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Pesquisa : C01.252.410.090.072 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29377918
[Au] Autor:Steenkamp PJ; van Heerden H; van Schalkwyk OL
[Ad] Endereço:University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Production Animal Studies, Onderstepoort, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Ecological suitability modeling for anthrax in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191704, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The spores of the soil-borne bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax are highly resistant to adverse environmental conditions. Under ideal conditions, anthrax spores can survive for many years in the soil. Anthrax is known to be endemic in the northern part of Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa (SA), with occasional epidemics spreading southward. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are ecologically suitable for the harboring of B. anthracis spores within the KNP. Anthrax surveillance data and selected environmental variables were used as inputs to the maximum entropy (Maxent) species distribution modeling method. Anthrax positive carcasses from 1988-2011 in KNP (n = 597) and a total of 40 environmental variables were used to predict and evaluate their relative contribution to suitability for anthrax occurrence in KNP. The environmental variables that contributed the most to the occurrence of anthrax were soil type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation. Apart from the endemic Pafuri region, several other areas within KNP were classified as ecologically suitable. The outputs of this study could guide future surveillance efforts to focus on predicted suitable areas for anthrax, since the KNP currently uses passive surveillance to detect anthrax outbreaks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/diagnóstico
Bacillus anthracis/isolamento & purificação
Ecossistema
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antraz/epidemiologia
Surtos de Doenças
Seres Humanos
África do Sul/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191704


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[PMID]:29424985
[Au] Autor:Kartavaya SA; Simonova EG; Loktionova MN; Kolganova OA; Ladny VI; Raichich SR
[Ti] Título:[Scientific substantiation of sizes of sanitary protection zones of anthrax burial sites based on the comprehensive evaluation of risk factors].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(7):601-6, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:In the Russian Federation anthrax epizootics are still being registered among animals as well as epidemic foci of the population. This situation is linked to natural reservoirs of the pathogen - numerous anthrax burial sites which belong to class I of dangerous objects. In this connection, a one-kilometer sanitary protective zone is required according to current Russian Federation legislation. As a result, a significant land of the country is unsuitable for any agricultural use. Meanwhile, epizootologo-epidemiological observations indicate to that different anthrax burial sites differ in their characteristics and represent varying degrees of the risk. In connection with the development of the agricultural sector, intensive construction and the development of new and abandoned areas there is a need of creating unified approaches to assess the risk of anthrax burial sites, as well as to determine the size of sanitary protection zones based on the risk assessment. This article represents an original methodology to assess the actual danger of anthrax burial sites. It is based on a comprehensive multi-factor quantity-related risk assessment, described by a model that accounting the importance of each study for natural, social and biological factors. Undertaking this methodology allowed to reveal a degree of danger of anthrax burial sites located in different territories of the Russian Federation, and helped to substantiate the dimensions of their sanitary protection zones.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz
Locais de Resíduos Perigosos/estatística & dados numéricos
Zoonoses
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antraz/epidemiologia
Antraz/prevenção & controle
Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia
Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Federação Russa/epidemiologia
Zoonoses/epidemiologia
Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27775159
[Au] Autor:Arévalo MT; Li J; Diaz-Arévalo D; Chen Y; Navarro A; Wu L; Yan Y; Zeng M
[Ad] Endereço:Center of Emphasis in Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA.
[Ti] Título:A dual purpose universal influenza vaccine candidate confers protective immunity against anthrax.
[So] Source:Immunology;150(3):276-289, 2017 03.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2567
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Preventive influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of three tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax oedema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses. The EFn-3×M2e-HA2 plus PA vaccine formulation elicited robust, antigen-specific, IgG responses; and was protective against heterologous influenza viral challenge when intranasally delivered to mice three times. Moreover, use of the detoxified anthrax toxin system as an adjuvant had the additional benefit of generating protective immunity against anthrax. Hence, this novel vaccine strategy could potentially address two major emerging public health and biodefence threats.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem
Antraz/imunologia
Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem
Toxinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem
Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia
Influenza Humana/imunologia
Linfócitos T/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue
Bioterrorismo
Células Cultivadas
Citocinas/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
Ativação Linfocitária
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia
Linfócitos T/microbiologia
Linfócitos T/virologia
Vacinação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adjuvants, Immunologic); 0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Influenza Vaccines); 0 (anthrax toxin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/imm.12683


