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[PMID]:28253375
[Au] Autor:Kerr PJ; Cattadori IM; Rogers MB; Fitch A; Geber A; Liu J; Sim DG; Boag B; Eden JS; Ghedin E; Read AF; Holmes EC
[Ad] Endereço:Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.
[So] Source:PLoS Pathog;13(3):e1006252, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7374
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Molecular
Myxoma virus/genética
Myxoma virus/patogenicidade
Mixomatose Infecciosa/genética
Virulência/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Austrália
Genes Virais/genética
Genótipo
Fenótipo
Filogenia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Coelhos
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170718
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170718
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006252


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[PMID]:27892861
[Au] Autor:Pacios-Palma I; Santoro S; Bertó-Moran A; Moreno S; Rouco C
[Ad] Endereço:Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, AméricoVespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain. Electronic address: isa_pacios@ebd.csic.es.
[Ti] Título:Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?
[So] Source:Res Vet Sci;109:129-134, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2661
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária
Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/fisiologia
Myxoma virus/fisiologia
Mixomatose Infecciosa/epidemiologia
Coelhos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia
Feminino
Masculino
Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia
Prevalência
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Espanha/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161129
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27663647
[Au] Autor:Rouco C; Moreno S; Santoro S
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Zoología, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain; Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, Américo Vespucio S/N, 41092 Seville, Spain; Landcare Research, P.O. Box 1930, 9054 Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address: c.rouco@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:A case of low success of blind vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease on survival of adult European wild rabbits.
[So] Source:Prev Vet Med;133:108-113, 2016 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-1716
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. without assessing their prior immunological status) for economic and logistic reasons. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of such an approach. We tested whether blind vaccination against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease improved rabbit survival in a rabbit translocation program where wild rabbits were kept in semi-natural conditions in three enclosures. We conducted nine capture sessions over two years (2008-2010) and used the information collected to compare the survival of vaccinated (n=511) versus unvaccinated (n=161) adult wild rabbits using capture-mark-recapture analysis. Average monthly survival was no different for vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals, both in the period between release and first capture (short-term) and after the first capture onward (long-term). Rabbit survival was lower in the short term than in the long term regardless of whether rabbits were vaccinated or not. Lower survival in the short-term could be due to the stress induced by the translocation process itself (e.g. handling stress). However, we did not find any overall effect of vaccination on survival which could be explained by two non-exclusive reasons. First, interference of the vaccine with the natural antibodies in the donor population. Due to donor populations have high density of rabbits with, likely, high prevalence of antibodies as a result of previous natural exposure to these diseases. Second, the lack of severe outbreaks during the study period. Based on our findings we argue that blind vaccination of adult rabbits in translocation programs may be often mostly ineffective and unnecessarily costly. In particular, since outbreaks are hard to predict and vaccination of rabbits with natural antibodies is ineffective, it is crucial to assess the immunological status of the donor population before translocating adult rabbits.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária
Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/imunologia
Myxoma virus/imunologia
Mixomatose Infecciosa/prevenção & controle
Vacinação/veterinária
Vacinas Virais/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens
Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle
Feminino
Masculino
Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia
Coelhos
Espanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Viral Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170412
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170412
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160925
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26271277
[Au] Autor:Brugman VA; Hernández-Triana LM; Prosser SW; Weland C; Westcott DG; Fooks AR; Johnson N
[Ad] Endereço:Vector-borne viral diseases programme, The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, GU24 0NF, UK.
[Ti] Título:Molecular species identification, host preference and detection of myxoma virus in the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern England, UK.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;8:421, 2015 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Determining the host feeding patterns of mosquitoes by identifying the origin of their blood-meals is an important part of understanding the role of vector species in current and future disease transmission cycles. Collecting large numbers of blood-fed mosquitoes from the field is difficult, therefore it is important to maximise the information obtained from each specimen. This study aimed to use mosquito genome sequence to identify the species within Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (An. maculipennis s.l.), identify the vertebrate hosts of field-caught blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. , and to test for the presence of myxoma virus (Poxviridae, genus Leporipoxvirus) in specimens found to have fed on the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). METHODS: Blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. were collected from resting sites at Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and September 2013. Hosts that An. maculipennis s.l. had fed on were determined by a PCR-sequencing approach based on the partial amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes were then identified to species by sequencing a region of the internal transcribed spacer-2. DNA extracts from all mosquitoes identified as having fed on rabbits were subsequently screened using PCR for the presence of myxoma virus. RESULTS: A total of 94 blood-fed Anopheles maculipennis s.l. were collected, of which 43 (46%) provided positive blood-meal identification results. Thirty-six of these specimens were identified as Anopheles atroparvus, which had fed on rabbit (n = 33, 92%) and cattle (n = 3, 8%). Seven mosquitoes were identified as Anopheles messeae, which had fed on cattle (n = 6, 86%) and dog (n = 1, 14%). Of the 33 An. atroparvus that contained rabbit blood, nine (27%) were positive for myxoma virus. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that a single DNA extract from a blood-fed mosquito can be successfully used for molecular identification of members of the An. maculipennis complex, blood-meal identification, and for the targeted detection of a myxoma virus. This study shows that An. atroparvus has a strong feeding preference for both healthy and myxoma-infected rabbits, providing evidence that this species may play a significant role in the transmission of myxomatosis among wild rabbit populations in the United Kingdom (UK).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anopheles/virologia
Myxoma virus/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Inglaterra/epidemiologia
Mixomatose Infecciosa/sangue
Mixomatose Infecciosa/epidemiologia
Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Coelhos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150815
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-1034-8


