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  1 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29107875
[Au] Autor:Garcia MA; Anderson MA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California Riverside, USA. Electronic address: mgarc062@ucr.edu.
[Ti] Título:The Henry's constant of monochloramine.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;192:244-249, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0.08 d , a value twice that for sealed samples without headspace (0.04 d ) where loss occurs exclusively as a result of hydrolysis. A solution aerated at 10 mL s had a loss rate constant nearly 10× greater than that for hydrolysis alone (0.35 d ). To better understand partitioning of monochloramine to the gas phase and potential for volatilization, the dimensionless Henry's law constants of monochloramine (K ) were determined using an equilibrium headspace technique at five different temperatures (11, 16, 21, 27, and 32 °C). The resulting values ranged from 8 × 10 to 4 × 10 , indicating a semi-volatile compound, and were found to be consistent with quantitative structure activity relationship predictions. At 20 °C, monochloramine exhibits a dimensionless Henry's constant of about 1.7 × 10 which is 35 times greater than ammonia but comparable to the Henry's constant of inorganic semi-volatile compounds such sulfur dioxide. The Henry's constant values for monochloramine suggests that volatilization could be a relevant loss process in open systems such as rivers receiving chlorinated wastewater effluent, swimming pools and cooling towers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Algoritmos
Cloraminas/química
Desinfetantes/química
Água Potável/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atmosfera
Cloraminas/análise
Desinfetantes/análise
Água Potável/química
Volatilização
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Drinking Water); KW8K411A1P (chloramine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180130
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180130
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171107
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28774620
[Au] Autor:Dong S; Nguyen TH; Plewa MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; Safe Global Water Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address: sdong6@illinois.edu.
[Ti] Título:Comparative mammalian cell cytotoxicity of wastewater with elevated bromide and iodide after chlorination, chloramination, or ozonation.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);58:296-301, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recycling wastewater is becoming more common as communities around the world try to better control their water resources against an increased frequency of either prolonged droughts or intense flooding. For communities in coastal areas, wastewaters may contain elevated levels of bromide (Br ) and iodide (I ) from seawater intrusion or high mineral content of source waters. Disinfection of such wastewater is mandatory to prevent the spread of pathogens, however little is known about the toxicity of wastewater after disinfection in the presence of Br and I . In this study we compared the induction of chronic cytotoxicity in mammalian cells in samples of municipal secondary wastewater effluent amended with elevated levels of Br /I after disinfection by chlorine, chloramines or ozone to identify which disinfection process generated wastewater with the lowest level of adverse biological response. Chlorination increased mammalian cell cytotoxicity by 5 times as compared to non-disinfected controls. Chloramination produced disinfected wastewater that expressed 6.3 times more cytotoxicity than the non-disinfected controls and was 1.3 times more cytotoxic than the chlorinated samples. Ozonation produced wastewater with cytotoxicity comparable to the non-disinfected controls and was at least 4 times less cytotoxic than the chlorine disinfected wastewaters. These results indicate that compared to chlorination and chloramination, ozonation of wastewater with high Br /I levels yielded the lowest mammalian cell cytotoxicity, suggesting its potential as a more favorable method to disinfect wastewater with minimizing the biological toxicity in mind.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Águas Residuais/toxicidade
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brometos/toxicidade
Cloraminas/toxicidade
Desinfetantes/toxicidade
Desinfecção/métodos
Halogenação
Iodetos/toxicidade
Ozônio/toxicidade
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bromides); 0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Iodides); 0 (Waste Water); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 66H7ZZK23N (Ozone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28774610
[Au] Autor:How ZT; Kristiana I; Busetti F; Linge KL; Joll CA
[Ad] Endereço:Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6102, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Organic chloramines in chlorine-based disinfected water systems: A critical review.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);58:2-18, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper is a critical review of current knowledge of organic chloramines in water systems, including their formation, stability, toxicity, analytical methods for detection, and their impact on drinking water treatment and quality. The term organic chloramines may refer to any halogenated organic compounds measured as part of combined chlorine (the difference between the measured free and total chlorine concentrations), and may include N-chloramines, N-chloramino acids, N-chloraldimines and N-chloramides. Organic chloramines can form when dissolved organic nitrogen or dissolved organic carbon react with either free chlorine or inorganic chloramines. They are potentially harmful to humans and may exist as an intermediate for other disinfection by-products. However, little information is available