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  1 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26136578
[Au] Autor:Gjessing MC; Yutin N; Tengs T; Senkevich T; Koonin E; Rønning HP; Alarcon M; Ylving S; Lie KI; Saure B; Tran L; Moss B; Dale OB
[Ad] Endereço:Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway mona.gjessing@vetinst.no bmoss@nih.gov.
[Ti] Título:Salmon Gill Poxvirus, the Deepest Representative of the Chordopoxvirinae.
[So] Source:J Virol;89(18):9348-67, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:UNLABELLED: Poxviruses are large DNA viruses of vertebrates and insects causing disease in many animal species, including reptiles, birds, and mammals. Although poxvirus-like particles were detected in diseased farmed koi carp, ayu, and Atlantic salmon, their genetic relationships to poxviruses were not established. Here, we provide the first genome sequence of a fish poxvirus, which was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon. In the present study, we used quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry to determine aspects of salmon gill poxvirus disease, which are described here. The gill was the main target organ where immature and mature poxvirus particles were detected. The particles were detected in detaching, apoptotic respiratory epithelial cells preceding clinical disease in the form of lethargy, respiratory distress, and mortality. In moribund salmon, blocking of gas exchange would likely be caused by the adherence of respiratory lamellae and epithelial proliferation obstructing respiratory surfaces. The virus was not found in healthy salmon or in control fish with gill disease without apoptotic cells, although transmission remains to be demonstrated. PCR of archival tissue confirmed virus infection in 14 cases with gill apoptosis in Norway starting from 1995. Phylogenomic analyses showed that the fish poxvirus is the deepest available branch of chordopoxviruses. The virus genome encompasses most key chordopoxvirus genes that are required for genome replication and expression, although the gene order is substantially different from that in other chordopoxviruses. Nevertheless, many highly conserved chordopoxvirus genes involved in viral membrane biogenesis or virus-host interactions are missing. Instead, the salmon poxvirus carries numerous genes encoding unknown proteins, many of which have low sequence complexity and contain simple repeats suggestive of intrinsic disorder or distinct protein structures. IMPORTANCE: Aquaculture is an increasingly important global source of high-quality food. To sustain the growth in aquaculture, disease control in fish farming is essential. Moreover, the spread of disease from farmed fish to wildlife is a concern. Serious poxviral diseases are emerging in aquaculture, but very little is known about the viruses and the diseases that they cause. There is a possibility that viruses with enhanced virulence may spread to new species, as has occurred with the myxoma poxvirus in rabbits. Provision of the first fish poxvirus genome sequence and specific diagnostics for the salmon gill poxvirus in Atlantic salmon may help curb this disease and provide comparative knowledge. Furthermore, because salmon gill poxvirus represents the deepest branch of chordopoxvirus so far discovered, the genome analysis provided substantial insight into the evolution of different functional modules in this important group of viruses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carpas/virologia
Chordopoxvirinae/genética
Doenças dos Peixes/virologia
Brânquias/virologia
Filogenia
Infecções por Poxviridae/genética
Salmo salar/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Chordopoxvirinae/metabolismo
Doenças dos Peixes/genética
Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo
Brânquias/metabolismo
Infecções por Poxviridae/metabolismo
Coelhos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., INTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1511
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150703
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.01174-15


  2 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25912716
[Au] Autor:Hatcher EL; Wang C; Lefkowitz EJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BBRB 276/11, 845 19th St S, Birmingham, AL 35222, USA. eneidao@uab.edu.
[Ti] Título:Genome variability and gene content in chordopoxviruses: dependence on microsatellites.
[So] Source:Viruses;7(4):2126-46, 2015 Apr 22.
[Is] ISSN:1999-4915
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To investigate gene loss in poxviruses belonging to the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, we assessed the gene content of representative members of the subfamily, and determined whether individual genes present in each genome were intact, truncated, or fragmented. When nonintact genes were identified, the early stop mutations (ESMs) leading to gene truncation or fragmentation were analyzed. Of all the ESMs present in these poxvirus genomes, over 65% co-localized with microsatellites-simple sequence nucleotide repeats. On average, microsatellites comprise 24% of the nucleotide sequence of these poxvirus genomes. These simple repeats have been shown to exhibit high rates of variation, and represent a target for poxvirus protein variation, gene truncation, and reductive evolution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Chordopoxvirinae/genética
Variação Genética
Genoma Viral
Instabilidade Genômica
Repetições de Microssatélites
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Códon sem Sentido
Biologia Computacional
Evolução Molecular
Deleção de Genes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Codon, Nonsense)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1512
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170503
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170503
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150428
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3390/v7042126


