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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