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[PMID]:29270996
[Au] Autor:Maldonado MR; Bracht L; de Sá-Nakanishi AB; Corrêa RCG; Comar JF; Peralta RM; Bracht A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry, University of Maringá, Maringá, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Actions of p-synephrine on hepatic enzyme activities linked to carbohydrate metabolism and ATP levels in vivo and in the perfused rat liver.
[So] Source:Cell Biochem Funct;36(1):4-12, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1099-0844
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:p-Synephrine is one of the main active components of the fruit of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange). Extracts of the bitter orange and other preparations containing p-synephrine have been used worldwide to promote weight loss and for sports performance. The purpose of the study was to measure the action of p-synephrine on hepatic enzyme activities linked to carbohydrate and energy metabolism and the levels of adenine mononucleotides. Enzymes and adenine mononucleotides were measured in the isolated perfused rat liver and in vivo after oral administration of the drug (50 and 300 mg/kg) by using standard techniques. p-Synephrine increased the activity of glycogen phosphorylase in vivo and in the perfused liver. It decreased, however, the activities of pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase also in vivo and in the perfused liver. p-Synephrine increased the hepatic pools of adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate. Stimulation of glycogen phosphorylase is consistent with the reported increased glycogenolysis in the perfused liver and increased glycemia in rats. The decrease in the pyruvate dehydrogenase activity indicates that p-synephrine is potentially capable of inhibiting the transformation of carbohydrates into lipids. The capability of increasing the adenosine triphosphate-adenosine diphosphate pool indicates a beneficial effect of p-synephrine on the cellular energetics.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/enzimologia
Sinefrina/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Oral
Animais
Citrus/química
Glicogênio Fosforilase/metabolismo
Fígado/irrigação sanguínea
Fígado/cirurgia
Masculino
Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores
Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
Piruvato Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores
Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo
Ratos
Ratos Wistar
Sinefrina/administração & dosagem
Sinefrina/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex); 8L70Q75FXE (Adenosine Triphosphate); EC 2.4.1.- (Glycogen Phosphorylase); EC 2.7.1.40 (Pyruvate Kinase); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171223
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cbf.3311


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[PMID]:28532150
[Au] Autor:Bader M; Lang T; Lang R; Hofmann T
[Ad] Endereço:Chair for Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Technische Universität München , Lise-Meitner-Straße 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Synephrine as a Specific Marker for Orange Consumption.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;65(23):4853-4858, 2017 Jun 14.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To validate the suitability of synephrine, known to be a highly abundant alkaloid in oranges, as a dietary biomarker for orange consumption, a highly sensitive and robust stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) as well as an ECHO method, using the analyte itself as a pseudointernal standard injected into the analysis run to provide an "echo peak" of the analyte, was developed to quantitate synephrine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in citrus juices and human urine before and after the ingestion of orange juice. A citrus juice screening revealed high synephrine concentrations of 150-420 nmol/mL in orange (n = 11) and tangerine (n = 2) juices, whereas 20-100 times lower levels were found in juice from grapefruit (n = 14), lemon (n = 5), pomelo (n = 2), and lime (n = 4). Application of the SIDA to quantitate synephrine in sulfatase/glucuronidase-treated urine samples (n = 10) after orange juice consumption showed an increase of synephrine from trace levels (0.1 ± 0.1 nmol/mL) in the 2-day washout phase to a maximum concentration of 8.9 (±5.5) nmol/mL found 4 h after ingestion of orange juice. Whereas proline betaine was recently reported as a dietary biomarker indicating the ingestion of any citrus product and Chinese artichoke, synephrine can be used a reliable additional biomarker with high specificity for orange and tangerine.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomarcadores/urina
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Citrus sinensis/metabolismo
Sinefrina/urina
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Frutas/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01941


