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[PMID]:29202138
[Au] Autor:Olajuyigbe OO; Coopoosamy RM; Afolayan AJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Nature Conservation, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Effects and time-kill assessment of amoxicillin used in combination with chloramphenicol against bacteria of clinical importance.
[So] Source:Acta Biochim Pol;64(4):609-613, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1734-154X
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms in an era when drug development faces challenges causing pharmaceutical companies to curtail or abandon research on anti-infective agents, the use of combined existing antimicrobial agents may be an alternative. This study evaluated the effects of combining amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, to which many bacteria have become resistant, in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar diffusion, checkerboard and time-kill assays. The test isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.448 and 500 µg/ml and between 1.953 and 31.25 µg/ml for chloramphenicol. Upon combining these agents, there was a drastic reduction in their MICs indicating an increased antibacterial activity that showed synergistic interaction against all the bacteria. At the highest concentrations, the inhibition zones ranges were 20.33-38.33±0.58 µg/ml for amoxicillin, 27.67-37.67±0.58 µg/ml for chloramphenicol and 31.67-39.33±0.58 µg/ml for the combined agents. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) showed synergy ranging from 0.129 to 0.312 while FICIs for additive interaction were between 0.688 and 1.0. There was no antagonistic interaction. At the / MICs of the combined antibiotics, all the tested bacteria, except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Proteus vulgaris CSIR 0030 and Enterococcus cloacae ATCC 13047 were eliminated before 24 h. At the MICs, all the tested bacteria were eliminated except Enterococcus cloacae ATCC 13047 which was almost totally eliminated. Post-antibiotic assessment after 48 h showed that all the cultures were sterile except for that of Enterococcus cloacae ATCC 13047. The lack of antagonism between these antibacterial agents in checkerboard and time-kill assays suggested that combining amoxicillin with chloramphenicol can provide an improved therapy in comparison to the use of each antibiotic individually. The study indicates the potential beneficial value of combining amoxicillin and chloramphenicol in the treatment of microbial infections in clinical settings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Amoxicilina/farmacologia
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Cloranfenicol/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos
Sinergismo Farmacológico
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); 804826J2HU (Amoxicillin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.18388/abp.2016_1495


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[PMID]:29334931
[Au] Autor:Dzotam JK; Simo IK; Bitchagno G; Celik I; Sandjo LP; Tane P; Kuete V
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.
[Ti] Título:In vitro antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity of crude extract, fractions and 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans Houtt against MDR Gram-negative enteric bacteria.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):15, 2018 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Nutmeg is the seed kernel inside the fruit of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae). It possesses various pharmacological activities but is used in Cameroon only for its flavor in making cakes. The present study thus aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiotic modifying activities of crude seed kernel methanol extract (MFS), fractions (MFSa-e) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans against a panel of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: The modified rapid p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT) colorimetric assay was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) on the tested bacteria, as well as those of antibiotics in association with the extract and/or isolated compound. Column chromatography was used for the fractionation and purification of the seed kernel extract whilst the chemical structures of compounds were determined using spectroscopic techniques. RESULTS: Phytochemical investigations lead to the isolation of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from the fraction MFSb. The crude extract showed antibacterial activity with MICs ranging from 32 to 1024 µg/mL on the majority of the 29 tested Gram-negative bacterial strains. Fraction MFSb inhibited the growth of 100% (29/29) of the tested bacterial strains, as well as the compound 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (12/12) with a MIC values ranging from 32 to 1024 µg/mL, and 4 to 128 µg/mL respectively. The lowest MIC value (4 µg/mL) was recorded with 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone against Providencia stuartii ATCC299645 as well as the best MBC value (16 µg/mL) against the same strain. In the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine-ß-Naphthylamide (PAßN), an efflux pumps inhibitor, the activity of the extract increased on 73.33% (11/15) meanwhile that of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone increased on 100% tested bacteria. The compound 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone potentiated the activity of antibiotics in the majority of the tested bacterial strains. CONCLUSION: The results of the present work provide additional information on the use of nutmeg and it major antibacterial component, 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone, as a potential drug in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Flavonoides/farmacologia
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos
Myristica fragrans/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Camarões
Cloranfenicol/farmacologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Sementes/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone); 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-018-2084-1


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[PMID]:29190037
[Au] Autor:Bonet M; Ota E; Chibueze CE; Oladapo OT
[Ad] Endereço:UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, Geneva, Switzerland, CH-1211.
