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  1 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29261659
[Au] Autor:Tahir D; Almeras L; Varloud M; Raoult D; Davoust B; Parola P
[Ad] Endereço:Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), Aix-Marseille Université, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198 (Dakar), Inserm 1095, AP-HM Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
[Ti] Título:Assessment of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for filariae detection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006093, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging tool for routine identification of bacteria, archaea and fungi. It has also been recently applied as an accurate approach for arthropod identification. Preliminary studies have shown that the MALDI-TOF MS was able to differentiate whether ticks and mosquitoes were infected or not with some bacteria and Plasmodium parasites, respectively. The aim of the present study was to test the efficiency of MALDI-TOF MS tool in distinguishing protein profiles between uninfected mosquitoes from specimens infected by filarioid helminths. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were engorged on microfilaremic blood infected with Dirofilaria immitis, Brugia malayi or Brugia pahangi. Fifteen days post-infective blood feeding, a total of 534 mosquitoes were killed by freezing. To assess mass spectra (MS) profile changes following filariae infections, one compartment (legs, thorax, head or thorax and head) per mosquito was submitted for MALDI-TOF MS analysis; the remaining body parts were used to establish filariae infectious status by real-time qPCR. A database of reference MS, based on the mass profiles of at least two individual mosquitoes per compartment, was created. Subsequently, the remaining compartment spectra (N = 350) from Ae. aegypti infected or not infected by filariae were blind tested against the spectral database. In total, 37 discriminating peak masses ranging from 2062 to 14869 daltons were identified, of which 17, 11, 12 and 7 peak masses were for legs, thorax, thorax-head and head respectively. Two peak masses (4073 and 8847 Da) were specific to spectra from Ae. aegypti infected with filariae, regardless of nematode species or mosquito compartment. The thorax-head part provided better classification with a specificity of 94.1% and sensitivity of 86.6, 71.4 and 68.7% of D. immitis, B. malayi and B. pahangi respectively. This study presents the potential of MALDI-TOF MS as a reliable tool for differentiating non-infected and filariae-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Considering that the results might vary in other mosquito species, further studies are needed to consolidate the obtained preliminary results before applying this tool in entomological surveillance as a fast mass screening method of filariosis vectors in endemic areas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aedes/parasitologia
Filariose/parasitologia
Filarioidea/isolamento & purificação
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aedes/metabolismo
Animais
Brugia Malayi/genética
Brugia Malayi/isolamento & purificação
Brugia pahangi/genética
Brugia pahangi/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria immitis/genética
Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação
Feminino
Filarioidea/genética
Proteínas de Insetos/análise
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insect Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006093


  2 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28486498
[Au] Autor:Karadjian G; Fercoq F; Pionnier N; Vallarino-Lhermitte N; Lefoulon E; Nieguitsila A; Specht S; Carlin LM; Martin C
[Ad] Endereço:Unité Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Microorganismes (MCAM, UMR 7245), Sorbonne Universités, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Paris, France.
[Ti] Título:Migratory phase of Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial infective larvae is associated with pathology and transient increase of S100A9 expressing neutrophils in the lung.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(5):e0005596, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Filarial infections are tropical diseases caused by nematodes of the Onchocercidae family such as Mansonella perstans. The infective larvae (L3) are transmitted into the skin of vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding vectors. Many filarial species settle in the serous cavities including M. perstans in humans and L. sigmodontis, a well-established model of filariasis in mice. L. sigmodontis L3 migrate to the pleural cavity where they moult into L4 around day 9 and into male and female adult worms around day 30. Little is known of the early phase of the parasite life cycle, after the L3 is inoculated in the dermis by the vector and enters the afferent lymphatic vessels and before the moulting processes in the pleural cavity. Here we reveal a pulmonary phase associated with lung damage characterized by haemorrhages and granulomas suggesting L3 reach the lung via pulmonary capillaries and damage the endothelium and parenchyma by crossing them to enter the pleural cavity. This study also provides evidence for a transient inflammation in the lung characterized by a very early recruitment of neutrophils associated with high expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Calgranulina B/análise
Filariose/patologia
Filarioidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Filarioidea/imunologia
Pulmão/patologia
Neutrófilos/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Feminino
Filariose/parasitologia
Seres Humanos
Pulmão/parasitologia
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Calgranulin B); 0 (S100A9 protein, mouse)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170510
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005596