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[PMID]:26144268
[Au] Autor:Mason S; Dubey JP; Smith JE; Boag B
[Ad] Endereço:School of Biology,Miall Building,University of Leeds,Leeds LS2 9JT,UK.
[Ti] Título:Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland.
[So] Source:Parasitology;142(11):1415-21, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1469-8161
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3·3%). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with female sex (P < 0·001) and with relatively heavy infections by Eimeria stiedae (P = 0·036). It was not associated with the intensity of coccidial oocysts, the severity of myxomatosis caused by the virus Myxomatosis cuniculi, the intensity of roundworm eggs, the year or season, rabbit age or distance from farm buildings. Coinfections could have been affected by gestational down regulation of type 1 T helper cells. A sudden influx or release of T. gondii oocysts might have occurred. This is the first report of T. gondii in any wild herbivore in Scotland and also the first report of lapine T. gondii as a coinfection with E. stiedae, M. cuniculi and helminths.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coccidiose/veterinária
Coinfecção
Eimeria/isolamento & purificação
Coelhos
Toxoplasma/imunologia
Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia
Coccidiose/complicações
Feminino
Helmintíase Animal/complicações
Myxoma virus/isolamento & purificação
Mixomatose Infecciosa/complicações
Oocistos
Coelhos/parasitologia
Escócia/epidemiologia
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150707
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S003118201500075X


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[PMID]:26009303
[Au] Autor:Dalton KP; Nicieza I; de Llano D; Gullón J; Inza M; Petralanda M; Arroita Z; Parra F
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Edificio Santiago Gascón, Campus El Cristo, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. Electronic address: daltonkevin@uniovi.es.
[Ti] Título:Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.
[So] Source:Vet Microbiol;178(3-4):208-16, 2015 Aug 05.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2542
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
Myxoma virus/imunologia
Mixomatose Infecciosa/epidemiologia
Vacinação/veterinária
Vacinas Virais/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criação de Animais Domésticos
Animais
Sequência de Bases
Geografia
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Myxoma virus/classificação
Myxoma virus/genética
Mixomatose Infecciosa/prevenção & controle
Coelhos
Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
Espanha/epidemiologia
Virulência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Viral Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1605
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150615
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150615
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150527
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25757062
[Au] Autor:Kerr PJ; Liu J; Cattadori I; Ghedin E; Read AF; Holmes EC
[Ad] Endereço:CSIRO Biosecurity Flagship, Black Mountain Laboratories, Clunies Ross Street, Acton, ACT 2601, Australia. peter.kerr@csiro.au.
[Ti] Título:Myxoma virus and the Leporipoxviruses: an evolutionary paradigm.
[So] Source:Viruses;7(3):1020-61, 2015 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1999-4915
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the type species of the Leporipoxviruses, a genus of Chordopoxvirinae, double stranded DNA viruses, whose members infect leporids and squirrels, inducing cutaneous fibromas from which virus is mechanically transmitted by biting arthropods. However, in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), MYXV causes the lethal disease myxomatosis. The release of MYXV as a biological control for the wild European rabbit population in Australia, initiated one of the great experiments in evolution. The subsequent coevolution of MYXV and rabbits is a classic example of natural selection acting on virulence as a pathogen adapts to a novel host species. Slightly attenuated mutants of the progenitor virus were more readily transmitted by the mosquito vector because the infected rabbit survived longer, while highly attenuated viruses could be controlled by the rabbit immune response. As a consequence, moderately attenuated viruses came to dominate. This evolution of the virus was accompanied by selection for genetic resistance in the wild rabbit population, which may have created an ongoing co-evolutionary dynamic between resistance and virulence for efficient transmission. This natural experiment was repeated on a continental scale with the release of a separate strain of MYXV in France and its subsequent spread throughout Europe. The selection of attenuated strains of virus and resistant rabbits mirrored the experience in Australia in a very different environment, albeit with somewhat different rates. Genome sequencing of the progenitor virus and the early radiation, as well as those from the 1990s in Australia and Europe, has shown that although MYXV evolved at high rates there was no conserved route to attenuation or back to virulence. In contrast, it seems that these relatively large viral genomes have the flexibility for multiple pathways that converge on a similar phenotype.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Myxoma virus/classificação
Myxoma virus/genética
Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Biológica
Animais
Austrália
França
Genótipo
Mixomatose Infecciosa/transmissão
Coelhos
Virulência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1511
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150311
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3390/v7031020