[Ti] Título:Routine antibiotic prophylaxis after normal vaginal birth for reducing maternal infectious morbidity.
[So] Source:Cochrane Database Syst Rev;11:CD012137, 2017 11 13.
[Is] ISSN:1469-493X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Infectious morbidities contribute to considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, including women at no apparent increased risk of infection. To reduce the incidence of infections, antibiotics are often administered to women after uncomplicated childbirth, particularly in settings where women are at higher risk of puerperal infectious morbidities. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether routine administration of prophylactic antibiotics to women after normal (uncomplicated) vaginal birth, compared with placebo or no antibiotic prophylaxis, reduces postpartum maternal infectious morbidities and improves outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2017), LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (22 August 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the use of prophylactic antibiotics versus placebo or no antibiotic prophylaxis. Trials using a cluster-randomised design would have been eligible for inclusion, but we found none.In future updates of this review, we will include studies published in abstract form only, provided sufficient information is available to assess risks of bias. We will consider excluded abstracts for inclusion once the full publication is available, or the authors provide more information.Trials using a cross-over design are not eligible for inclusion in this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors conducted independent assessment of trials for inclusion and risks of bias. They independently extracted data and checked them for accuracy, resolving differences in assessments by discussion. They evaluated methodological quality using standard Cochrane criteria and the GRADE approach.We present the summaries as risk ratios (RRs) and mean difference (MDs) using fixed- or random-effect models. For one primary outcome we found considerable heterogeneity and interaction. We explored further using subgroup analysis to investigate the effects of the randomisation unit. All review authors discussed and interpreted the results. MAIN RESULTS: One randomised controlled trial (RCT) and two quasi-RCTs contributed data on 1779 women who had uncomplicated vaginal births, comparing different antibiotic regimens with placebo or no treatment. The included trials took place in the 1960s (one trial) and 1990s (two trials). The trials were conducted in France, the USA and Brazil. Antibiotics administered included: oral sulphamethoxypyridazine or chloramphenicol for three to five days, and intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in a single dose one hour after birth. We rated most of the domains for risk of bias as high risk, with the exception of reporting bias and other potential bias.The quality of evidence ranged from low to very low, based on the GRADE quality assessment, given very serious design limitations of the included studies, few events and wide confidence intervals (CIs) of effect estimates.We found a decrease in the risk of endometritis (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.83, two trials, 1364 women,very low quality). However, one trial reported zero events for this outcome and we rate the evidence as very low quality. There was little or no difference between groups for the risk of urinary tract infection (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.19, two trials, 1706 women,low quality), wound infection after episiotomy (reported as wound dehiscence in the included trials) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.96, two trials, 1364 women, very low quality) and length of maternal hospital stay in days (MD -0.15, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.01, one trial, 1291 women, very low quality). Cost of care in US dollar equivalent was 2½ times higher in the control group compared to the group receiving antibiotics prophylaxis (USD 3600: USD 9000, one trial, 1291 women). There were few or no differences between treated and control groups for adverse effects of antibiotics (skin rash) reported in one woman in each of the two trials (RR 3.03, 95% CI 0.32 to 28.95, two trials, 1706 women, very low quality). The incidence of severe maternal infectious morbidity, antimicrobial resistance or women's satisfaction with care were not addressed by any of the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Routine administration of antibiotics may reduce the risk of endometritis after uncomplicated vaginal birth. The small number and nature of the trials limit the interpretation of the evidence for application in practice, particularly in settings where women may be at higher risk of developing endometritis. The use of antibiotics did not reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections, wound infection or the length of maternal hospital stay. Antibiotics are not a substitute for infection prevention and control measures around the time of childbirth and the postpartum period. The decision to routinely administer prophylactic antibiotics after normal vaginal births needs to be balanced by patient features, childbirth setting and provider experience, including considerations of the contribution of indiscriminate use of antibiotics to raising antimicrobial resistance. Well-designed and high-powered randomised controlled trials would help to evaluate the added value of routine antibiotic administration as a measure to prevent maternal infections after normal vaginal delivery.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibioticoprofilaxia
Parto Obstétrico
Endometrite/prevenção & controle
Infecção Puerperal/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem
Cloranfenicol/administração & dosagem
Ácido Clavulânico/administração & dosagem
Endometrite/epidemiologia
Episiotomia/efeitos adversos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
Gravidez
Infecção Puerperal/epidemiologia
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Sulfametoxipiridazina/administração & dosagem
Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 23521W1S24 (Clavulanic Acid); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); 804826J2HU (Amoxicillin); T034E4NS2Z (Sulfamethoxypyridazine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180111
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180111
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD012137.pub2


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[PMID]:29214970
[Au] Autor:Kassi FK; Bellet V; Drakulovski P; Krasteva D; Roger F; Valérie BA; Aboubakar T; Doumbia A; Kouakou GA; Delaporte E; Reynes J; Yavo W; Menan HIE; Bertout S
[Ad] Endereço:1​Laboratoire de Parasitologie et de Mycologie - CeDReS (Centre de Diagnostic et de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Autres Maladies Infectieuses), UFR Pharmacie, CHU de Treichville, Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
[Ti] Título:Comparative typing analyses of clinical and environmental strains of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex from Ivory Coast.
