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Pesquisa : D01.268.185.600 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29367087
[Au] Autor:Hegedus M; Tóth-Bodrogi E; Jónás J; Somlai J; Kovács T
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology, University of Pannonia, 10 Egyetem Str., H-8200, Veszprém, Hungary.
[Ti] Título:Mobility of Th and Po in red mud.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;184-185:71-76, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The valorization of industrial by-products such as red mud became a tempting opportunity, but the understanding of the risks involved is required for the safe utilization of these products. One of the risks involved are the elevated levels of radionuclides (in the 100-1300 Bq/kg range for both the U and  Th decay chains, but usually lower than 1000 Bq/kg, which is the recommended limit for excemption or clearance according to the EU BSS released in 2013) in red mud that can affect human health. There is no satisfactory answer for the utilization of red mud; the main current solution is still almost exclusively disposal into a landfill. For the safe utilization and deposition of red mud, it is important to be able to assess the leaching behaviour of radionuclides. Because there is no commonly accepted measurement protocol for testing the leaching of radionuclides in the EU a combined measurement protocol was made and tested based on heavy metal leaching methods. The leaching features of red mud were studied by methods compliant with the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method for Th and Po. The leached solutions were taken to radiochemical separation followed by spontaneous deposition for Po and electrodeposition for Th. The 332 ±â€¯33 Bq/kg Th content was minimally mobile, 1% became available for distilled water 1% and 6% for Lakanen-Erviö solution; the Tessier extraction showed minimal mobility in the first four steps, while more than 85% remained in the residue. The Po measurements had a severe disturbing effect in many cases, probably due to large amounts of iron present in the red mud, from the 310 ±â€¯12 Bq/kg by aqua regia digestion, distilled water mobilized 23%, while Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized ∼13%. The proposed protocol is suitable for the analysis of Th and Po leaching behaviour.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Resíduos Industriais/análise
Polônio/análise
Monitoramento de Radiação
Resíduos Radioativos/análise
Tório/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Hungria
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Industrial Waste); 0 (Radioactive Waste); 60YU5MIG9W (Thorium); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28532321
[Au] Autor:Desideri D; Meli MA; Roselli C; Feduzi L; Ugolini L
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Biomolecular Sciences , Urbino University "Carlo Bo" , Urbino , Italy.
[Ti] Título:Polonium bioaccessibility assessment in algae for human consumption: An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method.
[So] Source:J Toxicol Environ Health A;80(4):230-235, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1528-7394
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The occurrence and mobility of natural radioactive element as Polonium ( Po) in 13 commercial algae consumed in Italy by humans were determined because the effects on human health need to take into account the bioavailability of these elements. The simulation of gastrointestinal (GIT) digestion was divided into three stages and was accomplished using three different artificial solutions: saliva, gastric, and synthetic bile-pancreas solution. The same sample was treated in two different ways: a) only gastric digestion and b) complete GIT digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas solution). The difference between Po gastric mobility with respect to that found for GIT digestion was not significant; in fact, Po mobility exhibited a mean value 17.2 ± 15.1% and 19.5 ± 11.5% for gastric and GIT digestion, respectively.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Digestão
Polônio/farmacocinética
Poluentes Radioativos da Água/farmacocinética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Disponibilidade Biológica
Clorófitas/química
Cianobactérias/química
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
Itália
Modelos Biológicos
Feófitas/química
Rodófitas/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Water Pollutants, Radioactive); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170707
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170707
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15287394.2017.1285733


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[PMID]:28314186
[Au] Autor:Bonotto DM; Oliveira AMMA
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Câmpus de Rio Claro, Av. 24-A No.1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: danielmarcosbonotto@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Mobility indices and doses from Po and Pb activity concentrations data in Brazilian spas groundwaters.