  3 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28484103
[Au] Autor:Kita K
[Ti] Título:Magic bullet: anti-parasite drugs from Japan.
[So] Source:Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi;149(5):214-219, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0015-5691
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antiparasitários
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Descoberta de Drogas
Filariose/tratamento farmacológico
Seres Humanos
Ivermectina/uso terapêutico
Japão
Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antiparasitic Agents); 0 (Sesquiterpenes); 70288-86-7 (Ivermectin); I31EFB9515 (ascofuranone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170510
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1254/fpj.149.214


  4 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28427478
[Au] Autor:Uni S; Mat Udin AS; Agatsuma T; Saijuntha W; Junker K; Ramli R; Omar H; Lim YA; Sivanandam S; Lefoulon E; Martin C; Belabut DM; Kasim S; Abdullah Halim MR; Zainuri NA; Bhassu S; Fukuda M; Matsubayashi M; Harada M; Low VL; Chen CD; Suganuma N; Hashim R; Takaoka H; Azirun MS
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia. unishigehiko@um.edu.my.
[Ti] Título:Morphological and molecular characteristics of Malayfilaria sofiani Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the common treeshrew Tupaia glis Diard & Duvaucel (Mammalia: Scandentia) in Peninsular Malaysia.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;10(1):194, 2017 Apr 20.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) and B. timori Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, Oemijati & Cross, 1977 cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, while B. pahangi (Buckley & Edeson, 1956) infects carnivores and causes zoonotic diseases in humans in Malaysia. Wuchereria bancrofti, W. kalimantani Palmieri, Pulnomo, Dennis & Marwoto, 1980 and six out of ten Brugia spp. have been described from Australia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India. However, the origin and evolution of the species in the Wuchereria-Brugia clade remain unclear. While investigating the diversity of filarial parasites in Malaysia, we discovered an undescribed species in the common treeshrew Tupaia glis Diard & Duvaucel (Mammalia: Scandentia). METHODS: We examined 81 common treeshrews from 14 areas in nine states and the Federal Territory of Peninsular Malaysia for filarial parasites. Once any filariae that were found had been isolated, we examined their morphological characteristics and determined the partial sequences of their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and 12S rRNA genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region were then cloned into the pGEM-T vector, and the recombinant plasmids were used as templates for sequencing. RESULTS: Malayfilaria sofiani Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka, n. g., n. sp. is described based on the morphological characteristics of adults and microfilariae found in common treeshrews from Jeram Pasu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The Kimura 2-parameter distance between the cox1 gene sequences of the new species and W. bancrofti was 11.8%. Based on the three gene sequences, the new species forms a monophyletic clade with W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. The adult parasites were found in tissues surrounding the lymph nodes of the neck of common treeshrews. CONCLUSIONS: The newly described species appears most closely related to Wuchereria spp. and Brugia spp., but differs from these in several morphological characteristics. Molecular analyses based on the cox1 and 12S rRNA genes and the ITS1 region indicated that this species differs from both W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. at the genus level. We thus propose a new genus, Malayfilaria, along with the new species M. sofiani.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Filariose/veterinária
Filarioidea/anatomia & histologia
Filarioidea/genética
Tupaia/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brugia/anatomia & histologia
Brugia/genética
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética
Feminino
Filariose/epidemiologia
Filariose/parasitologia
Filarioidea/isolamento & purificação
Malásia
Masculino
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Wuchereria/anatomia & histologia
Wuchereria/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ribosomal Spacer)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170422
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-017-2105-9


