Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : D01.268.557 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 42 [refinar]
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[PMID]:27475436
[Au] Autor:Han L; Gao B; Zhou Y; Xu D; Gao L; Yu H; Wang S
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, 100038, China.
[Ti] Título:Comprehensive assessment of seldom monitored trace elements pollution in the riparian soils of the Miyun Reservoir, China.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;23(20):20772-20782, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The South-to-North Water Diversion Project has aroused widespread concerns about the potential ecological risks posed by the project, especially for the Miyun Reservoir (MYR). The potential release risk of metals from the flooded riparian soils into MYR after water impoundment is one of key scientific problems. In this study, riparian soil samples were collected considering three vertical heights (130, 140, and 145 m) and four types of land uses in the MYR areas, namely, forestland, grassland, wasteland, and recreational land. We analyzed soils texture, the content and chemical fractionations of seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs): Li, Be, B, V, Co, Ni, Ga, Sn, Sb, Tl, and Bi). Results showed that the four types of soils in MYR had the similar textures, while recreational land showed significantly higher contents of Ni and V. Additionally, there were no significant differences found for most SMTEs (except for V) at different vertical heights in each soil type, while the concentrations of V at 140 and 145 m in forestland and recreational land were significantly higher than those at 130 m. However, a comprehensive evaluation of potential ecological risk (contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and geoaccumulation factor (I )) consistently indicated the insignificant contaminations of all SMTEs in MYR soils before water impoundment. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results showed that the chemical fractionations of SMTEs were independent of land use patterns and vertical heights. Co in reducible fractions and Ni were identified as the candidates which had potential to release into MYR when the lands were submerged. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) results suggested that a portion of V, Co, and Ni may originate from anthropogenic activities, and the coal combustion was possibly the main anthropogenic source. The findings of this work would provide valuable information on the environment management of MYR and offer a reference for the investigation on the effect of water impoundment on potential release risk of SMTEs in MYR.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Poluentes do Solo/análise
Solo/química
Oligoelementos/análise
Recursos Hídricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fracionamento Químico
China
Inundações
Metais Pesados/análise
Metais Leves/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Metals, Light); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (Trace Elements)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160801
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27398715
[Au] Autor:Hoffmann R; Alvarez S; Mealli C; Falceto A; Cahill TJ; Zeng T; Manca G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University , Ithaca, New York 14853, United States.
[Ti] Título:From Widely Accepted Concepts in Coordination Chemistry to Inverted Ligand Fields.
[So] Source:Chem Rev;116(14):8173-92, 2016 07 27.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6890
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We begin with a brief historical review of the development of our understanding of the normal ordering of nd orbitals of a transition metal interacting with ligands, the most common cases being three below two in an octahedral environment, two below three in tetrahedral coordination, and four below one in a square-planar environment. From the molecular orbital construction of these ligand field splittings evolves a strategy for inverting the normal order: the obvious way to achieve this is to raise the ligand levels above the metal d's; that is, make the ligands better Lewis bases. However, things are not so simple, for such metal/ligand level placement may lead to redox processes. For 18-electron octahedral complexes one can create the inverted situation, but it manifests itself in the makeup of valence orbitals (are they mainly on metal or ligands?) rather than energy. One can also see the effect, in small ways, in tetrahedral Zn(II) complexes. We construct several examples of inverted ligand field systems with a hypothetical but not unrealistic AlCH3 ligand and sketch the consequences of inversion on reactivity. Special attention is paid to the square-planar case, exemplified by [Cu(CF3)4](-), in which Snyder had the foresight to see a case of an inverted field, with the empty valence orbital being primarily ligand centered, the dx2-y2 orbital heavily occupied, in what would normally be called a Cu(III) complex. For [Cu(CF3)4](-) we provide theoretical evidence from electron distributions, geometry of the ligands, thermochemistry of molecule formation, and the energetics of abstraction of a CF3 ligand by a base, all consistent with oxidation of the ligands in this molecule. In [Cu(CF3)4](-), and perhaps more complexes on the right side of the transition series than one has imagined, some ligands are σ-noninnocent. Exploration of inverted ligand fields helps us see the continuous, borderless transition from transition metal to main group bonding. We also give voice to a friendly disagreement on oxidation states in these remarkable molecules.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Complexos de Coordenação/química
Modelos Químicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Materiais Biomiméticos/química
Bases de Lewis/química
Ligantes
Metais Pesados/química
Metais Leves/química
Estrutura Molecular
Oxirredução
Teoria Quântica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Coordination Complexes); 0 (Lewis Bases); 0 (Ligands); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Metals, Light)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160712
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00251


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[PMID]:26493693
[Au] Autor:Stuart BH; Notter SJ; Dent B; Selvalatchmanan J; Fu S
[Ti] Título:The formation of adipocere in model aquatic environments.