  3 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25374149
[Au] Autor:Yutin N; Faure G; Koonin EV; Mushegian AR
[Ti] Título:Chordopoxvirus protein F12 implicated in enveloped virion morphogenesis is an inactivated DNA polymerase.
[So] Source:Biol Direct;9(1):22, 2014 Nov 06.
[Is] ISSN:1745-6150
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:UNLABELLED: Through the course of their evolution, viruses with large genomes have acquired numerous host genes, most of which perform function in virus reproduction in a manner that is related to their original activities in the cells, but some are exapted for new roles. Here we report the unexpected finding that protein F12, which is conserved among the chordopoxviruses and is implicated in the morphogenesis of enveloped intracellular virions, is a derived DNA polymerase, possibly of bacteriophage origin, in which the polymerase domain and probably the exonuclease domain have been inactivated. Thus, F12 appears to present a rare example of a drastic, exaptive functional change in virus evolution. REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber and Juergen Brosius.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Chordopoxvirinae/genética
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/fisiologia
Proteínas Virais/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética
Evolução Molecular
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Filogenia
Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
Alinhamento de Sequência
Proteínas Virais/química
Proteínas Virais/genética
Vírion/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., INTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Viral Proteins); EC 2.7.7.7 (DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1507
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:141107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/1745-6150-9-22


  4 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24983354
[Au] Autor:Darby AC; McInnes CJ; Kjær KH; Wood AR; Hughes M; Martensen PM; Radford AD; Hall N; Chantrey J
[Ad] Endereço:University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Novel host-related virulence factors are encoded by squirrelpox virus, the main causative agent of epidemic disease in red squirrels in the UK.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e96439, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Squirrelpox virus (SQPV) shows little evidence for morbidity or mortality in North American grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), in which the virus is endemic. However, more recently the virus has emerged to cause epidemics with high mortality in Eurasian red squirrels (S. vulgaris) in Great Britain, which are now threatened. Here we report the genome sequence of SQPV. Comparison with other Poxviridae revealed a core set of poxvirus genes, the phylogeny of which showed SQPV to be in a new Chordopoxvirus subfamily between the Molluscipoxviruses and Parapoxviruses. A number of SQPV genes were related to virulence, including three major histocomaptibility class I homologs, and one CD47 homolog. In addition, a novel potential virulence factor showing homology to mammalian oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) was identified. This family of proteins normally causes activation of an endoribonuclease (RNaseL) within infected cells. The putative function of this novel SQPV protein was predicted in silico.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças dos Animais/genética
Chordopoxvirinae
Infecções por Poxviridae/genética
Sciuridae/virologia
Proteínas Virais/genética
Fatores de Virulência/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia
Doenças dos Animais/virologia
Animais
Chordopoxvirinae/genética
Chordopoxvirinae/patogenicidade
Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia
Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
Reino Unido/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Viral Proteins); 0 (Virulence Factors)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1510
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140702
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096439


  5 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24586845
[Au] Autor:Collins LM; Warnock ND; Tosh DG; McInnes C; Everest D; Montgomery WI; Scantlebury M; Marks N; Dick JT; Reid N
[Ad] Endereço:Quercus, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland ; School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland ; Institute for Global Food Security (IGFS), Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland ; School of Life Sci
[Ti] Título:Squirrelpox virus: assessing prevalence, transmission and environmental degradation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(2):e89521, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) declined in Great Britain and Ireland during the last century, due to habitat loss and the introduction of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), which competitively exclude the red squirrel and act as a reservoir for squirrelpox virus (SQPV). The disease is generally fatal to red squirrels and their ecological replacement by grey squirrels is up to 25 times faster where the virus is present. We aimed to determine: (1) the seropositivity and prevalence of SQPV DNA in the invasive and native species at a regional scale; (2) possible SQPV transmission routes; and, (3) virus degradation rates under differing environmental conditions. Grey (n = 208) and red (n = 40) squirrel blood and tissues were sampled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) techniques established seropositivity and viral DNA presence, respectively. Overall 8% of squirrels sampled (both species combined) had evidence of SQPV DNA in their tissues and 22% were in possession of antibodies. SQPV prevalence in sampled red squirrels was 2.5%. Viral loads were typically low in grey squirrels by comparison to red squirrels. There was a trend for a greater number of positive samples in spring and summer than in winter. Possible transmission routes were identified through the presence of viral DNA in faeces (red squirrels only), urine and ectoparasites (both species). Virus degradation analyses suggested that, after 30 days of exposure to six combinations of environments, there were more intact virus particles in scabs kept in warm (25 °C) and dry conditions than in cooler (5 and 15 °C) or wet conditions. We conclude that SQPV is present at low prevalence in invasive grey squirrel populations with a lower prevalence in native red squirrels. Virus transmission could occur through urine especially during warm dry summer conditions but, more notably, via ectoparasites, which are shared by both species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Chordopoxvirinae/genética
Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária
Sciuridae/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue
Chordopoxvirinae/imunologia
DNA Viral/genética
Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos
Meio Ambiente
Fezes/virologia
Espécies Introduzidas
Viabilidade Microbiana
Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia
Infecções por Poxviridae/sangue
Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia
Infecções por Poxviridae/transmissão
Prevalência
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Carga Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (DNA, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1410
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150515
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150515
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140304
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089521


