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[PMID]:27769340
[Au] Autor:Leung VC; Belovay GW; Chan CC
[Ad] Endereço:University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.
[Ti] Título:Tegaderm dressing and Lacri-lube ointment moisture chamber to manage exposure keratopathy.
[So] Source:Can J Ophthalmol;51(5):e149-e151, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1715-3360
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trânsito
Clorobutanol/uso terapêutico
Doenças da Córnea/terapia
Edema/terapia
Traumatismos Oculares/terapia
Doenças Palpebrais/terapia
Lanolina/uso terapêutico
Óleo Mineral/uso terapêutico
Curativos Oclusivos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Terapia Combinada
Combinação de Medicamentos
Exoftalmia/terapia
Seres Humanos
Lacerações
Masculino
Pomadas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; LETTER
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Ointments); 78200-24-5 (lacri-lube); 8006-54-0 (Lanolin); 8020-83-5 (Mineral Oil); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26820784
[Au] Autor:Higgins CL; Nixon RL
[Ad] Endereço:Occupational Dermatology Research and Education Centre, Skin and Cancer Foundation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Periorbital Allergic Contact Dermatitis Caused by Lanolin in a Lubricating Eye Ointment.
[So] Source:Australas J Dermatol;57(1):68-9, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1440-0960
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clorobutanol/efeitos adversos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia
Emolientes/efeitos adversos
Dermatoses Faciais/induzido quimicamente
Lanolina/efeitos adversos
Óleo Mineral/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Combinação de Medicamentos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico
Olho
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Pomadas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; LETTER
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Emollients); 0 (Ointments); 78200-24-5 (lacri-lube); 8006-54-0 (Lanolin); 8020-83-5 (Mineral Oil); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160129
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/ajd.12426


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[PMID]:25957699
[Au] Autor:Li X; Du L; Chen X; Ge P; Wang Y; Fu Y; Sun H; Jiang Q; Jin Y
[Ad] Endereço:Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.
[Ti] Título:Nasal delivery of analgesic ketorolac tromethamine thermo- and ion-sensitive in situ hydrogels.
[So] Source:Int J Pharm;489(1-2):252-60, 2015 Jul 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3476
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) was potent to treat moderate to moderately severe pains. However, KT solutions for nasal delivery lost quickly from the nasal route. Thermo- and ion-sensitive in-situ hydrogels (ISGs) are appropriate for nasal drug delivery because the intranasal temperature maintains ∼37 °C and nasal fluids consist of plentiful cations. In this study, a novel nasal thermo- and ion-sensitive ISG of KT was prepared with thermo-sensitive poloxamer 407 (P407) and ion-sensitive deacetylated gellan gum (DGG). The optimal formulation of the KT ISG consisted of 3% (w/v) DGG and 18% (w/v) P407 and its viscosity was up to 7.63 Pas at 37 °C. Furthermore, penetration enhancers and bacterial inhibitors were added and their fractions in the ISG were optimized based on transmucosal efficiencies and toxicity on toad pili. Sulfobutyl ether-ß-cyclodextrin of 2.5% (w/v) and chlorobutanol of 0.5% (w/v) were chosen as the penetration enhancer and the bacterial inhibitor, respectively. The Fick's diffusion and dissolution of KT could drive it continuous release from the dually sensitive ISG according to the in vitro investigation. Two methods, writhing frequencies induced by acetic acid and latency time of tails retracting from hot water, were used to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of the KT ISG on the mouse models. The writhing frequencies significantly decreased and the latency time of tail retracting was obviously prolonged (p<0.05) for the KT ISG compared to the control. The thermo- and ion-sensitive KT ISG had appropriate gelation temperature, sustained drug release, improved intranasal absorption, obvious pharmacodynamic effect, and negligible nasal ciliotoxicity. It is a promising intranasal analgesic formulation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem
Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem
Cetorolaco de Trometamina/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Intranasal
Animais
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química
Anuros
Azepinas/química
Carbocianinas/administração & dosagem
Carbocianinas/química
Carbocianinas/farmacologia
Clorobutanol/química
Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química
Feminino
Hidrogéis/química
Cetorolaco de Trometamina/química
Masculino
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos
Poloxâmero/química
Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química
Ovinos
Viscosidade
beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (Azepines); 0 (Carbocyanines); 0 (Delayed-Action Preparations); 0 (Hydrogels); 0 (Polysaccharides, Bacterial); 0 (beta-Cyclodextrins); 0 (indotricarbocyanine); 106392-12-5 (Poloxamer); 1F3X9DRV9X (laurocapram); 2PP9364507 (SBE4-beta-cyclodextrin); 4EVE5946BQ (Ketorolac Tromethamine); 7593U09I4D (gellan gum); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1602
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150511
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25704646
[Au] Autor:Chijimatsu T; Umeki M; Kobayashi S; Kataoka Y; Yamada K; Oda H; Mochizuki S
[Ad] Endereço:a Sasaki Food Co., Ltd. , Oita , Japan.