[So] Source:Int J Legal Med;130(1):281-6, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1437-1596
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An examination of the chemistry of adipocere formation in aquatic systems provides insight into how environmental factors affect the decomposition processes of human remains. Gas chromatography­mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma­mass spectrometry (ICPMS) have been employed to monitor the changes to the chemistry of adipocere formed in aquatic environments used to model seawater, river and chlorinated water systems. Seawater was shown to inhibit adipocere formation, and a distinctively different elemental composition was produced in this environment due to the high concentrations of salts. By comparison, river water has been shown to accelerate the formation of adipocere. Chlorinated water appears to significantly enhance adipocere formation, based on a comparison with established fatty acid concentration values. However, a competing reaction to form chlorohydrins in chlorinated water is believed to be responsible for the unusual findings in this environment. The application of the chemical characterization of adipocere to an understanding of how this particular decomposition product forms in different water environments has been demonstrated, and there is potential to utilise this approach to identify the environment in which a body has been immersed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Imersão
Mudanças Depois da Morte
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cálcio/análise
Ácidos Graxos/análise
Patologia Legal
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Metais Leves/análise
Modelos Animais
Rios
Água do Mar
Extração em Fase Sólida
Suínos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Metals, Light); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1610
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151024
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26125226
[Au] Autor:Pozebon D; Dressler VL; Marcelo MC; de Oliveira TC; Ferrão MF
[Ad] Endereço:a Instituto de Química , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Toxic and nutrient elements in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis).
[So] Source:Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill;8(3):215-20, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1939-3229
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Toxic and nutrient elements were investigated in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) from South America. Fifty-four brands of commercialised yerba mate from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay were analysed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr, and Zn, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and Li, Be, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Se, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, La, Ce, Pb, Bi and U using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Antimony, Se, Ag and Bi were not detected in any sample whereas the limits of detection (LODs) of these elements were 0.19, 0.40, 0.003 and 0.001 µg g(-1), respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the concentrations of Cd, Ti, Ni, As, Mo, U, Li and Be in yerba mate were not statistically different with regard to the country of origin, while those of the other investigated elements differed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bebidas/análise
Contaminação de Alimentos
Ilex paraguariensis/química
Metais Pesados/análise
Folhas de Planta/química
Caules de Planta/química
Oligoelementos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras
Arsênico/análise
Arsênico/toxicidade
Bebidas/efeitos adversos
Bebidas/economia
Cálcio na Dieta/análise
Inspeção de Alimentos
Seres Humanos
Limite de Detecção
Espectrometria de Massas
Metais Pesados/toxicidade
Metais Leves/análise
Metais Leves/toxicidade
Valor Nutritivo
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
América do Sul
Espectrofotometria Atômica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Calcium, Dietary); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Metals, Light); 0 (Trace Elements); N712M78A8G (Arsenic)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1605
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160518
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160518
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/19393210.2015.1053420


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[PMID]:25476349
[Au] Autor:Niedzielski P; Kozak L; Wachelka M; Jakubowski K; Wybieralska J
[Ad] Endereço:Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 89B Umultowska Street, 61-614 Poznan, Poland. Electronic address: pnied@amu.edu.pl.
[Ti] Título:The microwave induced plasma with optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) in 23 elements determination in geological samples.
[So] Source:Talanta;132:591-9, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3573
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The article presents the optimisation, validation and application of the microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) dedicated for a routine determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, Zn, in the geological samples. The three procedures of sample preparation has been proposed: sample digestion with the use of hydrofluoric acid for determination of total concentration of elements, extraction by aqua regia for determination of the quasi-total element concentration and extraction by hydrochloric acid solution to determine contents of the elements in acid leachable fraction. The detection limits were on the level 0.001-0.121 mg L(-1) (from 0.010-0.10 to 1.2-12 mg kg(-1) depend on the samples preparation procedure); the precision: 0.20-1.37%; accuracy 85-115% (for recovery for certified standards materials analysis and parallel analysis by independent analytical techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS)). The conformity of the results obtained by MIP-OES analytical procedures with the results obtained by XRF and FAAS analysis allows to propose the procedures for studies of elemental composition of the fraction of the geological samples. Additionally, the MIP-OES technique is much less expensive than ICP techniques and much less time-consuming than AAS techniques.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
Metais Alcalinos/análise
Metais Alcalinoterrosos/análise
Metais Pesados/análise
Metais Leves/análise
Metais Terras Raras/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sedimentos Geológicos/química
Geologia/instrumentação
Geologia/métodos
Ácido Clorídrico/química
Limite de Detecção
Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação
Micro-Ondas
Gases em Plasma
Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Alkali); 0 (Metals, Alkaline Earth); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Metals, Light); 0 (Metals, Rare Earth); 0 (Plasma Gases); QTT17582CB (Hydrochloric Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1508
[Cu] Atualização por classe:141205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
141205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:141206
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25019401
[Au] Autor:Ivanenko NB; Ivanenko AA; Solov'ev ND; Navolotskii DV; Pavlova OV; Ganeev AA
[Ti] Título:[Determination of Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Tl in whole blood by atomic absorption spectrometry without preliminary sample digestion].