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;172:15-23, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Po and Pb activity concentrations in spas groundwaters occurring at São Paulo (SP) and Minas Gerais (MG) states, Brazil, have been reported in this paper with a dual purpose: to compare different indices for evaluating the radionuclides mobility into waters and to evaluate the drinking water quality from dose calculations. The waters (75 sampling points) are extensively used for drinking in public places, bottling and bathing purposes, among other. The samples were taken from springs and wells drilled at different aquifer systems inserted in Paraná and Southeastern Shield hydrogeological provinces. The WHO guideline reference value for Pb and Po of 0.1 Bq/L in drinking water was not reached for Pb but the Po levels were equal or above it in four spas groundwaters from MG State. The maximum WHO guidance dose level of 0.1 mSv/yr was also reached or surpassed in them. The Pb "mobility index" taking into account the ratio of the weight of the dissolved Pb per unit volume of solution to its weight per unit weight of the rock matrix yielded values in the range of 0.01-5.2 kg/m . Another "mobility index" (Preference Ratio) expressing the ratio of Pb and U in the waters divided by the ratio of Pb and U in the rock matrices provided values between 0.004 and 7994. The Pb/ U activity ratios of some spas groundwaters suggested preferential U transport relative to Pb into the liquid phase, whereas the ratio of the Pb to U mobility indices indicated the opposite. Such finding showed a better usefulness of the mobility indices for evaluating processes affecting the radionuclides release into the liquid phase during the water/rock interactions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Água Subterrânea/química
Fontes Termais/química
Radioisótopos de Chumbo/análise
Polônio/análise
Monitoramento de Radiação
Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Abastecimento de Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Lead Radioisotopes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Radioactive); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170602
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170602
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170318
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 984 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28245194
[Au] Autor:Harrison J; Fell T; Leggett R; Lloyd D; Puncher M; Youngman M
[Ad] Endereço:Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford, OX3 0BP, United Kingdom. Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:The polonium-210 poisoning of Mr Alexander Litvinenko.
[So] Source:J Radiol Prot;37(1):266-278, 2017 Mar 20.
[Is] ISSN:1361-6498
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Mr Litvinenko died on 23 November 2006 after having been poisoned with polonium-210 on 1 November. Measurements of the polonium-210 content of post-mortem tissue samples and samples of urine and blood showed the presence of large amounts of Po. Autoradiography of hair samples showed two regions of Po activity, providing evidence of an earlier poisoning attempt during October 2006, resulting in absorption to blood of about one-hundredth of that estimated for 1 November. Intake by ingestion on 1 November was estimated to be around 4 GBq, assuming 10% absorption to blood, and the resulting organ doses reached estimated values that were generally in a range from about 20 Gy to over 100 Gy. Comparison with estimates of protracted alpha particle doses required to cause irreversible organ damage supported the conclusion that death was the inevitable consequence of multiple organ failure, with destruction of the haemopoietic bone marrow, as well as damage to kidneys and liver, being important contributors. If the earlier poisoning during October 2006 had not been followed by a second major intake on 1 November, it is possible that the earlier intake of around 40 MBq, with absorption of 4 MBq to blood, might have caused irreversible kidney damage over a prolonged period of months or years, with doses of approaching 3 Gy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Síndrome Aguda da Radiação/diagnóstico
Pessoas Famosas
Homicídio
Polônio/envenenamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Masculino
Dose de Radiação
Distribuição Tecidual
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170301
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1088/1361-6498/aa58a7


  5 / 984 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28242538
[Au] Autor:Chuangao W; Ruirui L; Jinfeng L; Zhijun H; Jingshun P; Zhiping L; Ling C; Zhongwen W; Ziqiang P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Radiation Safety, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Fangshan District, Beijing, 102413, China. Electronic address: wangchuangao45@163.com.
[Ti] Título:Po distribution after high temperature processes in coal-fired power plants.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;171:132-137, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this paper, the distribution of Po after high temperature processes in six units of coal-fired power plants (CFPs) were evaluated. The coal, bottom ashes, fly ashes from electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gases from stacks were sampled from four CFPs and analyzed for Po contents. The results showed that Po was mainly captured by the ESP, with little left in the bottom ash, and a small fraction of Po was directly discharged into the environment through the stacks, accounting for 0.06%-0.6%, which was consistent with the reported data. It was also found that part of the Po could not be accounted for in the mass balance analysis for the whole combustion process in CFPs, which was also in line with the reported data. The results obtained in this study provided essential basic data for environmental radiological risk analysis for CFPs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cinza de Carvão/análise
Polônio/análise
Centrais Elétricas
Monitoramento de Radiação
Poluentes Radioativos/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Coal Ash); 0 (Radioactive Pollutants); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170428
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170428
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170301
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28187926
[Au] Autor:Erenturk SA; Kaygun AK
[Ad] Endereço:Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: erenturk@itu.edu.tr.