  5 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28410595
[Au] Autor:Carithers DS
[Ad] Endereço:Boehringer Ingelheim, 3239 Satellite Boulevard, Duluth, GA, 30096, USA. Doug.Carithers@boehringer-ingelheim.com.
[Ti] Título:Examining the role of macrolides and host immunity in combatting filarial parasites.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;10(1):182, 2017 Apr 14.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), specifically the avermectins and milbemycins, are known for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of disease-causing nematodes and arthropods in humans and animals. In most nematodes, drugs in this class induce paralysis, resulting in starvation, impaired ability to remain associated with their anatomical environment, and death of all life stages. Initially, this was also thought to be the ML mode of action against filarial nematodes, but researchers have not been able to validate these characteristic effects of immobilization/starvation of MLs in vitro, even at higher doses than are possible in vivo. Relatively recently, ML receptor sites exclusively located proximate to the excretory-secretory (ES) apparatus were identified in Brugia malayi microfilaria and an ML-induced suppression of secretory protein release by B. malayi microfilariae was demonstrated in vitro. It is hypothesized here that suppression of these ES proteins prevents the filarial worm from interfering with the host's complement cascade, reducing the ability of the parasite to evade the immune system. Live microfilariae and/or larvae, thus exposed, are attacked and presented to the host's innate immune mechanisms and are ultimately killed by the immune response, not the ML drug. These live, exposed filarial worms stimulate development of innate, cellular and humoral immune responses that when properly stimulated, are capable of clearing all larvae or microfilariae present in the host, regardless of their individual sensitivity to MLs. Additional research in this area can be expected to improve our understanding of the relationships among filarial worms, MLs, and the host immune system, which likely would have implications in filarial disease management in humans and animals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia
Brugia Malayi/efeitos dos fármacos
Brugia Malayi/imunologia
Filariose/parasitologia
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos
Macrolídeos/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anthelmintics); 0 (Macrolides)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170425
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170425
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170416
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-017-2116-6


  6 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28363039
[Au] Autor:Edwards EE; Dangoudoubiyam S; Hoppes SM; Porter BF
[Ti] Título:GRANULOMATOUS FILARIAL ENCEPHALOMYELITIS CAUSED BY CHANDLERELLA QUISCALI IN A NORTHERN CRESTED CARACARA (CARACARA CHERIWAY).
[So] Source:J Zoo Wildl Med;48(1):237-240, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1042-7260
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A northern crested caracara (Caracara cheriway) was presented after being found nonambulatory in a field. On physical examination, the bird had severe hind-limb paresis. The bird did not improve after 10 days of hospitalization and was euthanized. Histologic examination of the cerebrum and spinal cord revealed multiple adult filarial nematodes surrounded by granulomatous inflammation with several multinucleated giant cells. These parasites were confirmed to be Chandlerella quiscali with polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of C. quiscali in a bird of prey.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
Helmintíase do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária
Encefalomielite/veterinária
Falconiformes
Filariose/veterinária
Filarioidea/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Helmintíase do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia
Helmintíase do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia
Filariose/parasitologia
Filarioidea/classificação
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1638/2016-0123.1


  7 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28280518
[Au] Autor:Cheng Y; Wang X; Pan Q; He M
[Ad] Endereço:School of Mathematics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China.
[Ti] Título:Modeling the Parasitic Filariasis Spread by Mosquito in Periodic Environment.
[So] Source:Comput Math Methods Med;2017:4567452, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1748-6718
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this paper a mosquito-borne parasitic infection model in periodic environment is considered. Threshold parameter is given by linear next infection operator, which determined the dynamic behaviors of system. We obtain that when < 1, the disease-free periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable and when > 1 by Poincaré map we obtain that disease is uniformly persistent. Numerical simulations support the results and sensitivity analysis shows effects of parameters on , which provided references to seek optimal measures to control the transmission of lymphatic filariasis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Filariose/parasitologia
Linfonodos/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Animais
Número Básico de Reprodução
Simulação por Computador
Culicidae
Epidemias
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Insetos Vetores
Modelos Lineares
Wuchereria bancrofti
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170403
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170403
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170311
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2017/4567452


