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[PMID]:28747482
[Au] Autor:Karell P; Bensch S; Ahola K; Asghar M
[Ad] Endereço:Bioeconomy Research Team, Novia University of Applied Sciences, Raseborgsvägen 9, 10600 Ekenäs, Finland patrik.karell@novia.fi.
[Ti] Título:Pale and dark morphs of tawny owls show different patterns of telomere dynamics in relation to disease status.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1859), 2017 Jul 26.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Parasites are expected to exert long-term costs on host fecundity and longevity. Understanding the consequences of heritable polymorphic variation in disease defence in wild populations is essential in order to predict evolutionary responses to changes in disease risk. Telomeres have been found to shorten faster in malaria-diseased individuals compared with healthy ones with negative effects on longevity and thereby fitness. Here, we study the impact of haemosporidian blood parasites on telomere dynamics in tawny owls, which display a highly heritable plumage colour polymorphism. Previously, it has been shown that blood parasites have morph-specific impact on body mass maintenance. Here, we show that telomeres shortened faster in individuals with shorter breeding lifespan. Telomere length was negatively associated with the degree of pheomelanic brown coloration and shorter in infected than uninfected individuals. The rate of telomere shortening between breeding seasons was faster in darker pheomelanic individuals and suppression of parasite intensity between seasons was associated with faster telomere shortening in the paler individuals but not in darker ones. We propose that morph-specific physiological profiles cause differential telomere shortening and that this is likely to be a mechanism involved in previously documented environment-driven survival selection against the pheomelanic morph in this population.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pigmentação
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/genética
Estrigiformes/genética
Estrigiformes/parasitologia
Encurtamento do Telômero
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Plumas
Fertilidade
Haemosporida/patogenicidade
Longevidade
Carga Parasitária
Polimorfismo Genético
Telômero
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28449722
[Au] Autor:Bilgic HB; Bakirci S; Kose O; Unlu AH; Hacilarlioglu S; Eren H; Weir W; Karagenc T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Parasitology, University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 09016, Isikli/Aydin, Turkey. hbilgic@adu.edu.tr.
[Ti] Título:Prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in small ruminants in Turkey and diagnostic sensitivity of single-PCR and RLB.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;10(1):211, 2017 Apr 27.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHDs), caused by Theileria, Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, are common in regions of the world where the distributions of host, pathogen and vector overlap. Many of these diseases threaten livestock production and some also represent a concern to human public health. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in a large number of blood samples (n = 1979) collected from sheep (n = 1727) and goats (n = 252) in Turkey. A secondary aim was to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of a number of species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and the reverse line blotting (RLB) assay. DNA samples were screened using species-specific PCR for the presence of Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. MK, T. lestoquardi, T. uilenbergi, T. luwenshuni, Babesia ovis, Anaplasma ovis and A. phagocytophilum while RLB was undertaken to test for the presence of all known Theileria, Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species. The diagnostic sensitivity of these two approaches was then compared in terms of their ability to detect single species and mixed infections. RESULTS: Overall, 84 and 74.43% of the small ruminants sampled were identified as hosting one or more pathogen(s) by species-specific PCR and RLB respectively. The presence of Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi in Turkey was revealed for the first time while the presence of Babesia motasi, B. crassa and T. separata in Turkish small ruminants was confirmed using molecular methods. A high prevalence of mixed infection was evident, with PCR and RLB approaches indicating that 52.24 and 35.42% of animals were co-infected with multiple species, respectively. More than 80% of the mixed infections contained T. ovis and/or A. ovis. The RLB approach was found to be capable of detecting mixed infections with species such as Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp. OT3, T. separata, B. crassa and Babesia spp. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that pathogens causing TBHDs are highly prevalent in sheep and goats in Turkey. The diagnostic sensitivity of species-specific single PCR was generally higher than that of RLB. However, the latter approach was still capable of identifying a high proportion of individuals containing mixed-species infections. The use of species-specific single PCR is recommended to accurately estimate pathogen prevalence and to identify co-infected hosts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia
Cabras
Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico/métodos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
Prevalência
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Ovinos
Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico
Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
Carrapatos
Turquia/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-017-2151-3