[Ti] Título:Removal of Po from aqueous media and its thermodynamics and kinetics.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;174:3-9, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, the composite adsorbent as granule was prepared by mixing of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) in specific conditions. The prepared composite adsorbent was used for investigating the adsorption behaviour of Po. Adsorption of Po was studied in a column system. The effective parameters such as initial activity concentration of Po, pH of the aqueous solution, contact time and temperature of solution for adsorption behaviour of Po were studied. Adsorption yield of Po on composite adsorbent from aqueous solution in optimum conditions were determined as 75.00 ± 0.15%. The adsorption equilibrium data was examined using various well-known isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin and Radushkevish and Tempkin, and it was observed that the experimental equilibrium data well fitted and found to be in good agreement with the Tempkin model. Adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of the polonium were studied. It was found that the processes for Po were exothermic and spontaneous. The kinetic data conformed better to the pseudo-second order equation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Polônio/análise
Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adsorção
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Cinética
Modelos Químicos
Polônio/química
Termodinâmica
Poluentes Radioativos da Água/química
Zeolitas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Water Pollutants, Radioactive); 1318-02-1 (Zeolites); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170623
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170623
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170212
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 984 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28185676
[Au] Autor:Horváth M; Shahrokhi A; Bátor P; Tóth-Bodrogi E; Kovács T
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology, University of Pannonia, 10 Egyetem str., H-8200, Veszprém, Hungary; Social Organisation for Radioecological Cleanliness, 7/a József Attila str., H-8200, Veszprém, Hungary.
[Ti] Título:Determination of Po-210 content in cigarette smoke using a smoking machine: A case study of Iranian cigarettes.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;174:66-70, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Po-210 content of tobacco has been known for a long time, however, different results can be found about the estimated amount of Po-210 that is inhaled by humans as a result of smoking cigarettes. Because of the unique properties of Po-210, the smoking machines available on the market are not suitable because of their failure to quantitatively collect Po-210 for measurement. Therefore, to estimate precisely the amount of Po-210 entering the lungs as a result of smoking, a smoking machine and sampling protocol based on relevant ISO standards - ISO-3308, ISO-3402 and ISO-4387 - was developed. A 5% HCl solution was found to be the best absorber of Po-210 from smoke. Seventeen different brands of cigarettes distributed in Iran were used to validate the new machine and sampling protocol. The Po-210 concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry; the cigarette smoke solution underwent combined acid treatment after adding a Po-209 tracer. The Po-210 activity concentration of cigarettes sold in Iran was between 9.7 ± 1.2 and 26.5 ± 4.6 mBq/cigarette and it was determined that there was no relationship between the Po-210 and nicotine contents of cigarette smoke. Additionally, it was found that 15 ± 10% of the cigarette Po-210 was transferred to the mainstream smoke.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise
Polônio/análise
Produtos do Tabaco/análise
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Irã (Geográfico)
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants, Radioactive); 0 (Tobacco Smoke Pollution); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170623
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170623
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170211
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28110199
[Au] Autor:Praveen Pole RP; Feroz Khan M; Godwin Wesley S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil, 629003, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address: praveen.pole@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:Occurrence of Po in marine macroalgae inhabiting a coastal nuclear zone, southeast coast of India.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;169-170:122-130, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The activity concentration of Po in 26 species of marine macroalgae found along coast near to a nuclear installation in southeast coast of India was studied. Phaeophytes were found to accumulate the maximum Po concentration and chlorophytes the minimum. The average Po activity concentration values in the three groups were 6.2 ± 2.5 Bq kg (Chlorophyta), 14.4 ± 5.2 Bq kg (Phaeophyta) and 11.3 ± 3.9 Bq kg (Rhodophyta). A statistically significant variation in accumulation was found between groups (p < 0.05). The un-weighted dose rate to these algae due to Po was calculated to be well below the benchmark dose limit of 10 µGy h .
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Polônio/análise
Monitoramento de Radiação
Alga Marinha/química
Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Índia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Water Pollutants, Radioactive); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170405
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170405
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170123
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28062225
[Au] Autor:Vaasma T; Loosaar J; Gyakwaa F; Kiisk M; Özden B; Tkaczyk AH
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia. Electronic address: taavi.vaasma@ut.ee.