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[PMID]:28372211
[Au] Autor:Tette PA; Guidi LR; Bastos EM; Fernandes C; Gloria MB
[Ad] Endereço:LBqA - Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, bloco 3, sala 2091, Pampulha, CEP 31210-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Synephrine - A potential biomarker for orange honey authenticity.
[So] Source:Food Chem;229:527-533, 2017 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:0308-8146
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A LC-MS/MS method for synephrine as a biomarker for orange honey authenticity was developed and validated. The sample was extracted with 5% TCA and cleaned up with Florisil providing 83.7% recoveries. Ions transitions for quantification and identification were 168→135.0 and 168→107.0, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.66 and 1.0ng/g, respectively. Synephrine was detected in orange honey at levels from 79.2 to 432.2ng/g, but not in other monofloral honeys. It was also present in some wildflower honeys (9.4-236.5ng/g), showing contribution of citrus to this polyfloral honey. Results were confirmed by qualitative pollen analysis. No citrus pollen was detected in honey containing synephrine levels ≤43.8ng/g, suggesting that synephrine in honey is more sensitive compared to pollen analysis. Synephrine was found in citrus but not in other apiculture flowers. Therefore, synephrine is a botanical marker to differentiate and attest authenticity of orange honey.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
Mel/análise
Sinefrina/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cromatografia Líquida
Citrus sinensis/química
Mel/classificação
Limite de Detecção
Pólen/química
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170515
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170515
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170405
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28058460
[Au] Autor:Bakhyia N; Dusemund B; Richter K; Lindtner O; Hirsch-Ernst KI; Schäfer B; Lampen A
[Ad] Endereço:Abt. Lebensmittelsicherheit, Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, 10589, Berlin, Deutschland. Nadiya.Bakhiya@bfr.bund.de.
[Ti] Título:[Risk assessment of synephrine in dietary supplements].
[Ti] Título:Gesundheitliche Risiken von Synephrin in Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln..
[So] Source:Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz;60(3):323-331, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1437-1588
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:ger
[Ab] Resumo:Synephrine is a sympathomimetic phenylethylamine derivative that occurs naturally in citrus fruits. It is often added to dietary supplements intended for weight loss and enhancement of sports performance, typically in the form of Citrus aurantium extracts and in many cases in combination with caffeine. The health risks of synephrine were evaluated on the basis of the available toxicological data and in accordance to the EFSA guidance on the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. In animal studies, orally applied synephrine induced adrenergic effects on the cardiovascular system (increase of blood pressure, ventricular arrhythmias), which were enhanced by the concomitant application of caffeine as well as physical activity. Some human intervention studies investigating the acute effects of synephrine on blood pressure and heart rate of healthy, normotensive test persons indicate that synephrine can induce cardiovascular effects in humans. A series of published case reports of adverse cardiovascular effects (hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction) were associated with consumption of synephrine- and caffeine-containing dietary supplements. In conclusion, consumption of high amounts of synephrine, especially in combination with caffeine and physical exercise, is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. According to the assessment by the BfR (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung), daily intake of synephrine through dietary supplements should not exceed the median intake from conventional foods.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos
Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos
Sinefrina/efeitos adversos
Sinefrina/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico
Citrus/química
Medicina Baseada em Evidências
Seres Humanos
Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/uso terapêutico
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Obesity Agents); 0 (Performance-Enhancing Substances); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00103-016-2506-5


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[PMID]:27062112
[Au] Autor:Cohen PA; Avula B; Venhuis B; Travis JC; Wang YH; Khan IA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
[Ti] Título:Pharmaceutical doses of the banned stimulant oxilofrine found in dietary supplements sold in the USA.
[So] Source:Drug Test Anal;9(1):135-142, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1942-7611
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Oxilofrine (4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)propyl]phenol) is a pharmaceutical stimulant prescribed in dosages of 16 to 40 mg to stimulate the heart and increase blood pressure. It has never been approved for use in the USA as a prescription drug or as a dietary supplement. Several athletes, however, have been banned from sport for testing positive for oxilofrine and have claimed that they inadvertently consumed oxilofrine in sports supplements. Consumption of supplements containing oxilofrine may also pose serious health risks. For example, one brand of supplements containing oxilofrine has been linked to serious adverse events including vomiting, agitation, and cardiac arrest. We designed our study to determine the presence and quantity of oxilofrine in dietary supplements sold in the USA. A validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry method was developed for the identification and quantification of oxilofrine. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, mass spectrometry detection, and a water/acetonitrile gradient as the mobile phase. The presence of oxilofrine was confirmed using a reference standard. We analyzed 27 brands of supplements labelled as containing a synonym of oxilofrine ('methylsynephrine') and found that oxilofrine was present in 14 different brands (52%) at dosages ranging from 0.0003 to 75 mg per individual serving. Of the supplements containing oxilofrine, 43% (6/14) contained pharmaceutical or greater dosages of oxilofrine. Following instructions on the label, consumers could ingest as much as 250 mg of oxilofrine per day. The drug oxilofrine was found in pharmacological and greater dosages in supplements labelled as containing methylsynephrine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cardiotônicos/análise
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise
Efedrina/análogos & derivados
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
Drogas Ilícitas/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Efedrina/análise
Limite de Detecção
Sinefrina/análogos & derivados
Sinefrina/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cardiotonic Agents); 0 (Street Drugs); F49638UBDR (oxilofrine); GN83C131XS (Ephedrine); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160411
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/dta.1976