on the formation or occurrence of organic chloramines in water due to a number of challenges. One of the biggest challenges for the identification and quantification of organic chloramines in water systems is the lack of appropriate analytical methods. In addition, many of the organic chloramines that form during disinfection are unstable, which results in difficulties in sampling and detection. To date research has focussed on the study of organic monochloramines. However, given that breakpoint chlorination is commonly undertaken in water treatment systems, the formation of organic dichloramines should also be considered. Organic chloramines can be formed from many different precursors and pathways. Therefore, studying the occurrence of their precursors in water systems would enable better prediction and management of their formation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cloraminas/análise
Desinfetantes/análise
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cloro
Desinfecção/métodos
Água Potável/química
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 4R7X1O2820 (Chlorine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28774608
[Au] Autor:Carter RAA; Joll CA
[Ad] Endereço:Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6102, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Occurrence and formation of disinfection by-products in the swimming pool environment: A critical review.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);58:19-50, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Disinfection of water for human use is essential to protect against microbial disease; however, disinfection also leads to formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are of health concern. From a chemical perspective, swimming pools are a complex matrix, with continual addition of a wide range of natural and anthropogenic chemicals via filling waters, disinfectant addition, pharmaceuticals and personal care products and human body excretions. Natural organic matter, trace amounts of DBPs and chlorine or chloramines may be introduced by the filling water, which is commonly disinfected distributed drinking water. Chlorine and/or bromine is continually introduced via the addition of chemical disinfectants to the pool. Human body excretions (sweat, urine and saliva) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (sunscreens, cosmetics, hair products and lotions) are introduced by swimmers. High addition of disinfectant leads to a high formation of DBPs from reaction of some of the chemicals with the disinfectant. Swimming pool air is also of concern as volatile DBPs partition into the air above the pool. The presence of bromine leads to the formation of a wide range of bromo- and bromo/chloro-DBPs, and Br-DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. This is particularly important for seawater-filled pools or pools using a bromine-based disinfectant. This review summarises chemical contaminants and DBPs in swimming pool waters, as well as in the air above pools. Factors that have been found to affect DBP formation in pools are discussed. The impact of the swimming pool environment on human health is reviewed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desinfetantes/análise
Desinfecção/métodos
Piscinas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cloraminas/análise
Cloro/análise
Halogenação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 4R7X1O2820 (Chlorine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28774605
[Au] Autor:Tardif R; Rodriguez M; Catto C; Charest-Tardif G; Simard S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Canada. Electronic address: Robert.Tardif@umontreal.ca.
[Ti] Título:Concentrations of disinfection by-products in swimming pool following modifications of the water treatment process: An exploratory study.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);58:163-172, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The formation and concentration of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in pool water and the ambient air vary according to the type of water treatment process used. This exploratory study was aimed at investigating the short-term impact of modifications of the water treatment process on traditional DBP levels (e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), chloramines) and emerging DBPs (e.g., Halonitromethanes, Haloketones, NDMA) in swimming pool water and/or air. A sampling program was carried to understand the impact of the following changes made successively to the standard water treatment process: activation of ultraviolet (UV) photoreactor, halt of air stripping with continuation of air extraction from the buffer tank, halt of air stripping and suppression of air extraction from the buffer tank, suppression of the polyaluminium silicate sulfate (PASS) coagulant. UV caused a high increase of Halonitromethanes (8.4 fold), Haloketones (2.1 fold), and THMs in the water (1.7 fold) and, of THMs in the air (1.6 fold) and contributed to reducing the level of chloramines in the air (1.6 fold) and NDMA in the water (2.1 fold). The results highlight the positive impact of air stripping in reducing volatile contaminants. The PASS did not change the presence of DBPs, except for the THMs, which decrease slightly with the use of this coagulant. This study shows that modifications affecting the water treatment process can rapidly produce important and variable impacts on DBP levels in water and air and suggests that implementation of any water treatment process to reduce DBP levels should take into account the specific context of each swimming pool.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desinfetantes/análise
Piscinas
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cloraminas/análise
Desinfecção
Trialometanos/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28768934
[Au] Autor:Nakahara K; Kitazawa C; Mineno T
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare.
