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[PMID]:29422753
[Au] Autor:Alsaqr AM; Ibrahim G; Sharha AA; Fagehi R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
[Ti] Título:Investigating the Visual Status Of Preschool Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
[So] Source:Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol;24(4):190-194, 2017 Oct-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0975-1599
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore the vision status of preschool children aged 3-6 years in Al Riyadh and to identify children at risk of amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using 15-line Lea symbols, refractive error was assessed using the Mohindra near retinoscopy technique, and peak contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured with the aid of the numerical CS test. We recruited 335 children, with their parents' written consent, from 14 kindergartens. RESULTS: A total of 335 children were recruited; 42 children (13%) exhibited reduced VA (Median [interquartile ranges (IQRs)], 0.00 [0.01]); most were emmetropic (87.7%). Myopia (4.2%), hyperopia (8.1%), and astigmatism (20%) were also observed. Most children had normal CSs. About 14% of children were at risk of amblyopia. It has been observed that 26% of families have some kind of refractive error. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to perform vision screening of preschoolers. Early detection of abnormalities in refractive errors could help to minimize the effect of visual impairment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/epidemiologia
Erros de Refração/epidemiologia
Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia
Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ambliopia/diagnóstico
Ambliopia/fisiopatologia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Erros de Refração/diagnóstico
Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia
Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico
Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia
Seleção Visual
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_123_17


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[PMID]:28743725
[Au] Autor:Hallum LE; Shooner C; Kumbhani RD; Kelly JG; García-Marín V; Majaj NJ; Movshon JA; Kiorpes L
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003 hallum@cns.nyu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Altered Balance of Receptive Field Excitation and Suppression in Visual Cortex of Amblyopic Macaque Monkeys.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(34):8216-8226, 2017 Aug 23.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In amblyopia, a visual disorder caused by abnormal visual experience during development, the amblyopic eye (AE) loses visual sensitivity whereas the fellow eye (FE) is largely unaffected. Binocular vision in amblyopes is often disrupted by interocular suppression. We used 96-electrode arrays to record neurons and neuronal groups in areas V1 and V2 of six female macaque monkeys ( ) made amblyopic by artificial strabismus or anisometropia in early life, as well as two visually normal female controls. To measure suppressive binocular interactions directly, we recorded neuronal responses to dichoptic stimulation. We stimulated both eyes simultaneously with large sinusoidal gratings, controlling their contrast independently with raised-cosine modulators of different orientations and spatial frequencies. We modeled each eye's receptive field at each cortical site using a difference of Gaussian envelopes and derived estimates of the strength of central excitation and surround suppression. We used these estimates to calculate ocular dominance separately for excitation and suppression. Excitatory drive from the FE dominated amblyopic visual cortex, especially in more severe amblyopes, but suppression from both the FE and AEs was prevalent in all animals. This imbalance created strong interocular suppression in deep amblyopes: increasing contrast in the AE decreased responses at binocular cortical sites. These response patterns reveal mechanisms that likely contribute to the interocular suppression that disrupts vision in amblyopes. Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder that alters both monocular vision and binocular interaction. Using microelectrode arrays, we examined binocular interaction in primary visual cortex and V2 of six amblyopic macaque monkeys ( ) and two visually normal controls. By stimulating the eyes dichoptically, we showed that, in amblyopic cortex, the binocular combination of signals is altered. The excitatory influence of the two eyes is imbalanced to a degree that can be predicted from the severity of amblyopia, whereas suppression from both eyes is prevalent in all animals. This altered balance of excitation and suppression reflects mechanisms that may contribute to the interocular perceptual suppression that disrupts vision in amblyopes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/fisiopatologia
Dominância Ocular/fisiologia
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia
Campos Visuais/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Macaca nemestrina
Microeletrodos
Estrabismo/fisiopatologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0449-17.2017