[So] Source:J Med Microbiol;67(1):87-96, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1473-5644
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the biotope of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex from Ivory Coast, and clarify the possible epidemiological relationship between environmental and clinical strains. METHODOLOGY: Samples from Eucalyptus camaldulensis (n=136), Mangifera indica (n=13) and pigeon droppings (n=518) were collected from different sites close to the living environment of Ivorian HIV patients with cryptococcosis (n=10, 50 clinical strains). Clinical and environmental strains were characterized by molecular serotyping and genotyping [RFLP analysis of the URA5 gene, (GACA)4, (GTG)5 and M13 PCR fingerprinting] and compared.Results/Key findings. Environmental strains were recovered only from the pigeon droppings. In vitro susceptibility profiles showed that all strains were susceptible to fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin B. All environmental strains consisted of C. neoformans (A, AFLP1/VNI), whereas clinical strains included C. neoformans (A, AFLP1/VNI), C. neoformans x Cryptococcus deneoformans hybrids (AD, AFLP3/VNIII) and Cryptococcus deuterogattii (B, AFLP6/VGII). Two patients were co-infected with both C. neoformans and C. neoformans x C. deneoformans hybrids. We noticed a low genetic diversity among the environmental samples compared to the high diversity of the clinical samples. Some clinical strains were genetically more similar to environmental strains than to other clinical strains, including those from the same patient. CONCLUSION: These results provide new information on the ecology and epidemiology of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in Ivory Coast.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cryptococcus gattii/genética
Cryptococcus neoformans/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
Cloranfenicol/uso terapêutico
Costa do Marfim
Criptococose/microbiologia
DNA Fúngico/genética
Microbiologia Ambiental
Feminino
Fluconazol/uso terapêutico
Flucitosina/uso terapêutico
Genótipo
Infecções por HIV/microbiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
Meia-Idade
Tipagem Molecular/métodos
Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos
Estudos Prospectivos
Sorotipagem/métodos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (DNA, Fungal); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); 7XU7A7DROE (Amphotericin B); 8VZV102JFY (Fluconazole); D83282DT06 (Flucytosine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000654


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[PMID]:28988110
[Au] Autor:Fadel MA; El-Gebaly RH; Mohamed SA; Abdelbacki AMM
[Ad] Endereço:Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.
