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[PMID]:27126737
[Au] Autor:Carbonaro TM; Gatch MB
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.
[Ti] Título:Neuropharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
[So] Source:Brain Res Bull;126(Pt 1):74-88, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2747
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is an indole alkaloid widely found in plants and animals. It is best known for producing brief and intense psychedelic effects when ingested. Increasing evidence suggests that endogenous DMT plays important roles for a number of processes in the periphery and central nervous system, and may act as a neurotransmitter. This paper reviews the current literature of both the recreational use of DMT and its potential roles as an endogenous neurotransmitter. Pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action in the periphery and central nervous system, clinical uses and adverse effects are also reviewed. DMT appears to have limited neurotoxicity and other adverse effects except for intense cardiovascular effects when administered intravenously in large doses. Because of its role in nervous system signaling, DMT may be a useful experimental tool in exploring how the brain works, and may also be a useful clinical tool for treatment of anxiety and psychosis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/efeitos adversos
Neurofarmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hallucinogens); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160430
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 328 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27111702
[Au] Autor:Dos Santos RG; Osório FL; Crippa JA; Hallak JE
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies.
[So] Source:Rev Bras Psiquiatr;38(1):65-72, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1809-452X
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline). METHODS: Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. RESULTS: Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. CONCLUSION: Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ansiolíticos/farmacologia
Antidepressivos/farmacologia
Banisteriopsis
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico
Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico
Harmalina/farmacologia
Harmina/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Camundongos
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia
Ratos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Anxiety Agents); 0 (Antidepressive Agents); 4FHH5G48T7 (Harmine); CN58I4TOET (Harmaline); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160426
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26377051
[Au] Autor:Palamar JJ; Martins SS; Su MK; Ompad DC
[Ad] Endereço:New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Population Health, New York, NY, USA; Center for Drug Use and HIV Research, New York University College of Nursing, New York, NY, USA; Center for Health, Identity, Behavior, and Prevention Studies, New York University, New York, NY, USA. Elec
[Ti] Título:Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances in a US nationally representative survey: Prevalence, correlates, and a call for new survey methods to prevent underreporting.
[So] Source:Drug Alcohol Depend;156:112-119, 2015 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0046
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been an increase in emergence and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the US and worldwide. However, there is little published epidemiological survey data estimating the prevalence of use in the US. METHOD: Data on self-reported NPS use came from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2009-2013), a national representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals in the US. Subjects were asked to provide names of (non-traditional) drugs they used that they were not specifically asked about. We examined lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of self-reported use of new and uncommon synthetic drugs (NPS) among subjects ages 12-34-years-old. RESULTS: 1.2% of subjects self-reported any use of the 57 NPS we examined. Use of psychedelic tryptamines (primarily DMT) was most common, followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (e.g., 2C series) and synthetic cannabinoids. Prevalence of self-reported use of NPS increased from 2009 to 2013 and use was most common among males, whites, older subjects, those of lower income, and among those residing in cities. Lifetime use of various other illicit drugs (e.g., LSD, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA) was highly prevalent among NPS users. CONCLUSION: This the first study reporting on use of a variety of NPS in a nationally representative US sample; however, use appears to be underreported as other national data suggest higher rates of NPS (e.g., synthetic cannabinoid) use. Developing more adaptable survey tools and systematically assessing NPS use would allow researchers to ask about hundreds of NPS and improve reporting as new drugs continue to rapidly emerge.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alucinógenos
Psicotrópicos
Drogas Ilícitas
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Alcaloides
Canabinoides
Cocaína
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Modelos Logísticos
Masculino
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina
N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina
Fenetilaminas
Prevalência
Autorrelato
Triptaminas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Cannabinoids); 0 (Hallucinogens); 0 (Phenethylamines); 0 (Psychotropic Drugs); 0 (Street Drugs); 0 (Tryptamines); 540EI4406J (cathinone); I5Y540LHVR (Cocaine); KE1SEN21RM (N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171002
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171002
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150918
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26166234
[Au] Autor:Paterson NE; Darby WC; Sandhu PS
[Ad] Endereço:*Psychiatry Residency Training Program, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles; and †Veterans Affairs West Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
[Ti] Título:N,N-Dimethyltryptamine-Induced Psychosis.