  3 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28665738
[Au] Autor:Barrios MA; Kenyon A; Beckstead R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
[Ti] Título:Development of a Dry Medium for Isolation of Histomonas meleagridis in the Field.
[So] Source:Avian Dis;61(2):242-244, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1938-4351
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Blackhead disease is caused by Histomonas meleagridis, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and results in mortality rates of up to 100% in turkeys and 30% in chickens. Outbreaks of blackhead disease are unpredictable, and the harvesting of H. meleagridis strains from the field would be a great resource for researchers to study its epidemiology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a dry medium that would allow storage at ambient temperatures until needed. Fifty milliliters of horse serum was dried and then mixed with dry medium M199 with Hanks balanced salts (10.6 g), sodium bicarbonate (0.35 g), and rice powder (0.8 g). To test the ability of reconstituted medium to support growth of H. meleagridis, groups of 10 flasks containing 0.2 g of dry medium were stored for 24 hr at 25 and 60 C before testing. Other groups of flasks containing dry medium were stored at 25, 37, and 42 C for 1, 3, or 6 mo. At each test period, the flasks were reconstituted with 10 ml of water, inoculated with 100 000 H. meleagridis cells, and incubated at 40 C for 48 hr. Fresh liquid medium was used as a control. There were no differences in cell counts in medium stored at 25 or 60 C for 24 hr. After 1 mo, cell counts in reconstituted medium were about half that of fresh liquid medium after 48 hr of incubation. But after 3 and 6 mo, the cell counts were not significantly different in all groups (P < 0.05) after 72 hr of incubation. These results show that dried Dwyer medium can be stored at ambient temperatures for extended times and would be an effective tool for obtaining isolates of H. meleagridis from the field.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Meios de Cultura/química
Parasitologia/métodos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
Trichomonadida/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo
Trichomonadida/genética
Trichomonadida/isolamento & purificação
Trichomonadida/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Culture Media)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170823
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170823
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1637/11530-110816-ResNote.1


  4 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28637681
[Au] Autor:Wang JL; Li TT; Liu GH; Zhu XQ; Yao C
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Título:Two Tales of Cytauxzoon felis Infections in Domestic Cats.
[So] Source:Clin Microbiol Rev;30(4):861-885, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1098-6618
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease that affects wild felids as well as the domestic cat; it is caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasites belonging to the genus . is the species of major concern, whose transmission occurs via the bite of an infected tick. Cytauxzoonosis of the domestic cat has historically been considered uniformly fatal, with a short course of illness, and most domestic cats die within 9 to 15 days postinfection. However, increasing evidence of domestic cats surviving infection suggests the existence of different strains with various levels of pathogenicity. Although wild felids are considered natural reservoirs for this parasite, a number of studies suggest that domestic cats that have survived nonlethal infections may serve as an additional reservoir. The current article comprehensively reviews the parasite and its life cycle, geographic distribution, genetic variability, and pathogenesis, as well as host immunology and the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infection in the domestic cat. This information should provide a basis for better understanding the parasite as well as the pathogenesis of the disease.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças do Gato/parasitologia
Doenças do Gato/transmissão
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
Doenças do Gato/mortalidade
Gatos
Reservatórios de Doenças
Piroplasmida/genética
Piroplasmida/patogenicidade
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/mortalidade
Carrapatos/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170623
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/CMR.00010-17