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[PMID]:29204689
[Au] Autor:Kim SJ; Jeon H; Jung JH; Lee KM; Choi HY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon, South Korea.
[Ti] Título:Comparison between over-glasses patching and adhesive patching for children with moderate amblyopia: a prospective randomized clinical trial.
[So] Source:Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol;256(2):429-437, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1435-702X
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To investigate efficacy of over-glasses patching treatment for amblyopic children using visual function improvement and Amblyopia Treatment Index (ATI) changes. METHODS: In a randomized multi-center controlled clinical trial, 107 children aged 3-7 years with moderate amblyopia (visual acuity in the range of 20/40 to 20/100) were included to receive treatment with either an adhesive skin patch or a fabric over-glasses patch. The patients were prescribed 2 h of patching per day for the sound eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was investigated and ATI questionnaires were collected from parents at 5 weeks and 17 weeks after the initiation of treatment. ATI identifies barriers and problems associated with amblyopia treatment. We compared the changes of visual acuity of amblyopic eyes and ATI scores in two groups. RESULTS: At 17 weeks, the mean visual acuity of the amblyopic eye using Snellen chart improved 3.2 lines in the adhesive patching group and 2.7 lines for an over-glasses patching method that fit over eyeglasses (p = 0.345). A similar proportion of subjects in each group had improvement of ≥ 2 lines (adhesive patching group 67% vs over-glasses patching group 67%, p = 0.372). There was also no difference in treatment burden in each group as measured with the Amblyopia Treatment Index. The only item to demonstrate a significant difference between groups was that related to "Treatment makes the eye or eyelids red" (mean 4.0 ± 1.1 vs 3.0 ± 1.0 at 17 weeks, p = 0.001, for adhesive vs over-glasses patch). CONCLUSIONS: Over-glasses patching treatment is a useful option for amblyopia treatment when the patients suffer from adverse effects of using adhesive skin patching.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adesivos
Ambliopia/terapia
Óculos
Privação Sensorial
Visão Binocular/fisiologia
Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ambliopia/diagnóstico
Ambliopia/fisiopatologia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Seguimentos
Seres Humanos
Estudos Prospectivos
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adhesives)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00417-017-3851-2


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[PMID]:28463606
[Au] Autor:Chang MY; Demer JL; Isenberg SJ; Velez FG; Pineles SL
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Ophthalmology , Stein Eye Institute, UCLA Medical Center , Los Angeles , CA.
[Ti] Título:Decreased Binocular Summation in Strabismic Amblyopes and Effect of Strabismus Surgery.
[So] Source:Strabismus;25(2):73-80, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5132
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: Binocular summation (BiS) occurs when binocular visual function surpasses that of the better eye alone. We sought to evaluate whether strabismic amblyopia reduces BiS more than strabismus alone, and determine whether BiS improves in strabismic amblyopes after strabismus surgery. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 15 patients with strabismic amblyopia who then underwent strabismus surgery. Thirty age-matched normal subjects and 30 non-amblyopic strabismic patients served as controls. Subjects underwent binocular and monocular visual acuity testing on high-contrast Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) as well as 2.5% and 1.25% Sloan low contrast acuity (LCA) charts. BiS was calculated as the difference between better eye and binocular scores. RESULTS: Strabismic amblyopes and strabismic controls did not significantly differ in preoperative BiS, but both had subnormal BiS preoperatively on LCA charts. Among 11 strabismic amblyopes with preoperative and postoperative BiS measurements, average postoperative BiS was not significantly different from preoperative. Improved LCA BiS postoperatively occurred in some patients and was associated with measurable preoperative stereoacuity (P=0.02), older age at strabismus onset (P=0.02), and larger preoperative angle of strabismus (P=0.0043). CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, strabismic amblyopes experienced subnormal BiS, but amblyopia generally did not further impair BiS beyond that due to strabismus alone. Some strabismic amblyopes experienced improved low-contrast BiS after strabismus surgery. This suggests that further investigation in larger groups of patients should be undertaken to analyze a previously unrecognized functional benefit of strabismus surgery in strabismic amblyopes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/fisiopatologia
Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos
Estrabismo/fisiopatologia
Estrabismo/cirurgia
Visão Binocular/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Período Pós-Operatório
Testes Visuais
Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09273972.2017.1318153


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[PMID]:28463529
[Au] Autor:Niyaz L; Yücel OE; Aritürk N; Terzi O
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Ophthalmology , Ondokuz Mayis University Hospital , Samsun , Turkey.
[Ti] Título:Choroidal Thickness in Strabismus and Amblyopia Cases.
[So] Source:Strabismus;25(2):56-59, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5132
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to examine the effect of hypermetropia and anisometropic, exotropic, and esotropic amblyopia on choroidal thickness. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, comparative study of 120 children under the age of 16 years was conducted. Choroidal thickness was measured in patients with hypermetropia, anisometropia, esotropia, exotropia, and controls. RESULTS: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness in the control and hypermetropia groups was 323.9±69.0 µm and 348.9±64.5 µm, respectively. Mean choroidal thickness in amblyopic and fellow eyes was 387.4 and 351.9 µm in anisometropic, 353.8 and 338.7 µm in exotropic, 347.5 and 336.5 µm in esotropic, and 389.3 and 359.3 µm in esotropic+anisometropic groups, respectively. Choroid was significantly thicker in amblyopic eyes of anisometropic group compared to fellow (P=0.004) and control (P=0.03) eyes. The difference of choroidal thickness was not significant between both eyes and when compared to control eyes in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Anisometropic amblyopic eyes had thicker choroids compared to controls and fellow eyes. However the choroidal thickness was not significantly different between amblyopic and fellow eyes of esotropic or exotropic patients.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/complicações
Corioide/patologia
Estrabismo/complicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Ambliopia/classificação
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tamanho do Órgão
Estudos Prospectivos
Estrabismo/classificação
Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09273972.2017.1318152