[So] Source:Biomed Khim;60(3):378-88, 2014 May-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:2310-6972
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Methods of whole blood trace element determination by Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (in the variant of Zeeman's modulation polarization spectrometry) have been proposed. They do not require preliminary sample digestion. Furnace programs, modifiers and blood dilution factors were optimized. Seronorm™ human whole blood reference materials were used for validation. Dynamic ranges (for undiluted blood samples) were: Al 8 ¸ 210 мg/L; Be 0.3 ¸ 50 мg/L; Cd 0.2 ¸ 75 мg/L; Сo 5 ¸ 350 мg/L; Cr 10 ¸ 100 мg/L; Mn 6 ¸ 250 мg/L; Ni 10 ¸ 350 мg/L; Pb 3 ¸ 240 мg/L; Se 10 ¸ 500 мg/L; Tl 2 ¸ 600 мg/L. Precision (RSD) for the middle of dynamic range ranged from 5% for Mn to 11 for Se.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Calcogênios/sangue
Metais Pesados/sangue
Metais Leves/sangue
Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Padrões de Referência
Valores de Referência
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Espectrofotometria Atômica/instrumentação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chalcogens); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Metals, Light)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1408
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140715
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140715
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140715
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:24953228
[Au] Autor:Cid AS; Anjos RM; Zamboni CB; Cardoso R; Muniz M; Corona A; Valladares DL; Kovacs L; Macario K; Perea D; Goso C; Velasco H
[Ad] Endereço:LARA - Laboratório de Radioecologia e Alterações Ambientais, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, S/N, Gragoatá, 24210-346, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Na, K, Ca, Mg, and U-series in fossil bone and the proposal of a radial diffusion-adsorption model of uranium uptake.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;136:131-9, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Fossil bones are often the only materials available for chronological reconstruction of important archeological sites. However, since bone is an open system for uranium, it cannot be dated directly and therefore it is necessary to develop models for the U uptake. Hence, a radial diffusion-adsorption (RDA) model is described. Unlike the classic diffusion-adsorption (D-A) model, RDA uses a cylindrical geometry to describe the U uptake in fossil bones. The model was applied across a transverse section of a tibia of an extinct megamammal Macrauchenia patachonica from the La Paz Local Fauna, Montevideo State, Uruguay. Measurements of spatial distribution of Na, K, Ca, and Mg were also performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Gamma-ray spectrometric U-series dating was applied to determine the age of the bone sample. From U concentration profile, it was possible to observe the occurrence of a relatively slow and continuous uranium uptake under constant conditions that had not yet reached equilibrium, since the uranium distribution is a ∪-shaped closed-system. Predictions of the RDA model were obtained for a specific geochemical scenario, indicating that the effective diffusion coefficient D/R in this fossil bone is (2.4 ± 0.6)10(-12) cm(2)s(-1). Mean values of Na, K, Ca, and Mg contents along the radial line of the fossil tibia are consistent with the expected behavior for spatial distributions of these mineral elements across a modern bone section. This result indicates that the fossil tibia may have its mineral structure preserved.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arqueologia/métodos
Fósseis
Modelos Teóricos
Paleontologia/métodos
Tíbia/química
Urânio/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adsorção
Animais
Cálcio/química
Difusão
Mamíferos
Metais Leves/química
Análise de Ativação de Nêutrons
Espectrometria gama
Urânio/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Light); 4OC371KSTK (Uranium); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1504
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140721
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140721
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140624
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:24734900
[Au] Autor:Malucelli E; Iotti S; Gianoncelli A; Fratini M; Merolle L; Notargiacomo A; Marraccini C; Sargenti A; Cappadone C; Farruggia G; Bukreeva I; Lombardo M; Trombini C; Maier JA; Lagomarsino S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna , Bologna 40127, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Quantitative chemical imaging of the intracellular spatial distribution of fundamental elements and light metals in single cells.