[So] Source:Clin Neuropharmacol;38(4):141-3, 2015 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1537-162X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A and 1A receptor agonist that exhibits potent psychoactive properties in humans. Recreational use of this drug has increased precipitously and is likely to result in an increase in patients presenting with substance-induced psychoses. The present case provides an early example of substance-induced psychosis attributable to repeated use of DMT. CASE: A 42-year-old white man, with no significant past psychiatric history, was brought to the emergency department by the police and was found to exhibit disinhibited behavior, elevated affect, disorganized thought process, and delusions of reference. Laboratory studies revealed elevated creatinine kinase level indicative of rhabdomyolysis. The patient endorsed recent and repeated use of DMT, as well as long-term Cannabis (marijuana) use. Over the course of the next 3 weeks, the patient was successfully treated with quetiapine for psychosis, divalproex sodium (Depakote) for impulsivity, gabapentin for anxiety, and hydroxyzine for sleep, which resulted in the resolution of his symptoms and development of reasonable insight and judgment. Approximately 6 months after discharge, the patient remained treatment compliant, as well as drug and symptom free. CONCLUSIONS: This case report illustrates an important example of substance-induced psychosis that resolved with antipsychotic treatment in a 42-year-old white man with no past psychiatric history likely attributable to the use of DMT. Given the increasing use of this substance, the emergency department, primary care, and inpatient services are likely to see a significant increase in similar cases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/efeitos adversos
Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico
Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antipsychotic Agents); 0 (Hallucinogens); 2S3PL1B6UJ (Quetiapine Fumarate); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150716
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150716
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150714
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/WNF.0000000000000078


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[PMID]:26165663
[Au] Autor:Wiltshire PE; Hawksworth DL; Edwards KJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Geography and Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK; Mycology Section, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey TW9 3DS, UK. Electronic address: patricia.wiltshire1@btinternet.com.
[Ti] Título:Light microscopy can reveal the consumption of a mixture of psychotropic plant and fungal material in suspicious death.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;34:73-80, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The monoamine oxidase inhibitor prevents DMT from being broken down in the gut, so enabling its passage into the bloodstream and across the blood/brain barrier. Toxicological tests for DMT demonstrated the presence of this compound in the body. The deceased was reported to be in the habit of using Psilocybe semilanceata (liberty cap). This fungus (popularly called magic mushroom) contains psilocybin which is hydrolysed in the gut to psilocin; this compound mimics a serotonin uptake inhibitor, and also invokes psychotropic experiences. Microscopical examination established that the ileum and colon contained spores of Psilocybe and, in addition, pollen of Cannabis sativa and seeds of Papaver cf. somniferum (opium poppy). Both the plant species yield psychotropic substances. Palynological and mycological analysis of containers from the deceased person's dwelling also yielded abundant trace evidence of pertinent pollen and spores. The police had requested analysis for DMT but there was no screening for other psychotropic substances. Investigators were surprised that a mixture of hallucinogenic materials had been consumed by the deceased. The charge was modified from manslaughter to possession of a 'Class A' drug as the deceased had been consuming psychotropic substances not administered by the 'shaman'. Where death involving drugs from plants or fungi is suspected, microscopical examination of samples from the gut can provide a rapid and effective method for assessing, in a temporal context, the presence of ingested materials that may not have been previously suspected. The example presented here also demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting toxicological results where screening for unusual compounds has been limited.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Microscopia
Psicotrópicos/análise
Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Banisteriopsis
Bebidas
Cannabis
Colo/química
Colo/microbiologia
Colo/patologia
Patologia Legal
Toxicologia Forense
Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química
Alucinógenos/análise
Seres Humanos
Íleo/química
Íleo/microbiologia
Íleo/patologia
Masculino
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/análise
Papaver
Pólen
Psilocybe
Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem
Sementes
Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hallucinogens); 0 (Psychotropic Drugs); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160606
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160606
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150714
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25973481
[Au] Autor:Moreira LA; Murta MM; Gatto CC; Fagg CW; dos Santos ML
[Ti] Título:Concise synthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine starting with bufotenine from Brazilian Anadenanthera ssp..
[So] Source:Nat Prod Commun;10(4):581-4, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1934-578X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bufotenine (1, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) was isolated from seeds of Anadenanthera spp., a tree widespread in the Brazilian cerrado, using an efficient acid-base shakeout protocol. The conversion of bufotenine into N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4) and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5) was accomplished through an innovative and short approach featuring the use of novel bufotenine-aminoborane complex (7). Furthermore, an easy methodology for conversion of bufotenine into 5-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine (6) was well-established. This is the first study that highlights bufotenine as a resource for the production of N,N-dimethyltryptamines for either pharmacological and toxicological investigations or for synthetic purposes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bufotenina/química
Fabaceae/química
Metoxidimetiltriptaminas/síntese química
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/síntese química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Metoxidimetiltriptaminas/química
Modelos Moleculares
Estrutura Molecular
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/química
Sementes/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Methoxydimethyltryptamines); 0A31347TZK (Bufotenin); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1506
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150514
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150514
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150515
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 328 MEDLINE  
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Cazenave, Silvia de Oliveira Santos
Texto completo
[PMID]:25950593
[Au] Autor:Lanaro R; Calemi DB; Togni LR; Costa JL; Yonamine M; Cazenave Sde O; Linardi A
[Ad] Endereço:a Researcher, Poison Control Center, Faculty of Medical Sciences , State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) , Campinas , SP , Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Ritualistic Use of Ayahuasca versus Street Use of Similar Substances Seized by the Police: A Key Factor Involved in the Potential for Intoxications and Overdose?