[Ti] Título:Pb-210 and Po-210 atmospheric releases via fly ash from oil shale-fired power plants.
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;222:210-218, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:During high temperature processes in the furnace volatile and semi-volatile elements and radionuclides are partially emitted to the environment, depending on their chemical form in the original fuel, the technological set-up of the combustion system, and the prevailing combustion conditions. Two of the world's largest oil shale-fired power plants (PPs) have been operational in Estonia from the 1960s, during which time creation of significant environmental emissions and waste containing naturally occurring radionuclides has occurred. Pb-210 and Po are considered natural radionuclides with the highest emission rates from PPs and possess elevated potential radiation exposure risks to humans and the environment. These radionuclides have the highest activity concentration values in fine ash fractions, especially in fractions remaining below 2.5 µm. To determine the activity concentrations of Pb and Po in the PPs' outlet, sampling was conducted from boilers operating on pulverized fuel (PF) technology with novel integrated desulphurization (NID) system and bag filters as well as with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The Pb and Po activity concentrations remained around 300 Bq kg for the NID system compared to 60-80 Bq kg in the ESP system. The dominant ash fraction in both systems was PM2.5, constituting over 50% of the fly ash mass collected from the outlet. The authors estimate that the total atmospherically emitted activity for the modernized PPs remains dominantly below 1% of the activity that is inserted via fuel. The implementation of higher efficiency purifications systems has significantly reduced the negative effect of these PPs. Based on annually emitted fly ash and boilers' working hours, the Pb and Po activity released relative to energy production were up to 68.3 kBq GWh for Pb and 64.6 kBq GWh for Po. These values are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower compared to the situation in the 1980s. These findings represent the first publicly available quantitative results estimating the Po emissions from large oil shale-fired PPs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise
Cinza de Carvão/química
Radioisótopos de Chumbo/análise
Polônio/análise
Centrais Elétricas
Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos
Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/química
Cinza de Carvão/análise
Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/química
Espectrometria gama
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants, Radioactive); 0 (Coal Ash); 0 (Lead Radioisotopes); 0 (Soil Pollutants, Radioactive); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170108
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 984 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27914777
[Au] Autor:Nelson AW; Eitrheim ES; Knight AW; May D; Wichman MD; Forbes TZ; Schultz MK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Chemistry Building, 251 North Capitol Street, Iowa City, IA 52242, United States. Electronic address: andrew-w-nelson@uiowa.edu.
[Ti] Título:Polonium-210 accumulates in a lake receiving coal mine discharges-anthropogenic or natural?
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;167:211-221, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Coal is an integral part of global energy production; however, coal mining is associated with numerous environmental health impacts. It is well documented that coal-mine waste can contaminate the environment with naturally-occurring radionuclides from the uranium-238 ( U) decay series. However, the behavior of the final radionuclide in the U-series, i.e., polonium-210 ( Po) arising from coal-mine waste-water discharge is largely unexplored. Here, results of a year-long (2014-2015) field study, in which the concentrations of Po in sediments and surface water of a lake that receives coal-mine waste-water discharge in West Virginia are presented. Initial measurements identified levels of Po in the lake sediments that were in excess of that which could be attributed to ambient U-series parent radionuclides; and were indicative of discharge site contamination of the lake ecosystem. However, control sediment obtained from a similar lake system in Iowa (an area with no coal mining or unconventional drilling) suggests that the levels of Po in the lake are a natural phenomenon; and are likely unrelated to waste-water treatment discharges. Elevated levels of Po have been reported in lake bottom sediments previously, yet very little information is available on the radioecological implications of Po accumulation in lake bottom sediments. The findings of this study suggest that (Monthly Energy Review, 2016) the natural accumulation and retention of Po in lake sediments may be a greater than previously considered (Chadwick et al., 2013) careful selection of control sites is important to prevent the inappropriate attribution of elevated levels of NORM in lake bottom ecosystems to industrial sources; and (Van Hook, 1979) further investigation of the source-terms and potential impacts on elevated Po in lake-sediment ecosystems is warranted.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Minas de Carvão
Lagos/química
Polônio/análise
Monitoramento de Radiação
Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Water Pollutants, Radioactive); DQY03U61EJ (Polonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170414
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170414
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161205
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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