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[PMID]:29261750
[Au] Autor:Nishi T; Ueda T; Mizusawa Y; Semba K; Shinomiya K; Mitamura Y; Sakamoto T; Ogata N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Effect of optical correction on subfoveal choroidal thickness in children with anisohypermetropic amblyopia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189735, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of optical correction on the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) in the eyes of children with anisohypermetropic amblyopia. Twenty-four anisohypermetropic amblyopic eyes and their fellow eyes of 24 patients and twenty-three eyes of 23 age-matched control children were studied. After one year of optical correction, the BCVA in the anisohypermetropic amblyopic eyes was significantly improved. Before the treatment, the mean subfoveal CT in the amblyopic eyes was 351.9 ± 59.4 µm which was significantly thicker than that of control eyes at 302.4 ± 63.2 µm. After the treatment, the amount of change in the subfoveal CT in the amblyopic and fellow eyes was greater than that in the control eyes. The amblyopic and fellow eyes with thicker choroids had a greater thinning of the choroid whereas eyes with thinner choroids had a greater thickening of the choroid. We conclude that wearing corrective lenses improves the visual acuity, and induces changes of the subfoveal CT in eyes with anisohypermetropic amblyopia.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/complicações
Ambliopia/patologia
Anisometropia/complicações
Anisometropia/patologia
Corioide/patologia
Fóvea Central/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ambliopia/fisiopatologia
Anisometropia/fisiopatologia
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Corioide/fisiopatologia
Demografia
Feminino
Fóvea Central/fisiopatologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
Acuidade Visual
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189735


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[PMID]:29202721
[Au] Autor:Tsao Wu M; Armitage MD; Trujillo C; Trujillo A; Arnold LE; Tsao Wu L; Arnold RW
[Ad] Endereço:Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children's EYE & Strabismus, 3500 Latouche #280, Anchorage, Alaska, 99508, USA.
[Ti] Título:Portable acuity screening for any school: validation of patched HOTV with amblyopic patients and Bangerter normals.
[So] Source:BMC Ophthalmol;17(1):232, 2017 Dec 04.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2415
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: We needed to validate and calibrate our portable acuity screening tools so amblyopia could be detected quickly and effectively at school entry. METHODS: Spiral-bound flip cards and download pdf surround HOTV acuity test box with critical lines were combined with a matching card. Amblyopic patients performed critical line, then threshold acuity which was then compared to patched E-ETDRS acuity. 5 normal subjects wore Bangerter foil goggles to simulate blur for comparative validation. RESULTS: The 31 treated amblyopic eyes showed: logMAR HOTV = 0.97(logMAR E-ETDRS)-0.04 r2 = 0.88. All but two (6%) fell less than 2 lines difference. The five showed logMAR HOTV = 1.09 ((logMAR E-ETDRS) + .15 r2 = 0.63. The critical-line, test box was 98% efficient at screening within one line of 20/40. CONCLUSION: These tools reliably detected acuity in treated amblyopic patients and Bangerter blurred normal subjects. These free and affordable tools provide sensitive screening for amblyopia in children from public, private and home schools. Changing "pass" criteria to 4 out of 5 would improve sensitivity with somewhat slower testing for all students.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/diagnóstico
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar
Testes Visuais/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Limiar Sensorial
Testes Visuais/instrumentação
Acuidade Visual
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12886-017-0624-y