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[PMID]:27717489
[Au] Autor:Li P; Zeng SL; Duan L; Ma XD; Dou LL; Wang LJ; Li P; Bi ZM; Liu EH
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, No.24 Tongjia Lane, Nanjing 210009, China.
[Ti] Título:Comparison of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus and Aurantii Fructus based on multiple chromatographic analysis and chemometrics methods.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;1469:96-107, 2016 Oct 21.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To get a better understanding of the bioactive constituents in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (AFI) and Aurantii Fructus (AF), in the present study, a comprehensive strategy integrating multiple chromatographic analysis and chemometrics methods was firstly proposed. Based on segmental monitoring, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-variable wavelength detection method was established for simultaneous quantification of ten major flavonoids, and the quantitative data were further analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). A strong cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (SCX-HPLC) method combined with t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed to determine synephrine, the major alkaloid in AFI and AF. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and further processed by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). The results indicated that the contents of ten flavonoids and synephrine in AFI were significantly higher than those in AF, and significant difference existed in samples from different geographical origins. Also, 9 differential volatile constituents detected could be used as chemical markers for discrimination of AFI and AF. Collectively, the proposed comprehensive analysis might be a well-acceptable strategy to evaluate the quality of traditional citrus herbs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Citrus/química
Flavonoides/análise
Frutas/química
Sinefrina/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
Análise por Conglomerados
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Óleos Voláteis/química
Óleos Vegetais/química
Análise de Componente Principal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Oils, Volatile); 0 (Plant Oils); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161009
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27038225
[Au] Autor:Gutiérrez-Hellín J; Del Coso J
[Ad] Endereço:Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Sport Science Institute, Camilo José Cela University, Madrid, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Acute p-synephrine ingestion increases fat oxidation rate during exercise.
[So] Source:Br J Clin Pharmacol;82(2):362-8, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2125
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIMS: p-Synephrine is a protoalkaloid widely used in dietary supplements for weight management because of its purported thermogenic effects. However, there is a lack of scientific information about its effectiveness to increase fat metabolism during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of an acute ingestion of p-synephrine on fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized and counterbalanced experimental design, 18 healthy subjects performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of p-synephrine (3 mg kg(-1) ) or after the ingestion of a placebo (cellulose). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry at rest and during a cycle ergometer ramp exercise test (increases of 25 W every 3 min) until volitional fatigue. RESULTS: In comparison with the placebo, the ingestion of p-synephrine did not change energy consumption (1.6 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 kcal min(-1) ; P = 0.69) or fat oxidation rate at rest (0.08 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.04 g min(-1) ; P = 0.15). However, the intake of p-synephrine moved the fat oxidation-exercise intensity curve upwards during the incremental exercise (P < 0.05) without affecting energy expenditure. Moreover, p-synephrine increased maximal fat oxidation rate (0.29 ± 0.15 vs. 0.40 ± 0.18 g min(-1) ; P = 0.01) during exercise although it did not affect the intensity at which maximal fat oxidation was achieved (55.8 ± 7.7 vs. 56.7 ± 8.2% VO2peak ; P = 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: The acute ingestion of p-synephrine increased the fat oxidation rate while it reduced the carbohydrate oxidation rate when exercising at low-to-moderate exercise intensities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos
Exercício/fisiologia
Sinefrina/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Suplementos Nutricionais
Método Duplo-Cego
Teste de Esforço
Seres Humanos
Oxirredução
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160403
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/bcp.12952


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[PMID]:26948284
[Au] Autor:Shara M; Stohs SJ; Mukattash TL
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.
[Ti] Título:Cardiovascular Safety of Oral p-Synephrine (Bitter Orange) in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Cross-over Clinical Trial.
[So] Source:Phytother Res;30(5):842-7, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1573
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in combination with multiple herbal ingredients for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in juices and foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Questions exist regarding the safety of p-synephrine because of structural similarities with other biogenic amines. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulatory) effects of bitter orange extract (49-mg p-synephrine) given to 18 healthy subjects (nine men and nine women) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Heart rates, blood pressures, and electrocardiograms were determined at baseline, 30, 60, 90 min, 2, 4 , 6, and 8 h. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 2 h and 8 h for serum chemistries, blood cell counts, and p-synephrine and caffeine levels. No significant changes occurred in electrocardiograms, heart rates, systolic blood pressure, blood chemistries, or blood cell counts at any time point in either control or p-synephrine treated group. A small (4.5 mmHg) decrease in diastolic blood pressure occurred in the p-synephrine treated group at 60 min. No adverse effects were reported. Caffeine ingestion varied markedly among the participants. p-Synephrine does not act as a stimulant at the dose used. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos
Citrus/química
Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/química
Sinefrina/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Cross-Over
Método Duplo-Cego
Feminino
Voluntários Saudáveis
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Estudos Prospectivos
Sinefrina/farmacologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160308
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ptr.5590