  5 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28632488
[Au] Autor:Guven E; Avcioglu H; Cengiz S; Hayirli A
[Ad] Endereço:1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ataturk University , Erzurum, Turkey .
[Ti] Título:Vector-Borne Pathogens in Stray Dogs in Northeastern Turkey.
[So] Source:Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis;17(8):610-617, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1557-7759
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This experiment was carried out to attain prevalence and molecular characterization of pathogens causing canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) including babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniasis, filariosis (Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma platys) in stray dogs. The study material consisted of 133 asymptomatic female (n = 96) and male (n = 37) stray dogs (≤1 year old, n = 16 and 1-6 years old, n = 117) housed in the Animal Care and Rehabilitation Center, Erzurum, Northeastern Turkey. Conventional and nested PCR were performed on blood samples to detect Babesia spp., Leishmania spp., Hepatozoon spp., D. immitis, D. repens, A. reconditum, E. canis, and A. platys. Sex and age association with the pathogen prevalence was determined using X statistics. The positivity rate for at least one CVBD pathogen was 48.9% (65/133). DNA of B. canis, Hepatozoon spp., H. canis, D. immitis, and E. canis were detected in 5.3% (7/133), 27.1% (36/133), 5.3% (7/133), 1.5% (2/133), and 9.8% (13/133) of the dogs, respectively. Leishmania spp., D. repens, A. reconditum, and A. platys DNA were not detected. Mixed pathogens were determined in seven (10.8%) of the infected dogs, with predominant involvement of Hepatozoon spp. or H. canis. The pathogen prevalence did not vary by sex or age. Nucleotide blast analysis of Erzurum isolates showed 99.8-100% identities with the corresponding reference isolates. This study indicates presence of five CVB pathogens, including the first report of E. canis, in stray dogs in Erzurum, Turkey.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Culicidae/parasitologia
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia
Insetos Vetores
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Culicidae/microbiologia
DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação
DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
Cães
Feminino
Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia
Helmintíase Animal/transmissão
Masculino
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
Turquia/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (DNA, Helminth)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170921
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170921
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170621
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/vbz.2017.2128


  6 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28534106
[Au] Autor:Bradshaw AC; Tell LA; Ernest HB; Bahan S; Carlson J; Sehgal RNM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Detection and prevalence of Haemoproteus archilochus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) in two species of California hummingbirds.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;116(7):1879-1885, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Haemosporidian blood parasites are transmitted to a wide range of avian hosts via blood-sucking dipteran vectors. Microscopy has revealed an impressive diversity of avian haemosporidia with more than 250 species described. Moreover, PCR and subsequent sequence analyses have suggested a much greater diversity of haemosporidia than morphological analyses alone. Given the importance of these parasites, very few studies have focused on the charismatic hummingbirds. To date, three Haemoproteus species (Haemoproteus archilochus, Haemoproteus trochili, and Haemoproteus witti) and one Leucocytozoon species (Leucocytozoon quynzae) have been described in blood samples taken from hummingbirds (Trochilidae). Unconfirmed Plasmodium lineages have also been detected in hummingbirds. Here, we report the detection of H. archilochus in two hummingbird species (Calypte anna and Archilochus alexandri) sampled in Northern California and perform a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene lineages. A total of 261 hummingbirds (157 C. anna, 104 A. alexandri) were sampled and screened for blood parasites using PCR and microscopy techniques. Combining both methods, 4 (2.55%) haemosporidian infections were detected in C. anna and 18 (17.31%) haemosporidian infections were detected in A. alexandri. Molecular analyses revealed four distinct H. archilocus cyt b lineages, which clustered as a monophyletic clade. No species of Plasmodium or Leucocytozoon were detected in this study, raising the possibility of specific vector associations with hummingbirds. These results provide resources for future studies of haemosporidian prevalence, diversity, and pathogenicity in California hummingbird populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia
Aves
California/epidemiologia
Citocromos b/genética
Haemosporida/classificação
Haemosporida/genética
Parasitemia
Filogenia
Prevalência
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
9035-37-4 (Cytochromes b)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-017-5463-5