[So] Source:Anal Chem;86(10):5108-15, 2014 May 20.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We report a method that allows a complete quantitative characterization of whole single cells, assessing the total amount of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, and magnesium and providing submicrometer maps of element molar concentration, cell density, mass, and volume. This approach allows quantifying elements down to 10(6) atoms/µm(3). This result was obtained by applying a multimodal fusion approach that combines synchrotron radiation microscopy techniques with off-line atomic force microscopy. The method proposed permits us to find the element concentration in addition to the mass fraction and provides a deeper and more complete knowledge of cell composition. We performed measurements on LoVo human colon cancer cells sensitive (LoVo-S) and resistant (LoVo-R) to doxorubicin. The comparison of LoVo-S and LoVo-R revealed different patterns in the maps of Mg concentration with higher values within the nucleus in LoVo-R and in the perinuclear region in LoVo-S cells. This feature was not so evident for the other elements, suggesting that Mg compartmentalization could be a significant trait of the drug-resistant cells.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Células/química
Elementos
Metais Leves/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Linhagem Celular Tumoral
Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo
Células/metabolismo
Resistência a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos
Seres Humanos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
Metais Leves/metabolismo
Microscopia de Força Atômica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Elements); 0 (Metals, Light)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1508
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140520
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140520
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140417
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/ac5008909


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[PMID]:24506207
[Au] Autor:Mercan L; Ekinci D; Supuran CT
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayis University , Samsun , Turkey and.
[Ti] Título:Characterization of carbonic anhydrase from Turkish native "Gerze" chicken and influences of metal ions on enzyme activity.
[So] Source:J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem;29(6):773-6, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1475-6374
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Abstract Carbonic anhydrase was purified and characterized from erythrocytes of the Turkish native chicken, Gerze, for the first time. The enzyme was purified 57.65-fold with a yield of 52%, and a specific activity of 954.08 U/mg proteins having optimum pH at 8.0; optimum temperature at 30 °C; optimum ionic strength at 10 mM and stable pH at 8.0. The purified enzyme had apparent KM and Vmax values of 0.73 mM and 0.236 µmol × min(-1), respectively. Al(+3), Hg(+2), Cu(+2), Pb(+2), and Cd(+2) showed inhibitory effects on the enzyme. Pb(+2) exhibited the strongest inhibitory action. Cd(+2) and Hg(+2) were moderate inhibitor, whereas Al(+3) and Cu(+2) showed weaker actions. All tested metals inhibited the enzyme in competitive manner. Our findings indicate that these metals inhibit the chicken enzyme in a similar manner to other α-CAs from mammals investigated earlier, but susceptibility to various metals differ between the native chicken and other mammalian enzymes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química
Anidrases Carbônicas/química
Galinhas/metabolismo
Eritrócitos/enzimologia
Metais Pesados/química
Metais Leves/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alumínio/química
Animais
Cádmio/química
Anidrases Carbônicas/isolamento & purificação
Cátions
Cobre/química
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Eritrócitos/química
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Cinética
Chumbo/química
Mercúrio/química
Concentração Osmolar
Turquia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors); 0 (Cations); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Metals, Light); 00BH33GNGH (Cadmium); 2P299V784P (Lead); 789U1901C5 (Copper); CPD4NFA903 (Aluminum); EC 4.2.1.1 (Carbonic Anhydrases); FXS1BY2PGL (Mercury)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1507
[Cu] Atualização por classe:141126
[Lr] Data última revisão:
141126
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140211
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3109/14756366.2013.855208


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[PMID]:24405320
[Au] Autor:Oldring PK; Castle L; O'Mahony C; Dixon J
[Ad] Endereço:a Valspar Corporation (representing the FACET Industry Group (FIG)) , Witney , UK.
[Ti] Título:Estimates of dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from light metal packaging using food consumption and packaging usage data: a refined deterministic approach and a fully probabilistic (FACET) approach.
[So] Source:Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess;31(3):466-89, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1944-0057
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19-64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005-0.012 mg dm(-2). The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the lowest and the highest estimates from the refined deterministic calculations. Since this should be the case, for a fully probabilistic compared with a deterministic approach, it is concluded that the FACET tool has been verified in this example. A recent EFSA draft opinion on exposure to BPA from different sources showed that canned foods were a major contributor and compared results from various models, including those from FACET. The results from FACET were overall conservative.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
Embalagem de Alimentos
Fenóis/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade
Inquéritos sobre Dietas
Embalagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos
Alimentos em Conserva/análise
Alimentos em Conserva/toxicidade
Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle/métodos
Seres Humanos
Metais Leves
Modelos Estatísticos
Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado
Fenóis/toxicidade
Software
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Metals, Light); 0 (Phenols); MLT3645I99 (bisphenol A)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1505
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140111
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/19440049.2013.860240



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