[Ti] Título:Dietary freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract suppresses accumulation of hepatic lipids and increases in serum cholesterol and aminotransferase activities induced by dietary chloretone in rats.
[So] Source:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem;79(7):1155-63, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1347-6947
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia
Clorobutanol/efeitos adversos
Corbicula/química
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticolesterolemiantes/química
Colesterol/sangue
Suplementos Nutricionais
Fezes
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/metabolismo
Masculino
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia
Substâncias Protetoras/química
Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
Ratos Wistar
Extratos de Tecidos/química
Transaminases/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anticholesteremic Agents); 0 (Protective Agents); 0 (Tissue Extracts); 97C5T2UQ7J (Cholesterol); EC 2.6.1.- (Transaminases); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1605
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150703
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150703
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150224
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09168451.2015.1012147


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[PMID]:24695350
[Au] Autor:Harigaya K; Yamada H; Yaku K; Nishi H; Haginaka J
[Ad] Endereço:Analytical Research Laboratories, CMC Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.
[Ti] Título:Development and validation of a sensitive GC-MS method for the determination of alkylating agent, 4-chloro-1-butanol, in active pharmaceutical ingredients.
[So] Source:Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo);62(4):395-8, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5223
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The analysis of genotoxic impurities (GTIs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is a challenging task. The target detection limit (DL) in an API is typically around 1 ppm (1 µg/g API). Therefore, a sensitive and selective analytical method is required for their analysis. 4-Chloro-1-butanol, an alkylating agent, is one of the GTIs. It is generated when tetrahydrofuran and hydrochloric acid are used during the synthesis of the APIs. In this study, a sensitive and robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the identification of 4-chloro-1-butanol in APIs. In the GC-MS method, 3-chloro-1-butanol was employed as an internal standard to ensure accuracy and precision. Linearity was observed over the range 0.08 to 40 ppm (µg/g API), with a R(2) value of 0.9999. The DL and quantitation limit (QL) obtained were 0.05 ppm and 0.08 ppm (0.13 ng/mL and 0.20 ng/mL as the 4-chloro-1-butanol concentration), respectively. These DL and QL values are well over the threshold specified in the guidelines. The accuracy (recovery) of detection ranged from 90.5 to 108.7% between 0.4 ppm and 20 ppm of 4-chloro-1-butanol. The relative standard deviation in the repeatability of the spiked recovery test was 6.0%. These results indicate the validity of the GC-MS method developed in this study. The GC-MS method was applied for the determination of 4-chloro-1-butanol in the API (Compound A), which is under clinical trials. No 4-chloro-1-butanol was found in Compound A (below QL, 0.08 ppm).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alquilantes/análise
Química Farmacêutica/métodos
Clorobutanol/análogos & derivados
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Clorobutanol/análise
Limite de Detecção
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alkylating Agents); 42EI3I5AY0 (4-chloro-1-butanol); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1505
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140403
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140403
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140404
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:24614733
[Au] Autor:Harigaya K; Yamada H; Yaku K; Nishi H; Haginaka J
[Ad] Endereço:Analytical Research Laboratories, CMC Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corp.
[Ti] Título:Novel sensitive determination method for a genotoxic alkylating agent, 4-chloro-1-butanol, in active pharmaceutical ingredients by LC-ICP-MS employing iodo derivatization.