[Ti] Título:Chloramine-T-Mediated Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols Using Indium(III) Triflate.
[So] Source:Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo);65(8):801-804, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5223
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The efficient oxidation of benzylic alcohols to carbonyl compounds was performed using chloramine-T and a catalytic amount of indium(III) triflate. The primary benzylic alcohols were converted to the corresponding aldehydes in a good yield, and the secondary benzylic alcohols were oxidized to ketones in a high yield. The optimized reaction conditions required 0.3 eq of indium(III) triflate and the use of acetonitrile as a solvent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Álcool Benzílico/química
Cloraminas/química
Cetonas/síntese química
Compostos de Tosil/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cetonas/química
Estrutura Molecular
Oxirredução
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Ketones); 0 (Tosyl Compounds); 4IU6VSV0EI (chloramine-T); LKG8494WBH (Benzyl Alcohol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170829
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170829
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170804
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1248/cpb.c17-00061


  7 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28647237
[Au] Autor:Moradi S; Liu S; Chow CWK; van Leeuwen J; Cook D; Drikas M; Amal R
[Ad] Endereço:School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Developing a chloramine decay index to understand nitrification: A case study of two chloraminated drinking water distribution systems.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);57:170-179, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The management of chloramine decay and the prevention of nitrification are some of the critical issues faced by water utilities that use chloramine as a disinfectant. In this study, potential association between high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) data obtained with multiple wavelength Ultraviolet (UV) detection from two drinking water distribution systems in Australia and nitrification occurrence was investigated. An increase in the absorbance signal of HPSEC profiles with UV detection at λ=230nm between apparent molecular weights of 200 to 1000Da was observed at sampling sites that experienced rapid chloramine decay and nitrification while its absorbance signal at λ=254nm decreased. A chloramine decay index (C.D.I) defined as the ratio of area beneath the HPSEC spectra at two different wavelengths of 230 and 254nm, was used in assessing chloramine decay occurrences. The C.D.Is of waters at locations that experienced nitrification were consistently higher than locations not experiencing nitrification. A simulated laboratory study showed that the formation of nitrite/nitrate and/or soluble microbial products and/or the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) during nitrification may contribute to the C.D.I. increase. These findings suggest that C.D.I derived from HPSEC with multiple wavelength UV detection could be an informative index to track the occurrence of rapid chloramine decay and nitrification.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cloraminas/química
Desinfetantes/química
Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Amônia
Austrália
Água Potável
Nitrificação
Nitritos
Abastecimento de Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Nitrites); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170714
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170626
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28647228
[Au] Autor:Moradi S; Liu S; Chow CWK; van Leeuwen J; Cook D; Drikas M; Amal R
[Ad] Endereço:School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Chloramine demand estimation using surrogate chemical and microbiological parameters.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);57:1-7, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A model is developed to enable estimation of chloramine demand in full scale drinking water supplies based on chemical and microbiological factors that affect chloramine decay rate via nonlinear regression analysis method. The model is based on organic character (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) of the water samples and a laboratory measure of the microbiological (F ) decay of chloramine. The applicability of the model for estimation of chloramine residual (and hence chloramine demand) was tested on several waters from different water treatment plants in Australia through statistical test analysis between the experimental and predicted data. Results showed that the model was able to simulate and estimate chloramine demand at various times in real drinking water systems. To elucidate the loss of chloramine over the wide variation of water quality used in this study, the model incorporates both the fast and slow chloramine decay pathways. The significance of estimated fast and slow decay rate constants as the kinetic parameters of the model for three water sources in Australia was discussed. It was found that with the same water source, the kinetic parameters remain the same. This modelling approach has the potential to be used by water treatment operators as a decision support tool in order to manage chloramine disinfection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cloraminas/química