[Ti] Título:Biophysical control of the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens using extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves at resonance frequency.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun;494(1-2):365-371, 2017 Dec 09.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2104
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Isolated Agrobacterium tumefaciens was exposed to different extremely low frequencies of square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) from two generators to determine the resonance frequency that causes growth inhibition. The carrier was 10 MHz sine wave with amplitude ±10 Vpp which was modulated by a second wave generator with a modulation depth of ± 2Vpp and constant field strength of 200 V/m at 28 °C. The exposure of A. tumefaciens to 1.0 Hz QAMW for 90 min inhibited the bacterial growth by 49.2%. In addition, the tested antibiotics became more effective against A. tumefaciens after the exposure. Furthermore, results of DNA, dielectric relaxation and TEM showed highly significant molecular and morphological changes due to the exposure to 1.0 Hz QAMW for 90 min. An in-vivo study has been carried out on healthy tomato plants to test the pathogenicity of A. tumefaciens before and after the exposure to QAMW at the inhibiting frequency. Symptoms of crown gall and all pathological symptoms were more aggressive in tomato plants treated with non-exposed bacteria, comparing with those treated with exposed bacteria. We concluded that, the exposure of A. tumefaciens to 1.0 Hz QAMW for 90 min modified its cellular activity and DNA structure, which inhibited the growth and affected the microbe pathogenicity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agrobacterium tumefaciens/efeitos da radiação
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
DNA Bacteriano/efeitos da radiação
Radiação Eletromagnética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agrobacterium tumefaciens/efeitos dos fármacos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Amicacina/farmacologia
Carbenicilina/farmacologia
Cefaclor/farmacologia
Cloranfenicol/farmacologia
Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia
DNA Bacteriano/efeitos dos fármacos
Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia
Gentamicinas/farmacologia
Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia
Tumores de Planta/microbiologia
Rifampina/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Fluoroquinolones); 0 (Gentamicins); 5E8K9I0O4U (Ciprofloxacin); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); 69K7K19H4L (Cefaclor); 84319SGC3C (Amikacin); G42ZU72N5G (Carbenicillin); L4618BD7KJ (gatifloxacin); VJT6J7R4TR (Rifampin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171009
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28846777
[Au] Autor:Blanco AR; Nostro A; D'Angelo V; D'Arrigo M; Mazzone MG; Marino A
[Ad] Endereço:SIFI SpA, Aci S. Antonio, Catania, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Efficacy of a Fixed Combination of Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Colistimethate Sodium for Treatment of Candida albicans Keratitis.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;58(10):4292-4298, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: To evaluate the antifungal activity of a fixed antibiotic combination (AC) containing tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol (CAF), and colistimethate sodium (CS). Methods: In vitro: Candida ATCC and clinical strains were used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AC and of each antibiotic were determined. Fluconazole (FLC) was tested for comparison. Time-killing curves of selected strains were performed. Ex vivo keratitis: corneas were injected intrastromally with the selected strains. After the injection, corneas were divided into groups of treatments: AC, FLC, or saline. Then, the tissues were analyzed for colony-forming units per gram (CFU/g). Propidium iodide (PI) and MitoTracker (MTR) staining were used to investigate the mode of action. Results: Values of MIC required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms for the antibiotics alone were higher than FLC. However, their activity was enhanced when used in combination against Candida yeasts. Time-killing curves showed that at 24 hours, AC reduced the load of both strains of approximately 1 Log10 CFU/g compared with the initial inoculum (P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant versus FLC. In ex vivo, AC was effective in decreasing the loads of both strains by 4 Log10 CFU/g with respect to the control. Moreover, it showed higher activity than FLC against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (1 Log10 CFU/g, P < 0.01 versus control). PI staining demonstrated that CS changed the membrane's permeability, whereas MTR staining demonstrated that TET or CAF altered mitochondrial function. The cells treated with AC and stained showed both effects. Conclusions: In this study, AC showed antifungal efficacy versus Candida spp.; this activity can be due to the synergistic effects of antibiotics in it.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos
Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico
Cloranfenicol/uso terapêutico
Colistina/análogos & derivados
Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico
Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico
Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação
Candidíase/microbiologia
Colistina/uso terapêutico
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia
Combinação de Medicamentos
Farmacorresistência Fúngica
Sinergismo Farmacológico
Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Soluções Oftálmicas
Coelhos
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Ophthalmic Solutions); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); DL2R53P963 (colistinmethanesulfonic acid); F8VB5M810T (Tetracycline); Z67X93HJG1 (Colistin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170904
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170904
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170829
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.17-22047


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[PMID]:28823151
[Au] Autor:Komor AJ; Rivard BS; Fan R; Guo Y; Que L; Lipscomb JD
[Ti] Título:CmlI N-Oxygenase Catalyzes the Final Three Steps in Chloramphenicol Biosynthesis without Dissociation of Intermediates.
[So] Source:Biochemistry;56(37):4940-4950, 2017 Sep 19.