[So] Source:Anal Sci;30(3):377-82, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1348-2246
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An alkylating agent, 4-chloro-1-butanol, is a genotoxic impurity (GTI); it may be generated during the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). For the trace-level detection of GTIs in APIs, usually, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is employed. In this study, a novel LC-inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS method was developed and validated. Linearity was observed over the 0.5-50 ppm (µg/g API) range, with an R(2) value of 0.9994. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.2 and 0.5 ppm, respectively. The DL and QL values are well over the thresholds specified in the guidelines. The accuracy was 95.1-114.7% for concentrations of 1-50 ppm, and the relative standard deviation of the spiked recovery test's repeatability was 6.2%. In addition, six lots of an API were analyzed, and all results were lower than the reported threshold (1 ppm).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clorobutanol/análogos & derivados
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Clorobutanol/análise
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação
Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Pharmaceutical Preparations); 42EI3I5AY0 (4-chloro-1-butanol); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1411
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140311
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140311
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140312
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:23974885
[Au] Autor:Ahad MA; Anandan M; Tah V; Dhingra S; Leyland M
[Ad] Endereço:*Oxford Eye Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom; and †Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Randomized Controlled Study of Ocular Lubrication Versus Bandage Contact Lens in the Primary Treatment of Recurrent Corneal Erosion Syndrome.
[So] Source:Cornea;32(10):1311-4, 2013 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1536-4798
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of bandage contact lenses (BCLs) in comparison with that of ocular lubricants (OLs) in the initial management of recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of 29 patients with recurrent corneal erosion syndrome presenting to the ophthalmology departments of the Oxford Eye Hospital and the Royal Berkshire Hospital, United Kingdom. The patients were randomized to wear either BCLs (for a 3-month duration, replaced every 30 days) or use OLs (4 times a day, with Lacri-Lube ointment at night for 3 months). The patients were assessed monthly for 4 months, and their symptoms were graded by visual analog scores. The main outcome measure was the complete resolution of symptoms with no noticeable corneal surface abnormality. Patients with a complete resolution were followed up for another 3 months to check for recurrence. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were randomized to the BCL arm, and 15 were randomized to the OL arm. After 3 months, a complete resolution was achieved in 71% of the patients (10/14) with BCLs compared with that achieved in 73% of the patients (11/15) on OLs (P > 0.05). Partial resolution was noted in 7% of the patients with BCLs versus 13% of the patients on OLs. Twenty-one percent of the patients in the BCL group and 13% of the patients in the OL group failed to respond to the treatment. Patients on BCLs had earlier resolution of symptoms, with a mean time of 5 weeks compared with 9 weeks for OLs (P = 0.02). None of the patients with BCLs developed adverse side effects. CONCLUSIONS: BCLs do not increase the likelihood of complete resolution when compared with OLs in the initial management of RCES. However, BCL treatment seems safe, and some patients experience earlier relief from symptoms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bandagens
Clorobutanol/uso terapêutico
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas
Doenças da Córnea/terapia
Lanolina/uso terapêutico
Óleo Mineral/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Doenças da Córnea/fisiopatologia
Combinação de Medicamentos
Dor Ocular/fisiopatologia
Dor Ocular/terapia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Pomadas/uso terapêutico
Recidiva
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Ointments); 78200-24-5 (lacri-lube); 8006-54-0 (Lanolin); 8020-83-5 (Mineral Oil); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1601
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150610
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150610
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130827
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/ICO.0b013e31829dec39


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[PMID]:23665942
[Au] Autor:Akane H; Saito F; Yamanaka H; Shiraki A; Imatanaka N; Akahori Y; Morita R; Mitsumori K; Shibutani M
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Methacarn as a whole brain fixative for gene and protein expression analyses of specific brain regions in rats.
[So] Source:J Toxicol Sci;38(3):431-43, 2013.
[Is] ISSN:1880-3989
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:For molecular analysis in anatomically-specific brain regions for rodent studies, it is necessary to establish a fast and accurate procedure for tissue sampling to achieve high integrity and expression fidelity of extracted molecules. The present study was performed to examine suitability of whole brain fixation with methacarn and subsequent tissue sampling using punch-biopsy devices for gene expression analysis in rats. After fixation, each specific region, i.e., hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cingulate cortex or cerebellar vermis was collected, and the integrity and variability of expression data of extracted total RNAs and polypeptides were examined. Methacarn fixation, acetone fixation, and unfixed tissues were compared. Methacarn fixation resulted in high integrity of total RNAs sufficient for conducting global expression analysis and superior in terms of uniformity in the integrity among brain regions to that of acetone fixation. Extracted polypeptide after methacarn fixation revealed similar integrity to that without fixation or with acetone fixation. Methacarn fixation resulted in lower mRNA expression variability between samples than acetone fixation in microarray analysis. The fidelity of polypeptide expression was mostly equivalent between methacarn and acetone fixation in 2-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis, although the expression levels of a small number of polypeptides from acetone-fixed tissues were affected. These results suggest that whole brain fixation with methacarn retains advantages for global analyses of mRNAs and polypeptides in rodent studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ácido Acético
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Clorofórmio
Fixadores
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos
Metanol
Peptídeos/análise
RNA Mensageiro/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Clorobutanol
Feminino
Masculino
Gravidez
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Fixação de Tecidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fixatives); 0 (Peptides); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (methacarn); 7V31YC746X (Chloroform); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol); Q40Q9N063P (Acetic Acid); Y4S76JWI15 (Methanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1310
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130514
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:22154261
[Au] Autor:Badawi HM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. hbadawi@kfupm.edu.sa
[Ti] Título:A study of the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol).