Modelos Químicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Austrália
Água Potável/química
Cinética
Purificação da Água/métodos
Abastecimento de Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Drinking Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170714
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170626
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28618281
[Au] Autor:Tian FX; Xu B; Lin YL; Hu CY; Zhang TY; Xia SJ; Chu WH; Gao NY
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Institute of Disinfection By-product Control in Water Treatment, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Chlor(am)ination of iopamidol: Kinetics, pathways and disinfection by-products formation.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;184:489-497, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The degradation kinetics, pathways and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation of iopamidol by chlorine and chloramines were investigated in this paper. The chlorination kinetics can be well described by a second-order model. The apparent second-order rate constants of iopamidol chlorination significantly increased with solution pH. The rate constants of iopamidol with HOCl and OCl were calculated as (1.66 ± 0.09) × 10 M s and (0.45± 0.02) M s , respectively. However, the chloramination of iopamidol fitted well with third-order kinetics and the maximum of the apparent rate constant occurred at pH 7. It was inferred that the free chlorine (i.e., HOCl and OCl ) can react with iopamidol while the combined chlorine species (i.e., NH Cl and NHCl ) were not reactive with iopamidol. The main intermediates during chlorination or chloramination of iopamidol were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), and the destruction pathways including stepwise deiodination, hydroxylation as well as chlorination were then proposed. The regular and iodinated DBPs formed during chlorination and chloramination of iopamidol were measured. It was found that iodine conversion from iopamidol to toxic iodinated DBPs distinctly increased during chloramination. The results also indicated that although chloramines were much less reactive than chlorine toward iopamidol, they led to the formation of much more toxic iodinated DBPs, especially CHI .
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cloraminas/química
Desinfetantes/toxicidade
Desinfecção/métodos
Halogenação
Iopamidol/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Desinfetantes/química
Iopamidol/toxicidade
Cinética
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); JR13W81H44 (Iopamidol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170616
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1702 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28501787
[Au] Autor:Ma X; Bibby K
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
[Ti] Título:Free chlorine and monochloramine inactivation kinetics of Aspergillus and Penicillium in drinking water.
[So] Source:Water Res;120:265-271, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2448
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Fungi are near-ubiquitous in potable water distribution systems, but the disinfection kinetics of commonly identified fungi are poorly studied. In the present study, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, and Penicillium purpurogenum by free chlorine and monochloramine. The observed inactivation data were then fit to a delayed Chick-Watson model. Based on the model parameter estimation, the Ct values (integrated product of disinfectant concentration C and contact time t over defined time intervals) for 99.9% inactivation of the tested fungal strains ranged from 48.99 mg min/L to 194.7 mg min/L for free chlorine and from 90.33 mg min/L to 531.3 mg min/L for monochloramine. Fungal isolates from a drinking water system (Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium purpurogenum) were more disinfection resistant than Aspergillus fumigatus type and clinical isolates. The required 99.9% inactivation Ct values for the tested fungal strains are higher than E. coli, a commonly monitored indicator bacteria, and within a similar range for bacteria commonly identified within water distribution systems, such as Mycobacterium spp. and Legionella spp.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aspergillus
Desinfecção
Água Potável
Penicillium
Purificação da Água
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cloraminas
Cloro
Desinfetantes
Escherichia coli
Seres Humanos
Cinética
Microbiologia da Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chloramines); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Drinking Water); 4R7X1O2820 (Chlorine); KW8K411A1P (chloramine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170515
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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