  6 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:23834812
[Au] Autor:Kreijtz JH; Gilbert SC; Sutter G
[Ti] Título:Poxvirus vectors.
[So] Source:Vaccine;31(39):4217-9, 2013 Sep 06.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Chordopoxvirinae/imunologia
Vetores Genéticos
Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Chordopoxvirinae/patogenicidade
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
Desenho de Drogas
Indústria Farmacêutica
Seres Humanos
Vacinas Virais/imunologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL; INTRODUCTORY JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (MVA vaccine); 0 (Vaccines, Synthetic); 0 (Viral Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1402
[Cu] Atualização por classe:130826
[Lr] Data última revisão:
130826
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130710
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:21752962
[Au] Autor:Sonnberg S; Fleming SB; Mercer AA
[Ad] Endereço:Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.
[Ti] Título:Phylogenetic analysis of the large family of poxvirus ankyrin-repeat proteins reveals orthologue groups within and across chordopoxvirus genera.
[So] Source:J Gen Virol;92(Pt 11):2596-607, 2011 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1465-2099
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ankyrin-repeat (ANK) protein-interaction domains are common in cellular proteins but are relatively rare in viruses. Chordopoxviruses, however, encode a large number of ANK domain-containing ORFs of largely unknown function. Recently, a second protein-interaction domain, an F-box-like motif, was identified in several poxvirus ANK proteins. Cellular F-box proteins recruit substrates to the ubiquitination machinery of the cell, a putative function for ANK/poxviral F-box proteins. Using publicly available genome sequence data we examined all 328 predicted ANK proteins encoded by 27 chordopoxviruses that represented the eight vertebrate poxvirus genera whose members encode ANK proteins. Within these we identified 15 putative ANK protein orthologue groups within orthopoxviruses, five within parapoxviruses, 23 within avipoxviruses and seven across members of the genera Leporipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Yatapoxvirus, Suipoxvirus and Cervidpoxvirus. Sequence comparisons showed that members of each of these four clusters of orthologues were not closely related to members of any of the other clusters. Of these ORFs, 67% encoded a C-terminal poxviral F-box-like motif, whose absence could largely be attributed to fragmentation of ORFs. Our findings suggest that the large family of poxvirus ANK proteins arose by extensive gene duplication and divergence that occurred independently in four major genus-based groups after the groups diverged from each other. It seems likely that the ancestor ANK proteins of poxviruses contained both the N-terminal ANK repeats and a C-terminal F-box-like domain, with the latter domain subsequently being lost in a small subset of these proteins.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Chordopoxvirinae/classificação
Chordopoxvirinae/genética
Filogenia
Polimorfismo Genético
Proteínas Virais/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Repetição de Anquirina
Análise por Conglomerados
Biologia Computacional/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Viral Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1112
[Cu] Atualização por classe:111013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
111013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:110715
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/vir.0.033654-0


  8 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:19906902
[Au] Autor:Li Y; Meyer H; Zhao H; Damon IK
[Ad] Endereço:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. yli1@cdc.gov
[Ti] Título:GC content-based pan-pox universal PCR assays for poxvirus detection.
[So] Source:J Clin Microbiol;48(1):268-76, 2010 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1098-660X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chordopoxviruses of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae, infect vertebrates and consist of at least eight genera with broad host ranges. For most chordopoxviruses, the number of viral genes and their relative order are highly conserved in the central region. The GC content of chordopoxvirus genomes, however, evolved into two distinct types: those with genome GC content of more than 60% and those with a content of less than 40% GC. Two standard PCR assays were developed to identify chordopoxviruses based on whether the target virus has a low or high GC content. In design of the assays, the genus Avipoxvirus, which encodes major rearrangements of gene clusters, was excluded. These pan-pox assays amplify DNA from more than 150 different isolates and strains, including from primary clinical materials, from all seven targeted genera of chordopoxviruses and four unclassified new poxvirus species. The pan-pox assays represent an important advance for the screening and diagnosis of human and animal poxvirus infections, and the technology used is accessible to many laboratories worldwide.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Chordopoxvirinae/isolamento & purificação
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
Infecções por Poxviridae/diagnóstico
Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária
Virologia/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Composição de Bases
Sequência de Bases
Chordopoxvirinae/genética
DNA Viral/química
DNA Viral/genética
Seres Humanos
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Filogenia
Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia
Alinhamento de Sequência
Vertebrados
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1003
[Cu] Atualização por classe:141204
[Lr] Data última revisão:
141204
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:091113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JCM.01697-09