[Is] ISSN:1520-4995
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:CmlI catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of an aryl-amine precursor (NH -CAM) to the aryl-nitro group of chloramphenicol (CAM). The active site of CmlI contains a (hydr)oxo- and carboxylate-bridged dinuclear iron cluster. During catalysis, a novel diferric-peroxo intermediate P is formed and is thought to directly effect oxygenase chemistry. Peroxo intermediates can facilitate at most two-electron oxidations, so the biosynthetic pathway of CmlI must involve at least three steps. Here, kinetic techniques are used to characterize the rate and/or dissociation constants for each step by taking advantage of the remarkable stability of P in the absence of substrates (decay t = 3 h at 4 °C) and the visible chromophore of the diiron cluster. It is found that diferrous CmlI (CmlI ) can react with NH -CAM and O in either order to form a P-NH -CAM intermediate. P-NH -CAM undergoes rapid oxygen transfer to form a diferric CmlI (CmlI ) complex with the aryl-hydroxylamine [NH(OH)-CAM] pathway intermediate. CmlI -NH(OH)-CAM undergoes a rapid internal redox reaction to form a CmlI -nitroso-CAM (NO-CAM) complex. O binding results in formation of P-NO-CAM that converts to CmlI -CAM by enzyme-mediated oxygen atom transfer. The kinetic analysis indicates that there is little dissociation of pathway intermediates as the reaction progresses. Reactions initiated by adding pathway intermediates from solution occur much more slowly than those in which the intermediate is generated in the active site as part of the catalytic process. Thus, CmlI is able to preserve efficiency and specificity while avoiding adventitious chemistry by performing the entire six-electron oxidation in one active site.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/biossíntese
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
Cloranfenicol/biossíntese
Modelos Moleculares
Ferroproteínas não Heme/metabolismo
Oxigenases/metabolismo
Streptomyces/enzimologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antibacterianos/química
Proteínas de Bactérias/química
Biocatálise
Domínio Catalítico
Cloranfenicol/análogos & derivados
Cloranfenicol/química
Meia-Vida
Cinética
Ferroproteínas não Heme/química
Oxirredução
Oxigênio
Oxigenases/química
Espectroscopia de Mossbauer
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Nonheme Iron Proteins); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); EC 1.13.- (Oxygenases); S88TT14065 (Oxygen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170822
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00695


  8 / 14069 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28813510
[Au] Autor:Wang R; Lin C; Lin J; Pang X; Liu X; Zhang C; Lin J; Chen L
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
[Ti] Título:Construction of novel pJRD215-derived plasmids using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene as a selection marker for Acidithiobacillus caldus.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183307, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Acidithiobacillus caldus, a Gram-negative, chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, is widely applied in bioleaching. The absence of an ideal selection marker has become a major obstacle to achieve high efficiency of the gene transfer system for A. caldus. Plasmid pJRD215, widely used in Acidithiobacillus spp., has severe drawbacks in molecular manipulations and potential biosafety issues due to its mobility. Therefore, finding a new selection marker and constructing new plasmids have become an urgent and fundamental work for A. caldus. RESULTS: Effective inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on the growth of A. caldus was elucidated for the first time. The P2-cat gene cassette, including a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) from plasmid pACBSR and a promoter (P2) upstream of the tetracycline resistance gene on pBR322, was designed, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was expressed in A. caldus, and the enzyme activity was assessed. A new vector pSDU1 carrying the replication and mobilization regions derived from pJRD215, the P2-cat gene cassette and a multiple cloning site from pUC19 was successfully constructed. Compared with pJRD215, pSDU1 had a 27-fold increase in electrotransformation efficiency (30.43±0.88×104 CFU/µg DNA for pSDU1 and 1.09±0.11×104 CFU/µg DNA for pJRD215), better carrying capacity and could offer more convenience for the restriction enzyme digestion. In addition, the generated plasmid pSDU1Δmob, a novel non-mobilizable derivative of pSDU1 lacking some DNA sequences involved in the mobilization process, had increased copy number in A. caldus and lost its mobility for biosafety considerations. Both pSDU1 and pSDU1Δmob exhibited stable maintenance in A. caldus within 50 passages. However, further deletion of orfEF region involved in regulating repAC operon resulted in a negative effect on transformation efficiency, copy number and stability of plasmid pSDU1ΔmobΔorfEF in A. caldus. CONCLUSION: Chloramphenicol was proved to be an ideal selection marker for A. caldus. Novel plasmids carrying cat gene were constructed. The utilization of these vectors will undoubtedly facilitate efficient genetic manipulations and accelerate the research progress in A. caldus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidithiobacillus/metabolismo
Cloranfenicol O-Acetiltransferase/genética
Plasmídeos/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidithiobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos
Acidithiobacillus/genética
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
Cloranfenicol/farmacologia
Vetores Genéticos/genética
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); EC 2.3.1.28 (Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183307


  9 / 14069 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28778689
[Au] Autor:Giricz Z; Varga ZV; Koncsos G; Nagy CT; Görbe A; Mentzer RM; Gottlieb RA; Ferdinandy P
[Ad] Endereço:Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address: giricz.zoltan@med.semmelweis-univ.hu.