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[PMID]:29198864
[Au] Autor:Jiao GS; Kim S; Moayeri M; Thai A; Cregar-Hernandez L; McKasson L; O'Malley S; Leppla SH; Johnson AT
[Ad] Endereço:Hawaii Biotech, 650 Iwilei Road, Suite 204, Honolulu, HI 96817, USA.
[Ti] Título:Small molecule inhibitors of anthrax edema factor.
[So] Source:Bioorg Med Chem Lett;28(2):134-139, 2018 01 15.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3405
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anthrax is a highly lethal disease caused by the Gram-(+) bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Edema toxin (ET) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of disease in humans exposed to B. anthracis. ET is a bipartite toxin composed of two proteins secreted by the vegetative bacteria, edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Our work towards identifying a small molecule inhibitor of anthrax edema factor is the subject of this letter. First we demonstrate that the small molecule probe 5'-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5'-adenosine (FSBA) reacts irreversibly with EF and blocks enzymatic activity. We then show that the adenosine portion of FSBA can be replaced to provide more drug-like molecules which are up to 1000-fold more potent against EF relative to FSBA, display low cross reactivity when tested against a panel of kinases, and are nanomolar inhibitors of EF in a cell-based assay of cAMP production.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/tratamento farmacológico
Bacillus anthracis/efeitos dos fármacos
Toxinas Bacterianas/antagonistas & inibidores
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antígenos de Bactérias/farmacologia
Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia
AMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores
AMP Cíclico/biossíntese
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Seres Humanos
Camundongos
Estrutura Molecular
Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
Células RAW 264.7
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
Relação Estrutura-Atividade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (Small Molecule Libraries); 0 (anthrax toxin); E0399OZS9N (Cyclic AMP); EC 2.7.- (Protein Kinases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171205
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29284252
[Au] Autor:Pérez-Tanoira R; Ramos JM; Prieto-Pérez L; Tesfamariam A; Balcha S; Tissiano G; Cabello A; Cuadros J; Rodríguez-Valero N; Barreiro P; Reyes F; Górgolas M
[Ad] Endereço:Gambo Rural General Hospital, Kore, West-Arsi, Gambo, Ethiopia. ramontanoira@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in resource-poor settings in West Arsi Province, Ethiopia.
[So] Source:Ann Agric Environ Med;24(4):712-715, 2017 Dec 23.
[Is] ISSN:1898-2263
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study describes the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in eight patients (six female and two male, age range 1 - 56 years) admitted to the rural General Hospital of Gambo, West Arsi Province of Ethiopia from 2010-2013. RESULTS: In all cases, lesions began as an erythematous papule located on exposed sites (n=7 head; n=1 thigh) and subsequently became a necrotic black eschar surrounded by an edematous halo. Two patients presented with painful ipsilateral adenopathy near the black eschar. Four patients developed a malignant pustule on the suborbital region of the face. Patients responded positively to treatment, and the lesions resolved, leaving eschars. However, one patient suffered the loss of an eyeball, and another died 12 hours after starting treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians working in rural areas of resource-poor settings should be trained in the clinical identification of cutaneous anthrax. Early antibiotic treatment is essential for decreasing morbidity and mortality.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/diagnóstico
Bacillus anthracis/fisiologia
Dermatopatias Bacterianas/diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Antraz/tratamento farmacológico
Antraz/epidemiologia
Antraz/microbiologia
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem
Bacillus anthracis/efeitos dos fármacos
Bacillus anthracis/genética
Bacillus anthracis/isolamento & purificação
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Etiópia/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Meia-Idade
População Rural
Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico
Dermatopatias Bacterianas/epidemiologia
Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180105
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180105
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171230
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29059238
[Au] Autor:Seshadri S; Allan DSJ; Carlyle JR; Zenewicz LA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin negatively modulates ILC3 function through perturbation of IL-23-mediated MAPK signaling.
[So] Source:PLoS Pathog;13(10):e1006690, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7374
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes lethal toxin that down-regulates immune functions. Translocation of B. anthracis across mucosal epithelia is key for its dissemination and pathogenesis. Group 3 innate lymphocytes (ILC3s) are important in mucosal barrier maintenance due to their expression of the cytokine IL-22, a critical regulator of tissue responses and repair during homeostasis and inflammation. We found that B. anthracis lethal toxin perturbed ILC3 function in vitro and in vivo, revealing an unknown IL-23-mediated MAPK signaling pathway. Lethal toxin had no effects on the canonical STAT3-mediated IL-23 signaling pathway. Rather lethal toxin triggered the loss of several MAP2K kinases, which correlated with reduced activation of downstream ERK1/2 and p38, respectively. Inhibition studies showed the importance of MAPK signaling in IL-23-mediated production of IL-22. Our finding that MAPK signaling is required for optimal IL-22 production in ILC3s may lead to new approaches for targeting IL-22 biology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/imunologia
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia
Bacillus anthracis/imunologia
Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia
Linfócitos/imunologia
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bacillus anthracis/patogenicidade
Seres Humanos
Interleucina-23/imunologia
Interleucinas/imunologia
Camundongos
Virulência/imunologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (Interleukin-23); 0 (Interleukins); 0 (anthrax toxin); 0 (interleukin-22)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171024
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006690