  8 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28222120
[Au] Autor:Vaughan JA; Turell MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Brugia malayi microfilariae transport alphaviruses across the mosquito midgut.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0172309, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Concurrent ingestion of microfilariae (MF) and arboviruses by mosquitoes can enhance mosquito transmission of virus compared to when virus is ingested alone. Within hours of being ingested, MF penetrate the mosquito midgut and introduce virus into mosquito hemocoel, creating a disseminated viral infection much sooner than normal. How virus is actually introduced is not known. In this report, we present experimental evidence that suggests that certain alphaviruses may adhere or otherwise associate with sheathed Brugia malayi MF in the blood of a dually-infected host and that the virus is carried into the mosquito hemocoel by the MF during their penetration of the mosquito midgut. The mechanism of MF enhancement may be more complex than simple leakage of viremic blood into the hemocoel during MF penetration. The affinity of arboviruses to adhere to or otherwise associate with MF may depend on the specific combination of the virus and MF involved in a dual host infection. This in turn may determine the relative importance that MF enhancement has within an arbovirus transmission system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aedes/virologia
Brugia Malayi/fisiologia
Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste
Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana
Filariose/transmissão
Insetos Vetores/virologia
Intestinos/parasitologia
Intestinos/virologia
Microfilárias/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aedes/parasitologia
Aedes/fisiologia
Animais
Transporte Biológico
Sangue/parasitologia
Sangue/virologia
Suscetibilidade a Doenças
Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste/fisiologia
Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar
Filariose/parasitologia
Filariose/virologia
Gerbillinae
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia
Insetos Vetores/fisiologia
Glândulas Salivares/virologia
Especificidade da Espécie
Viremia/transmissão
Viremia/virologia
Replicação Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172309


  9 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28208221
[Au] Autor:Mishra R; Panda SK; Sahoo PK; Bal MS; Satapathy AK
[Ad] Endereço:Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
[Ti] Título:Increased Fas ligand expression of peripheral B-1 cells correlated with CD4 T-cell apoptosis in filarial-infected patients.
[So] Source:Parasite Immunol;39(4), 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3024
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cellular hyporesponsiveness observed during helminth infections is attributed to factors such as antigen-presenting cells (APC) dysfunction, increased interleukin-10(IL-10), regulatory T cells and induction of CD4 T (Th)-cell apoptosis. Increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of B-1 cells and induction of apoptosis of Th cells by FasL-expressing B-1 cells due to helminth infection were demonstrated in murine model of helminth infection where as profile of FasL expression, Th-cell apoptosis and correlation between these two populations of cells in clinical filariasis remain unknown. In this study, we have scored the profile of apoptotic Th-cell population and FasL-expressing B-1 cells in different clinical categories of filariasis. The peripheral apoptotic T-helper cells were significantly increased in filarial patients compared to endemic controls. Expression of FasL on the surface of peripheral B-1 cells increased in filarial patients and positively correlated with peripheral apoptotic T-helper cells indicating FasL-expressing B-1 cells may be one of the important mediators of Th-cell apoptosis and immune anergy during filarial pathology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Apoptose
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia
Filariose/imunologia
Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Linfócitos B/metabolismo
Anergia Clonal
Proteína Ligante Fas/genética
Filariose/patologia
Seres Humanos
Interleucina-10/metabolismo
Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia
Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia
Receptor fas/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (FAS protein, human); 0 (FASLG protein, human); 0 (Fas Ligand Protein); 0 (IL10 protein, human); 0 (Membrane Glycoproteins); 0 (fas Receptor); 130068-27-8 (Interleukin-10)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/pim.12421


  10 / 4628 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28168837
[Au] Autor:Kwarteng A; Ahuno ST
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science Technology, PMB, Kumasi, Ghana.
[Ti] Título:Immunity in Filarial Infections: Lessons from Animal Models and Human Studies.
[So] Source:Scand J Immunol;85(4):251-257, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3083
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Our understanding of immunity to filarial infection is enigmatic and continues to be passionately debated. The mechanisms whereby filarial nematodes are killed in vivo and how these parasites avoid these mechanisms are poorly understood. Although vaccination studies in permissive animals took off seven decades ago, the exact mechanisms driving protective immunity are extensively being investigated. Currently, little is known regarding the collective functions or counter-regulatory mechanisms of the antibody isotypes in filarial infection with respect to protective immunity. Establishing the functional role of antibody isotypes and cytokines in the various infection phenotypes can contribute immensely to current knowledge in filarial immunology. This paper reviews insight into protective immunity in filarial infection with focus on humoral and cellular responses from animal models and human studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia
Filariose/imunologia
Filarioidea/imunologia
Células Th1/imunologia
Células Th2/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia
Citocinas/imunologia
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Filariose/parasitologia
Seres Humanos
Camundongos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Helminth); 0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Cytokines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170421
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170421
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/sji.12533



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