  9 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:19812151
[Au] Autor:Satheshkumar PS; Moss B
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Viral Diseases, NIAID, NIH, 33 North Drive, MSC 3210, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210, USA.
[Ti] Título:Characterization of a newly identified 35-amino-acid component of the vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex conserved in all chordopoxviruses.
[So] Source:J Virol;83(24):12822-32, 2009 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The original annotation of the vaccinia virus (VACV) genome was limited to open reading frames (ORFs) of at least 65 amino acids. Here, we characterized a 35-amino-acid ORF (O3L) located between ORFs O2L and I1L. ORFs similar in length to O3L were found at the same genetic locus in all vertebrate poxviruses. Although amino acid identities were low, the presence of a characteristic N-terminal hydrophobic domain strongly suggested that the other poxvirus genes were orthologs. Further studies demonstrated that the O3 protein was expressed at late times after infection and incorporated into the membrane of the mature virion. An O3L deletion mutant was barely viable, producing tiny plaques and a 3-log reduction in infectious progeny. A mutant VACV with a regulated O3L gene had a similar phenotype in the absence of inducer. There was no apparent defect in virus morphogenesis, though O3-deficient virus had low infectivity. The impairment was shown to be at the stage of virus entry, as cores were not detected in the cytoplasm after virus adsorption. Furthermore, O3-deficient virus did not induce fusion of infected cells when triggered by low pH. These characteristics are hallmarks of a group of proteins that form the entry/fusion complex (EFC). Affinity purification experiments demonstrated an association of O3 with EFC proteins. In addition, the assembly or stability of the EFC was impaired when expression of O3 was repressed. Thus, O3 is the newest recognized component of the EFC and the smallest VACV protein shown to have a function.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vírus Vaccinia/química
Proteínas Virais/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Chordopoxvirinae/química
Citoplasma/química
Fusão de Membrana
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Fases de Leitura Aberta
Vírus Vaccinia/fisiologia
Proteínas Virais/química
Vírion/química
Vírion/fisiologia
Replicação Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Viral Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0912
[Cu] Atualização por classe:141207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
141207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:091009
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.01744-09


  10 / 27 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:19750811
[Au] Autor:Van Bressem MF; Van Waerebeek K; Aznar FJ; Raga JA; Jepson PD; Duignan P; Deaville R; Flach L; Viddi F; Baker JR; Di Beneditto AP; Echegaray M; Genovo T; Reyes J; Felix F; Gaspar R; Ramos R; Peddemors V; Sanino GP; Siebert U
[Ad] Endereço:Cetacean Conservation Medicine Group, CEPEC, Museo de Delfines, Pucusana, Lima 20, Peru. mfb.cmed@gmail.com
[Ti] Título:Epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a potential general health indicator for cetaceans.
[So] Source:Dis Aquat Organ;85(3):225-37, 2009 Jul 23.
[Is] ISSN:0177-5103
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The presence of tattoo skin disease (TSD) was examined in 1392 free-ranging and dead odontocetes comprising 17 species from the Americas, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand and Greenland. We investigated whether TSD prevalence varied with sex, age and health status. TSD was encountered in cetaceans from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans as well as in those from the North, Mediterranean and Tasman Seas. No clear patterns related to geography and host phylogeny were detected, except that prevalence of TSD in juveniles and, in 2 species (dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis), in adults was remarkably high in samples from Peru. Environmental factors and virus properties may be responsible for this finding. Sex did not significantly influence TSD prevalence except in the case of Peruvian P. spinipinnis. Generally, there was a pattern of TSD increase in juveniles compared to calves, attributed to the loss of maternal immunity. Also, in most samples, juveniles seemed to have a higher probability of suffering TSD than adults, presumably because more adults had acquired active immunity following infection. This holo-endemic pattern was inverted in poor health short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis and harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the British Isles, and in Chilean dolphins Cephalorhynchus eutropia from Patagonia, where adults showed a higher TSD prevalence than juveniles. Very large tattoos were seen in some adult odontocetes from the SE Pacific, NE Atlantic and Portugal's Sado Estuary, which suggest impaired immune response. The epidemiological pattern of TSD may be an indicator of cetacean population health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cetáceos/fisiologia
Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia
Dermatopatias/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Distribuição por Idade
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia
Doenças dos Animais/virologia
Animais
Chordopoxvirinae/fisiologia
Feminino
Masculino
Fatores Sexuais
Dermatopatias/virologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:0910
[Cu] Atualização por classe:090915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
090915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:090916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3354/dao02080



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