[So] Source:Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc;87:11-4, 2012 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3557
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The conformational stability of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol) was investigated by the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G**, MP2/6-311+G** and MP4(SDQ)/6-311+G** levels of theory. From the calculations chlorobutanol was predicted to exist in a non-planar gauche structure. The planar cis and trans structures of chlorobutanol were calculated to be about 3kcal/mol higher in energy than the gauche structure. From the calculations 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol was predicted to exist in a Ggg1 and Ggg conformational mixture at ambient temperature. In the low energy structures of both alcohols the non-bonded Cl⋯H(O) distance was calculated to be of about 2.6-2.7Å. The observation of a broad and very intense band at about 3400cm(-1) in the infrared spectra of the two alcohols supports the presence of strong intermolecular Cl⋯H(O) dipolar interactions in their condensed phases. The analysis of the Raman spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol suggests the presence of a second high energy Ggg structure of the dichloride at room temperature. The vibrational frequencies of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and chlorobutanol in their low energy structures were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were made for their normal modes on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clorobutanol/química
Mutagênicos/química
Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química
alfa-Cloridrina/análogos & derivados
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Modelos Moleculares
Conformação Molecular
Análise Espectral Raman
alfa-Cloridrina/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Mutagens); 0 (Preservatives, Pharmaceutical); 0F4P2VQC07 (1,3-dichloro-2-propanol); 96-24-2 (alpha-Chlorohydrin); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1205
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:111214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2011.10.025


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[PMID]:21428703
[Au] Autor:Amin A; Dare M; Sangamwar A; Bansal AK
[Ad] Endereço:National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Punjab, India.
[Ti] Título:Interaction of antimicrobial preservatives with blow-fill-seal packs: correlating sorption with solubility parameters.
[So] Source:Pharm Dev Technol;17(5):614-24, 2012 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1097-9867
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this work was to study the interaction of four commonly used ophthalmic antimicrobial preservatives [benzyl alcohol (BA), chlorbutol (CBL), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)] with Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) packs. Effect of packaging material [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP)], humidity (25% RH, 75% RH) and concentration (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mM BA/CBL in LDPE) was studied. BKC and CG gave negligible loss (<4%) in BFS packs over a period of 3 months. BA and CBL, however, gave marked losses in LDPE (ca. 70-90%) and PP (ca. 7-25%) packs. Humidity did not have any effect on the sorption loss of any preservative. Loss of BA switched from Case II to anomalous behavior with increasing initial concentration. A two-stage sorption behavior was inherent at all concentrations. Loss of CBL followed anomalous behavior with biphasic kinetics of loss. It was concluded that all the four preservatives were appropriate for use in PP BFS packs. However, only BKC and CG were amenable to be used in LDPE BFS packs. Lastly, an empirical expression consisting of the "solubility parameter distance" and "molar volume" of preservatives was developed to correlate the preservative loss in LDPE with the physicochemical properties of the preservatives.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Infecciosos/química
Compostos de Benzalcônio/química
Álcool Benzílico/química
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados
Clorobutanol/química
Embalagem de Medicamentos
Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adsorção
Clorexidina/química
Embalagem de Medicamentos/métodos
Umidade
Polietileno/química
Polipropilenos/química
Solubilidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Benzalkonium Compounds); 0 (Polypropylenes); 0 (Preservatives, Pharmaceutical); 9002-88-4 (Polyethylene); HM4YQM8WRC (Chlorobutanol); LKG8494WBH (Benzyl Alcohol); MOR84MUD8E (chlorhexidine gluconate); R4KO0DY52L (Chlorhexidine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1301
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:110325
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3109/10837450.2011.557733



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