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[PMID]:25705900
[Au] Autor:Boutard B; Vankerckhove S; Markine-Goriaynoff N; Sarlet M; Desmecht D; McFadden G; Vanderplasschen A; Gillet L
[Ad] Endereço:Immunology-Vaccinology, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, FARAH, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
[Ti] Título:The α2,3-sialyltransferase encoded by myxoma virus is a virulence factor that contributes to immunosuppression.
[So] Source:PLoS One;10(2):e0118806, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Myxoma virus (MYXV) induces a lethal disease called Myxomatosis in European rabbits. MYXV is one of the rare viruses that encodes an α2,3-sialyltransferase through its M138L gene. In this study, we showed that although the absence of the enzyme was not associated with any in vitro deficit, the M138L deficient strains are highly attenuated in vivo. Indeed, while all rabbits infected with the parental and the revertant strains died within 9 days post-infection from severe myxomatosis, all but one rabbit inoculated with the M138L deficient strains survived the infection. In primary lesions, this resistance to the infection was associated with an increased ability of innate immune cells, mostly neutrophils, to migrate to the site of virus replication at 4 days post-infection. This was followed by the development of a better specific immune response against MYXV. Indeed, at day 9 post-infection, we observed an important proliferation of lymphocytes and an intense congestion of blood vessels in lymph nodes after M138L knockouts infection. Accordingly, in these rabbits, we observed an intense mononuclear cell infiltration throughout the dermis in primary lesions and higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Finally, this adaptive immune response provided protection to these surviving rabbits against a challenge with the MYXV WT strain. Altogether, these results show that expression of the M138L gene contributes directly or indirectly to immune evasion by MYXV. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the pathogenesis of myxomatosis but also the importance of glycans in regulation of immune responses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia
Myxoma virus/imunologia
Mixomatose Infecciosa/imunologia
Sialiltransferases/imunologia
Proteínas Virais/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia
Animais
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia
DNA Viral/sangue
DNA Viral/genética
DNA Viral/imunologia
Técnicas de Inativação de Genes
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia
Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia
Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia
Masculino
Myxoma virus/patogenicidade
Myxoma virus/fisiologia
Mixomatose Infecciosa/sangue
Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia
Coelhos
Sialiltransferases/genética
Sialiltransferases/metabolismo
Análise de Sobrevida
Fatores de Tempo
Proteínas Virais/genética
Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
Virulência/genética
Virulência/imunologia
Fatores de Virulência/genética
Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (DNA, Viral); 0 (Viral Proteins); 0 (Virulence Factors); EC 2.4.99.- (Sialyltransferases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1601
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161025
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161025
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150224
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118806


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[PMID]:25566883
[Au] Autor:Wells K; Brook BW; Lacy RC; Mutze GJ; Peacock DE; Sinclair RG; Schwensow N; Cassey P; O'Hara RB; Fordham DA
[Ad] Endereço:The Environment Institute and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia konstans.wells@adelaide.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics.
[So] Source:J R Soc Interface;12(103), 2015 Feb 06.
[Is] ISSN:1742-5662
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matches/mismatches between demographic rates and epidemiological dynamics and (ii) delayed infection (arising from insusceptibility and maternal antibodies in juveniles) are important factors in determining disease severity and local population persistence of rabbits. We found that both the timing of reproduction and exposure to viruses drove recurrent seasonal epidemics of RHD. Protection conferred by insusceptibility and maternal antibodies controlled seasonal disease outbreaks by delaying infection; this could have also allowed escape from disease. The persistence of local populations was a stochastic outcome of recovery rates from both RHD and myxomatosis. If susceptibility to RHD is delayed, myxomatosis will have a pronounced effect on population extirpation when the two viruses coexist. This has important implications for wildlife management, because it is likely that such seasonal interplay and disease dynamics has a strong effect on long-term population viability for many species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia
Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia
Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/imunologia
Espécies Introduzidas
Modelos Imunológicos
Estações do Ano
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Austrália/epidemiologia
Feminino
Masculino
Mixomatose Infecciosa
Coelhos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1508
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150109
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25455418
[Au] Autor:Di Giallonardo F; Holmes EC
[Ad] Endereço:Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Biological Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution.
[So] Source:Trends Microbiol;23(2):83-90, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1878-4380
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia's ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterized by a lack of transmission to nontarget host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agentes de Controle Biológico
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia
Evolução Molecular
Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos
Myxoma virus
Coelhos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura
Animais
Austrália
Infecções por Caliciviridae/microbiologia
Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão
Ecossistema
Europa (Continente)
Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética
Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/patogenicidade
Myxoma virus/genética
Myxoma virus/patogenicidade
Mixomatose Infecciosa/transmissão
Mixomatose Infecciosa/virologia
Filogenia
Virulência/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biological Control Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1507
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:141203
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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