[Ti] Título:Autophagosome formation is required for cardioprotection by chloramphenicol.
[So] Source:Life Sci;186:11-16, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0631
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIMS: Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad spectrum antibiotic, was shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. CAP also induces autophagy, however, it is not known whether CAP-induced cardioprotection is mediated by autophagy. Therefore, here we aimed to assess whether activation of autophagy is required for the infarct size limiting effect of CAP and to identify which component of CAP-induced autophagy contributes to cardioprotection against I/R injury. MAIN METHODS: Hearts of Sprague-Dawley rats were perfused in Langendorff mode with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing either vehicle (CON), 300µM CAP (CAP), CAP and an inhibitor of autophagosome-lysosome fusion chloroquine (CAP+CQ), or an inhibitor of autophagosome formation, the functional null mutant TAT-HA-Atg5 protein (CAP+K130R), and K130R or CQ alone, respectively. After 35min of aerobic perfusion, hearts were subjected to 30min global ischemia and 2h reperfusion. Autophagy was determined by immunoblot against LC3 from left atrial tissue. Infarct size was measured by TTC staining, coronary flow was measured, and the release of creatine kinase (CK) was assessed from the coronary effluent. KEY FINDINGS: CAP treatment induced autophagy, increased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in the myocardium and significantly reduced infarct size and CK release. Autophagy inhibitor TAT-HA-Atg5 abolished cardioprotection by CAP, while in CAP+CQ hearts infarct size and CK release were reduced similarly to as seen in the CAP-treated group. CONCLUSION: This is the first demonstration that autophagosome formation but not autophagosomal clearance is required for CAP-induced cardioprotection. SIGNIFICANCE: Inducing autophagy sequestration might yield novel therapeutic options against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico
Cloranfenicol/uso terapêutico
Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle
Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Autofagossomos/metabolismo
Autofagossomos/patologia
Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem
Cloranfenicol/administração & dosagem
Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos
Técnicas In Vitro
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos
Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo
Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia
Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo
Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia
Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos
Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo
Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
Projetos Piloto
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cardiotonic Agents); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170806
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 14069 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28717098
[Au] Autor:Goto K; Goto M; Ando-Imaoka M; Kai K; Mori K
[Ad] Endereço:Medicinal Safety Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of drug-induced hematotoxicity using novel in vitro monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays.
[So] Source:J Toxicol Sci;42(4):397-405, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1880-3989
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In order to evaluate drug-induced hematotoxicity in monkey cells in vitro, colony-forming unit-granulocyte, macrophage (CFU-GM), and burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colony assays were established using mononuclear cells in the bone marrow collected from male cynomolgus monkeys. Furthermore, the effects of doxorubicin, chloramphenicol, and linezolid on CFU-GM and BFU-E colony formation were investigated using established monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays in comparison with those on human CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies acquired from human umbilical cord blood cells. Bone marrow mononuclear cells were collected from the ischial or iliac bone of male cynomolgus monkeys. The cells were subsequently processed by density gradient separation at 1.067, 1.070, or 1.077 g/mL for CFU-GM or 1.077 g/mL for BFU-E, and then cultured in methylcellulose medium for 9 or 13 days, respectively. A sufficient number of CFU-GM colonies were formed from mononuclear cells processed at a density of 1.070 g/mL. Moreover, the number of BFU-E colonies from the cells processed at a density of 1.077 g/mL was sufficient for the colony assay. The number of CFU-GM or BFU-E colonies decreased after treatment with the drugs of interest in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with human CFU-GM, monkey CFU-GM were more sensitive to chloramphenicol and resistant to doxorubicin, whereas monkey BFU-E were more sensitive to all compounds in comparison to the sensitivity of human BFU-E. In conclusion, monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays were established and considered useful tools to evaluate the differences in drug-induced hematotoxicity between species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cloranfenicol/toxicidade
Doxorrubicina/toxicidade
Linezolida/toxicidade
Células Progenitoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia
Células Cultivadas
Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Sangue Fetal/citologia
Seres Humanos
Macaca fascicularis
Masculino
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol); 80168379AG (Doxorubicin); ISQ9I6J12J (Linezolid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170719
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2131/jts.42.397



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