  7 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28509658
[Au] Autor:Boundenga L; Perkins SL; Ollomo B; Rougeron V; Leroy EM; Renaud F; Prugnolle F
[Ad] Endereço:Centre International de Recherche de Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), BP: 769 Franceville, Gabon.
[Ti] Título:Haemosporidian Parasites of Reptiles and Birds from Gabon, Central Africa.
[So] Source:J Parasitol;103(4):330-337, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1937-2345
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Haemosporidian parasites are protozoans that infect many different vertebrate hosts. Re-examination of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites, using molecular tools, has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting some species of reptile and birds living in the forests of Gabon, Central Africa, by analyzing a collection of 128 samples of reptiles and birds. We found that samples from 2 tortoise species (Pelusios castaneus and Kinixys erosa) and 3 bird species (Turtur afer, Ceratogymna atrata, and Agelastes niger) were infected by Haemocystidium spp. and Parahaemoproteus spp., respectively. From an ecological point of view, these lineages of parasites do not show host specificity because we have found them in several host species (2 tortoise and 3 bird species) that come from different areas of Gabon forest which are infected with these parasites. Also, our phylogenetic analyses revealed that the obtained lineages are related to isolates from other continents found in the same groups of vertebrates. Thus, our results show that haemosporidian parasites are also infecting central African vertebrates and that new lineages of these parasites are circulating in wild animals of the Gabon forest.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
Columbidae/parasitologia
Galliformes/parasitologia
Haemosporida/classificação
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
Tartarugas/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens
Aves
Citocromos b/genética
DNA de Protozoário/sangue
DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação
Florestas
Gabão
Variação Genética
Haemosporida/genética
Fígado/parasitologia
Filogenia
Baço/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Protozoan); 9035-37-4 (Cytochromes b)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170517
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1645/16-118


  8 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28412947
[Au] Autor:Hora AS; Miyashiro SI; Cassiano FC; Brandão PE; Reche-Junior A; Pena HFJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. alineshora@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Report of the first clinical case of intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat with chronic diarrhoea in Brazil.
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;13(1):109, 2017 Apr 17.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Tritrichomonas foetus is an emergent and important enteric pathogen of cats, which causes prolonged diarrhoea in cats. CASE PRESENTATION: This study describes a T. foetus infection in a seven-month-old, entire male domestic shorthair kitten with a six-month history of persistent large intestinal diarrhoea, faecal incontinence, prostration, apathy and weight loss. Parasites were microscopically observed and confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Molecular analyses were carried out comparing the sequence obtained in this study with T. foetus and T. suis. Retrieved from GenBank. After treatment with ronidazole, the cat showed resolution of clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first clinical case of T. foetus infection in a chronic diarrheic cat in Brazil and South America, confirming the presence of this pathogen in this part of the world and highlighting the importance of this protozoa being considered in the differential diagnosis of cats presenting diarrhoea of the large intestine. Our case report enriches our knowledge on the geographical distribution of T. foetus in cats in Brazil and provides further understanding of the clinical significance of feline intestinal trichomoniasis in this country.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças do Gato/parasitologia
Diarreia/veterinária
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico
Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem
Brasil/epidemiologia
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico
Gatos
DNA de Protozoário/análise
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico
Diarreia/parasitologia
Masculino
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico
Ronidazole/administração & dosagem
Tritrichomonas foetus/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (DNA, Protozoan); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170418
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-017-1026-3