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[PMID]:28466097
[Au] Autor:Chung YW; Park SH; Shin SY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Título:Distant stereoacuity in children with anisometropic amblyopia.
[So] Source:Jpn J Ophthalmol;61(5):402-407, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1613-2246
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To characterize changes in distant stereoacuity using Frisby-Davis Distance test (FD2) and Distant Randot test (DR) during treatment for anisometropic amblyopia, to determine factors that influence posttreatment stereoacuity and to compare the two distant stereotests. METHODS: Fifty-eight anisometropic amblyopic patients with an interocular difference of ≥1.00 diopter who achieved the visual acuity 20/20 following amblyopia treatment were retrospectively included. Stereoacuity using FD2 and DR for distant and Titmus test for near measurement were assessed and compared at the initial, intermediate, and final visit. Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors associated with initial and final stereoacuity. RESULTS: The two distant stereotests revealed a significant improvement in distant stereoacuity after successful amblyopia treatment. Distant stereoacuity using FD2 showed the greatest improvement during the follow up period. The number of nil scores was higher in DR than FD2 at each period. In multivariate analysis, better final stereoacuity was associated with better initial amblyopic eye acuity in both distant stereotests, but not in the Titmus test. Comparing the two distant stereotests, final stereoacuity using FD2 was associated with initial stereoacuity and was moderately related with the Titmus test at each period, but final stereoacuity using DR was not. CONCLUSIONS: Distant stereoacuity measured with both FD2 and DR showed significant improvement when the visual acuity of the amblyopic eye achieved 20/20. Changes in distant stereoacuity by FD2 and DR during the amblyopia treatment were somewhat different.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/fisiopatologia
Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia
Percepção de Distância/fisiologia
Acuidade Visual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ambliopia/diagnóstico
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seguimentos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estudos Retrospectivos
Testes Visuais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10384-017-0518-9


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[PMID]:28449714
[Au] Autor:Gramatikov BI
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Ophthalmic Instrument Development, The Krieger Children's Eye Center at the Wilmer Institute, Wilmer Eye Institute, 233, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287-9028, USA. bgramat@jhmi.edu.
[Ti] Título:Detecting central fixation by means of artificial neural networks in a pediatric vision screener using retinal birefringence scanning.
[So] Source:Biomed Eng Online;16(1):52, 2017 Apr 27.
[Is] ISSN:1475-925X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Reliable detection of central fixation and eye alignment is essential in the diagnosis of amblyopia ("lazy eye"), which can lead to blindness. Our lab has developed and reported earlier a pediatric vision screener that performs scanning of the retina around the fovea and analyzes changes in the polarization state of light as the scan progresses. Depending on the direction of gaze and the instrument design, the screener produces several signal frequencies that can be utilized in the detection of central fixation. The objective of this study was to compare artificial neural networks with classical statistical methods, with respect to their ability to detect central fixation reliably. METHODS: A classical feedforward, pattern recognition, two-layer neural network architecture was used, consisting of one hidden layer and one output layer. The network has four inputs, representing normalized spectral powers at four signal frequencies generated during retinal birefringence scanning. The hidden layer contains four neurons. The output suggests presence or absence of central fixation. Backpropagation was used to train the network, using the gradient descent algorithm and the cross-entropy error as the performance function. The network was trained, validated and tested on a set of controlled calibration data obtained from 600 measurements from ten eyes in a previous study, and was additionally tested on a clinical set of 78 eyes, independently diagnosed by an ophthalmologist. RESULTS: In the first part of this study, a neural network was designed around the calibration set. With a proper architecture and training, the network provided performance that was comparable to classical statistical methods, allowing perfect separation between the central and paracentral fixation data, with both the sensitivity and the specificity of the instrument being 100%. In the second part of the study, the neural network was applied to the clinical data. It allowed reliable separation between normal subjects and affected subjects, its accuracy again matching that of the statistical methods. CONCLUSION: With a proper choice of a neural network architecture and a good, uncontaminated training data set, the artificial neural network can be an efficient classification tool for detecting central fixation based on retinal birefringence scanning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia/diagnóstico
Ambliopia/fisiopatologia
Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos
Fixação Ocular
Redes Neurais (Computação)
Retinoscopia/métodos
Seleção Visual/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Birrefringência
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Refratometria/métodos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171218
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171218
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12938-017-0339-6


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[PMID]:28985817
[Au] Autor:Grzybowski A; Brona P
[Ad] Endereço:Poznan City Hospital, Poznan, Poland; University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland. Electronic address: ae.grzybowski@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Nutritional optic neuropathy instead of tobacco-alcohol amblyopia.
[So] Source:Can J Ophthalmol;52(5):533, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1715-3360
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ambliopia
Tabaco
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alcoolismo
Álcoois
Seres Humanos
Doenças do Nervo Óptico
Fumar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alcohols)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171008
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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