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[PMID]:29028799
[Au] Autor:Kracalik IT; Kenu E; Ayamdooh EN; Allegye-Cudjoe E; Polkuu PN; Frimpong JA; Nyarko KM; Bower WA; Traxler R; Blackburn JK
[Ad] Endereço:Spatial Epidemiology & Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Modeling the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana and estimating populations at risk: Implications for vaccination and control.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(10):e0005885, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and livestock populations at risk, we developed predictive models of the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana. We obtained data on the location and date of livestock anthrax from veterinary and outbreak response records in Ghana during 2005-2016, as well as livestock vaccination registers and population estimates of characteristically high-risk groups. To predict the environmental suitability of anthrax, we used an ensemble of random forest (RF) models built using a combination of climatic and environmental factors. From 2005 through the first six months of 2016, there were 67 anthrax outbreaks (851 cases) in livestock; outbreaks showed a seasonal peak during February through April and primarily involved cattle. There was a median of 19,709 vaccine doses [range: 0-175 thousand] administered annually. Results from the RF model suggest a marked ecological divide separating the broad areas of environmental suitability in northern Ghana from the southern part of the country. Increasing alkaline soil pH was associated with a higher probability of anthrax occurrence. We estimated 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0, 2.5) million livestock and 805 (95% CI: 519, 890) thousand low income rural livestock keepers were located in anthrax risk areas. Based on our estimates, the current anthrax vaccination efforts in Ghana cover a fraction of the livestock potentially at risk, thus control efforts should be focused on improving vaccine coverage among high risk groups.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vacinas contra Antraz
Antraz/epidemiologia
Antraz/veterinária
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
Gado
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Animais
Antraz/microbiologia
Antraz/prevenção & controle
Bacillus anthracis/isolamento & purificação
Bovinos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle
Clima
Simulação por Computador
Meio Ambiente
Métodos Epidemiológicos
Gana/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Gado/microbiologia
Fatores de Risco
Solo/química
Vacinação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anthrax Vaccines); 0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171014
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005885