[So] Source:J Psychoactive Drugs;47(2):132-9, 2015 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0279-1072
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The ritualistic use of ayahuasca is becoming a global phenomenon. This beverage contains a combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine) and N,N-dimethyltryptamine, the main substance responsible for its visionary effect. The recreational use of similar alkaloids and N,N-dimethyltryptamine has increased in recent years, mainly because of their hallucinogenic effects. In the present study, the concentrations of psychoactive alkaloids in three powder samples seized by the São Paulo State Police and nine ayahuasca aqueous extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD in an attempt to distinguish between illicit drugs and the religious beverage. The alkaloids detected (µg/mL) in the ayahuasca aqueous extracts were N,N-dimethyltryptamine (402-2070.3), harmaline (27.5-181.3), harmine (294.5-2893.8), and tetrahydroharmine (849.5-2052.5), whereas, of the three powder samples, one contained only N,N-dimethyltryptamine (82% and 2% w/w, respectively) while the other contained only harmaline (16%, w/w) and harmine (12%, w/w). The ritualistic use of ayahuasca involves oral intake and the probability of overdose is minimized by serotonergic stimulation of vagal pathways, leading to vomiting and diarrhea. In contrast, the recreational use of N,N-dimethyltryptamine involves consumption mainly by smoking or inhalation, both of which markedly increase its bioavailability and the potential for intoxications.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Banisteriopsis
Comportamento Ritualístico
Overdose de Drogas
Alcaloides de Indol/farmacologia
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia
Drogas Ilícitas/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bebidas/análise
Disponibilidade Biológica
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Diarreia/induzido quimicamente
Overdose de Drogas/etiologia
Overdose de Drogas/fisiopatologia
Toxicologia Forense/métodos
Alucinógenos/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Exposição por Inalação/análise
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia
Vômito/induzido quimicamente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hallucinogens); 0 (Indole Alkaloids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Serotonin Antagonists); 0 (Street Drugs); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1510
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150508
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150508
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150508
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1013202


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
[PMID]:25806551
[Au] Autor:Osório Fde L; Sanches RF; Macedo LR; Santos RG; Maia-de-Oliveira JP; Wichert-Ana L; Araujo DB; Riba J; Crippa JA; Hallak JE
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report.
[So] Source:Rev Bras Psiquiatr;37(1):13-20, 2015 Jan-Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1809-452X
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Ayahuasca (AYA), a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. METHODS: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. RESULTS: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
Banisteriopsis/química
Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico
Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico
Fitoterapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Análise de Variância
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve
Feminino
Harmina/uso terapêutico
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/uso terapêutico
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Fatores de Tempo
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Anxiety Agents); 0 (Antidepressive Agents); 0 (Hallucinogens); 4FHH5G48T7 (Harmine); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1509
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150326
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150326
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150326
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25362533
[Au] Autor:Grammenos D; Barker SA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS, Groningen, The Netherlands, d.grammenos@student.rug.nl.
[Ti] Título:On the transmethylation hypothesis: stress, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and positive symptoms of psychosis.
[So] Source:J Neural Transm (Vienna);122(6):733-9, 2015 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1435-1463
[Cp] País de publicação:Austria
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Past research suggests a relationship between stress and positive symptoms of psychosis. However, the biological substrate of this relationship remains unknown. According to the transmethylation hypothesis, schizophrenia could result from a biochemical disruption in the stress mechanism. This biochemical disruption would lead to the production of a substance that would account for the symptoms of psychosis. Moreover, some studies have tested endogenous N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in the context of the transmethylation hypothesis. Stress has been found to elevate DMT levels in rodents. Also, elevated DMT levels have been associated with positive features of psychosis in psychiatric patients. Additionally, healthy participants treated with exogenous DMT experience predominantly positive symptoms of psychosis. The present paper examines endogenous DMT as a possible biological mediator of the relationship between stress and positive symptoms of psychosis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/metabolismo
Transtornos Psicóticos/metabolismo
Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem
Alucinógenos/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
Metilação
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hallucinogens); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1602
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:141103
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00702-014-1329-5


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[PMID]:25069786
[Au] Autor:Riba J; McIlhenny EH; Bouso JC; Barker SA
[Ad] Endereço:Human Neuropsychopharmacology Group, Sant Pau Institute for Biomedical Research (IIB-Sant Pau), Sant Antoni María Claret, 167, Barcelona, 08025, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.
[So] Source:Drug Test Anal;7(5):401-6, 2015 May.
[Is] ISSN:1942-7611
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25 mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alucinógenos/farmacocinética
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacocinética
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/urina
Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração por Inalação
Administração Oral
Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem
Alucinógenos/urina
Seres Humanos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/análise
Ácidos Indolacéticos/urina
N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/administração & dosagem
Óxidos/análise
Óxidos/urina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hallucinogens); 0 (Indoleacetic Acids); 0 (Oxides); 6U1S09C61L (indoleacetic acid); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160511
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160511
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140730
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/dta.1685



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