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Bracht, Adelar
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[PMID]:26883936
[Au] Autor:da Silva-Pereira JF; Bubna GA; Gonçalves Gde A; Bracht F; Peralta RM; Bracht A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry, University of Maringá, 87020900 Maringá, Brazil. adebracht@uol.com.br.
[Ti] Título:Fast hepatic biotransformation of p-synephrine and p-octopamine and implications for their oral intake.
[So] Source:Food Funct;7(3):1483-91, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2042-650X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extracts have been used in products for weight management and sports performance. These extracts contain large amounts of p-synephrine and much smaller amounts of p-octopamine. Both protoalkaloids exert lipolytic and glycogenolytic activities at similar concentrations. The biotransformation of p-synephrine and p-octopamine is not as well-known as those of other adrenergic amines. For this reason transformation of these amines was investigated in the isolated perfused liver. Special attention was devoted to the single pass extraction of each compound as well as to the kinetics of uptake. The assay of the amines in the outflowing perfusate was done by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The single pass extraction of p-synephrine was higher than 90% at a portal concentration of 10 µM. It declined with the concentration, but was still around 30% at the concentration of 500 µM. At low concentrations (10-50 µM) the decreasing sequence of single pass extractions was p-synephrine > p-octopamine ≈ epinephrine > norepinephrine. Rates of uptake versus p-synephrine concentration resulted in a Michaelis-Menten type of relationship, with a KM value of 290.7 ± 32.1 µM and a Vmax of 0.762 ± 0.042 µmol min(-1) g(-1). The rates of uptake of p-octopamine did not present clear saturation and could be approximated by a linear relationship with a first order rate constant of 1.5 min(-1). The rapid hepatic transformation of p-synephrine and p-octopamine means that their concentration in the portal vein exceeds that in the systemic circulation during absorption. Their metabolic effects will, thus, be exerted predominantly in the liver.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Citrus/metabolismo
Fígado/metabolismo
Boca/metabolismo
Octopamina/metabolismo
Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
Sinefrina/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biotransformação
Cinética
Fígado/química
Masculino
Boca/química
Octopamina/química
Extratos Vegetais/química
Ratos
Ratos Wistar
Sinefrina/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts); 14O50WS8JD (Octopamine); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160218
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1039/c6fo00014b


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[PMID]:26856274
[Au] Autor:Stohs SJ; Badmaev V
[Ad] Endereço:School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Creighton University, Omaha, NE, 68178, USA.
[Ti] Título:A Review of Natural Stimulant and Non-stimulant Thermogenic Agents.
[So] Source:Phytother Res;30(5):732-40, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1573
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non-stimulatory or a combination thereof. Examples of stimulatory thermogenic agents that will be discussed include ephedrine and caffeine. Examples of non-stimulatory thermogenic agents include p-synephrine (bitter orange extract), capsaicin, forskolin (Coleus root extract), and chlorogenic acid (green coffee bean extract). Green tea is an example of a thermogenic with the potential to produce mild but clinically insignificant undesirable stimulatory effects. The use of the aforementioned thermogenic agents in combination with other extracts such as those derived from Salacia reticulata, Sesamum indicum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cissus quadrangularis, and Moringa olifera, as well as the use of the carotenoids as lutein and fucoxanthin, and flavonoids as naringin and hesperidin can further facilitate energy metabolism and weight management as well as sports performance without adverse side effects. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cafeína/farmacologia
Capsaicina/farmacologia
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia
Efedrina/farmacologia
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico
Sinefrina/farmacologia
Chá/química
Termogênese
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants); 0 (Tea); 318ADP12RI (Chlorogenic Acid); 3G6A5W338E (Caffeine); GN83C131XS (Ephedrine); PEG5DP7434 (Synephrine); S07O44R1ZM (Capsaicin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ptr.5583



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