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[PMID]:28934219
[Au] Autor:Zimmermann F; Köhler SM; Nowak K; Dupke S; Barduhn A; Düx A; Lang A; De Nys HM; Gogarten JF; Grunow R; Couacy-Hymann E; Wittig RM; Klee SR; Leendertz FH
[Ad] Endereço:Robert Koch Institute, P3: "Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms", Seestraße 10, Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Low antibody prevalence against Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, indicates high rate of lethal infections in wildlife.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(9):e0005960, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva) is a member of the B. cereus group which carries both B. anthracis virulence plasmids, causes anthrax-like disease in various wildlife species and was described in several sub-Saharan African rainforests. Long-term monitoring of carcasses in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, revealed continuous wildlife mortality due to Bcbva in a broad range of mammalian species. While non-lethal anthrax infections in wildlife have been described for B. anthracis, nothing is known about the odds of survival following an anthrax infection caused by Bcbva. To address this gap, we present the results of a serological study of anthrax in five wildlife species known to succumb to Bcbva in this ecosystem. Specific antibodies were only detected in two out of 15 wild red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and one out of 10 black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus polykomos), but in none of 16 sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), 9 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and 9 Maxwell's duikers (Cephalophus maxwellii). The combination of high mortality and low antibody detection rates indicates high virulence of this disease across these different mammalian species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/imunologia
Antraz/mortalidade
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
Bacillus cereus/imunologia
Bacillus cereus/patogenicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia
Haplorrinos
Parques Recreativos
Prevalência
Ruminantes
Virulência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Bacterial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005960


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[PMID]:28797061
[Au] Autor:Xu W; Ohanjandian L; Sun J; Cui X; Suffredini D; Li Y; Welsh J; Eichacker PQ
[Ad] Endereço:Critical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical trials testing anti-toxin therapies for B. anthracis infection: A need for more robust study designs and results.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182879, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: B. anthracis anti-toxin agents are approved and included in the Strategic National Stockpile based primarily on animal infection trials. However, in the only anthrax outbreak an approved anti-toxin agent was administered in, survival did not differ comparing recipients and non-recipients, although recipients appeared sicker. OBJECTIVE: Employ a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate preclinical studies supporting anthrax anti-toxin agents. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus. STUDY ELIGIBILITY: Compared survival with an anti-toxin agent versus control in B. anthracis challenged, antibiotic treated animals. STUDY METHODS: Examine model and study design and the effect of anti-toxin agents on relative risk of death(95%CI) (RR). RESULTS: From 9 studies, 29 experiments were analyzed which included 4 species (748 animals) and 5 agents; LFI, AIG, AVP-21D9, Raxibacumab, and ETI-204. Only five experiments were blinded and no experiment included the cardiopulmonary support sick B. anthracis patients receive. Only one agent in a single un-blinded experiment reduced RR significantly [0.45(0.22,0.940]. However, in six studies testing an agent in more than one experiment in the same species, agents had consistent survival effects across experiments [I2 = 0, p≥0.55 in five and I2 = 42%, p = 0.16 in one]. Within each species, agents had effects on the side of benefit; in one study testing AVP-21D9 in mice [0.11(0.01,1.82)] or guinea pigs [0.70(0.48,1.03)]; across eight rabbit studies testing LFI, Raxibacumab, AIG or ETI-204 [0.62(0.45,0.87); I2 = 17.4%, p = 0.29]; and across three monkey studies testing Raxibacumab, AIG or ETI-204 [0.66(0.34,1.27); I2 = 25.3%, p = 0.26]. Across all agents and species, agents decreased RR [0.64(0.52,0.79); I2 = 5.3%, p = 0.39]. LIMITATIONS: Incidence of selective reporting not identifiable. CONCLUSIONS: Although overall significant, individually anti-toxin agents had weak beneficial effects. Lack of study blinding and relevant clinical therapies further weakened studies. Although difficult, preclinical studies with more robust designs and results are warranted to justify the resources necessary to maintain anti-toxin agents in national stockpiles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/tratamento farmacológico
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Antígenos de Bactérias/uso terapêutico
Antitoxinas/uso terapêutico
Bacillus anthracis
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antraz/mortalidade
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Seres Humanos
Projetos de Pesquisa
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Antitoxins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170811
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182879


  10 / 3538 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28770840
[Au] Autor:Armstrong A
[Ti] Título:Ecology: Chimps at risk from anthrax.
[So] Source:Nature;548(7665):38, 2017 08 02.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz
Bacillus anthracis
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecologia
Pan troglodytes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170923
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170923
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170804
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/548038a



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