  9 / 2807 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28410591
[Au] Autor:Mitková B; Hrazdilová K; D'Amico G; Duscher GG; Suchentrunk F; Forejtek P; Gherman CM; Matei IA; Ionica AM; Daskalaki AA; Mihalca AD; Votýpka J; Hulva P; Modrý D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pathology and Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tr. 1946/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic. mitkovab@vfu.cz.
[Ti] Título:Eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;10(1):183, 2017 Apr 14.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. Thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. Recently, populations of the Eurasian golden jackal Canis aureus have expanded into the Western Palaearctic, including most of Europe. The aim of our study was to examine Eurasian golden jackals from Romania, Czech Republic and Austria for a wide spectrum of vector-borne protists and to evaluate the role of this species as a reservoir of disease for domestic dogs and/or humans. RESULTS: Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplifications revealed 70% of jackals to be positive for Hepatozoon, 12.5% positive for piroplasms, and one individual positive for Leishmania infantum. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 18S rDNA sequences invariably placed sequenced isolates of Hepatozoon into the H. canis clade. For piroplasms, both the 18S and cox1 sequences obtained confirmed the presence of Babesia canis and "Theileria annae" in 5 and 2 individuals, respectively, providing the first records of these two piroplasmids in Eurasian golden jackals. A single animal from Dolj County (Romania) was PCR-positive for L. infantum, as confirmed also by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S. CONCLUSIONS: Apparently, expanding populations of jackals can play a significant role in spreading and maintaining new Babesia canis foci in Central Europe. The role of jackals in the epidemiology of "Theileria annae" and H. canis is probably similar to that of red foxes and should be taken into account in further research on these parasites. Also the presence of L. infantum deserves attention. Our study confirms that once established, the populations of Eurasian golden jackals constitute natural reservoirs for many canine vector-borne diseases, analogous to the role of the coyotes in North America.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reservatórios de Doenças
Vetores de Doenças
Chacais/parasitologia
Parasitos/classificação
Parasitos/isolamento & purificação
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Análise por Conglomerados
DNA de Protozoário/química
DNA de Protozoário/genética
DNA Ribossômico/química
DNA Ribossômico/genética
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética
Cães
Europa (Continente)
Filogenia
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal Spacer); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170425
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170425
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170416
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-017-2110-z


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[PMID]:28410582
[Au] Autor:Love D; Fajt VR; Hairgrove T; Jones M; Thompson JA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
[Ti] Título:Metronidazole for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls.
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;13(1):107, 2017 Apr 14.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually transmitted protozoon that causes reproductive failure, among cattle, so disruptive that many western US states have initiated control programs. Current control programs are based on the testing and exclusion of individual bulls. Unfortunately, these programs are utilizing screening tests that are lacking in sensitivity. Blanket treatment of all the exposed bulls and adequate sexual rest for the exposed cows could provide a more viable disease control option. The objectives of this study were twofold. The first objective was to demonstrate effectiveness for metronidazole treatment of a bull under ideal conditions and with an optimized treatment regime. This type of study with a single subject is often referred to as an n-of-1 or single subject clinical trial. The second objective of the current study was to review the scientific basis for the banning of metronidazole for use in Food Animals by the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA). RESULTS: Results from an antimicrobial assay indicated that metronidazole at a concentration of 0.5 µg/mL successfully eliminated in vitro protozoal growth of bovine Tritrichomonas foetus. The estimated effective intravenous dose was two treatments with 60 mg/kg metronidazole, 24 h apart. A bull that had tested positive for Tritrichomonas foetus culture at weekly intervals for 5 weeks prior to treatment was negative for Tritrichomonas foetus culture at weekly intervals for five consecutive weeks following this treatment regimen. An objective evaluation of the published evidence on the potential public health significance of using metronidazole to treat Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls provides encouragement for veterinarians and regulators to consider approaches that might lead to permitting the legal use of metronidazole in bulls. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated successful inhibition of Tritrichomonas foetus both in vitro and in vivo with metronidazole. The current status of metronidazole is that the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 prohibits its extra-label use in food-producing animals. Veterinarians and regulators should consider approaches that might lead to permitting the legal use of metronidazole in bulls.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antiprotozoários/farmacologia
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico
Metronidazol/farmacologia
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico
Tritrichomonas foetus/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia
Masculino
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 140QMO216E (Metronidazole)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170416
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-017-0999-2



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