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[PMID]:29264676
[Au] Autor:Faraji H; Helalizadeh M; Kordi MR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, 338177489, Iran. hakimfaraji@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:Overcoming the challenges of conventional dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: analysis of THMs in chlorinated swimming pools.
[So] Source:Anal Bioanal Chem;410(2):605-614, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1618-2650
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A rapid, simple, and sensitive approach to the analysis of trihalomethanes (THMs) in swimming pool water samples has been developed. The main goal of this study was to overcome or to improve the shortcomings of conventional dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and to maximize the realization of green analytical chemistry principles. The method involves a simple vortex-assisted microextraction step, in the absence of the dispersive solvent, followed by salting-out effect for the elimination of the centrifugation step. A bell-shaped device and a solidifiable solvent were used to simplify the extraction solvent collection after phase separation. Optimization of the independent variables was performed by using chemometric methods in three steps. The method was statistically validated based on authentic guidance documents. The completion time for extraction was less than 8 min, and the limits of detection were in the range between 4 and 72 ng L . Using this method, good linearity and precision were achieved. The results of THMs determination in different real samples showed that in some cases the concentration of total THMs was more than threshold values of THMs determined by accredited healthcare organizations. This method indicated satisfactory analytical figures of merit. Graphical Abstract A novel green microextraction technique for overcoming the challenges of conventional DLLME. The proposed procedure complies with the principles of green/sustainable analytical chemistry, comprising decreasing the sample size, making easy automation of the process, reducing organic waste, diminishing energy consumption, replacing toxic reagents with safer reagents, and enhancing operator safety.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos
Piscinas
Trialometanos/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Halogenação
Limite de Detecção
Solventes
Trialometanos/isolamento & purificação
Água/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Solvents); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00216-017-0762-3


  2 / 966 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29223046
[Au] Autor:Charisiadis P; Makris KC
[Ad] Endereço:Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus.
[Ti] Título:Cohort-friendly protocol for a sensitive and fast method for trihalomethanes in urine using gas chromatography-Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1072:336-340, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A cohort-friendly biomonitoring protocol has been developed for measuring biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, THM) in urine using small initial volume (3mL) and short analysis time (∼10min) that facilitates the throughput of a large number of samples. The objective of this study was to optimise a cohort-friendly biomonitoring protocol for the determination of four THM analytes in human urine using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS). The proposed methodology will facilitate the inclusion of such urinary THM measurements into large population health studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Trialometanos/urina
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: 1-Propanol
Acetona
Seres Humanos
Limite de Detecção
Modelos Lineares
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Trialometanos/química
Trialometanos/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Trihalomethanes); 1364PS73AF (Acetone); 96F264O9SV (1-Propanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 966 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29406099
[Au] Autor:Lin JL; Hua LC; Hung SK; Huang C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan, Chinese Taipei. Electronic address: jrlin@cycu.edu.tw.
[Ti] Título:Algal removal from cyanobacteria-rich waters by preoxidation-assisted coagulation-flotation: Effect of algogenic organic matter release on algal removal and trihalomethane formation.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);63:147-155, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The cyanobacteria-bloom in raw waters frequently causes an unpredictable chemical dosing of preoxidation and coagulation for an effective removal of algal cells in water treatment plants. This study investigated the effects of preoxidation with NaOCl and ClO on the coagulation-flotation effectiveness in the removal of two commonly blooming cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa (MA) and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (CR), and their corresponding trihalomethane (THM) formation potential. The results showed that dual dosing with NaOCl plus ClO was more effective in enhancing the deformation of cyanobacterial cells compared to single dosing with NaOCl, especially for CR-rich water. Both preoxidation approaches for CR-rich water effectively reduced the CR cell count with less remained dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which benefited subsequent coagulation-flotation. However, preoxidation led to an adverse release of algogenic organic matter (AOM) in the case of MA-rich water. The release of AOM resulted in a poor removal in MA cells and a large amount of THM formation after oxidation-assisted coagulation-flotation process. The reduction in THM formation potential of CR-rich waters is responsible for effective algae and DOC removal by alum coagulation. It is concluded that the species-specific characteristic of cyanobacteria and their AOM released during chlorination significantly influences the performance of coagulation-flotation for AOM removal and corresponding THM formation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cianobactérias/fisiologia
Microcystis/fisiologia
Trialometanos/metabolismo
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Microalgas/fisiologia
Oxirredução
Trialometanos/análise
Trialometanos/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Trihalomethanes)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29100126
[Au] Autor:Levchuk I; Rueda Márquez JJ; Sillanpää M
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli, Finland; Department of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Cadiz University, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, 11510 Cadiz, Spain. Electronic address: irina.r.levchuk@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from water by ion exchange - A review.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;192:90-104, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Natural organic matter (NOM) is present in underground and surface waters. The main constituents of NOM are humic substances, with a major fraction of refractory anionic macromolecules of various molecular weights. The NOM concentration in drinking water is typically 2-10 ppm. Both aromatic and aliphatic components with carboxylic and phenolic functional groups can be found in NOM, leading to negatively charged humic substances at the pH of natural water. The presence of NOM in drinking water causes difficulties in conventional water treatment processes such as coagulation. Problems also arise when applying alternative treatment techniques for NOM removal. For example, the most significant challenge in nanofiltration (NF) is membrane fouling. The ion exchange process for NOM removal is an efficient technology that is recommended for the beginning of the treatment process. This approach allows for a significant decrease in the concentration of NOM and prevents the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs). This article provides a state-of-the-art review of NOM removal from water by ion exchange.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias Húmicas/análise
Resinas de Troca Iônica/química
Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Trialometanos/química
Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
Purificação da Água/instrumentação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Humic Substances); 0 (Ion Exchange Resins); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180123
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180123
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171104
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 966 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28822343
[Au] Autor:Liu C; Olivares CI; Pinto AJ; Lauderdale CV; Brown J; Selbes M; Karanfil T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Anderson, SC 29625, USA.
[Ti] Título:The control of disinfection byproducts and their precursors in biologically active filtration processes.
[So] Source:Water Res;124:630-653, 2017 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2448
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:While disinfection provides hygienically safe drinking water, the disinfectants react with inorganic or organic precursors, leading to the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Biological filtration is a process in which an otherwise conventional granular filter is designed to remove not only fine particulates but also dissolved organic matters (e.g., DBP precursors) through microbially mediated degradation. Recently, applications of biofiltration in drinking water treatment have increased significantly. This review summarizes the effectiveness of biofiltration in removing DBPs and their precursors and identifies potential factors in biofilters that may control the removal or contribute to formation of DBP and their precursors during drinking water treatment. Biofiltration can remove a fraction of the precursors of halogenated DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloketones, haloaldehydes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides, and halonitromethanes), while also demonstrating capability in removing bromate and halogenated DBPs, except for trihalomethanes. However, the effectiveness of biofiltration mediated removal of nitrosamine and its precursors appears to be variable. An increase in nitrosamine precursors after biofiltration was ascribed to the biomass sloughing off from media or direct nitrosamine formation in the biofilter under certain denitrifying conditions. Operating parameters, such as pre-ozonation, media type, empty bed contact time, backwashing, temperature, and nutrient addition may be optimized to control the regulated DBPs in the biofilter effluent while minimizing the formation of unregulated emerging DBPs. While summarizing the state of knowledge of biofiltration mediated control of DBPs, this review also identifies several knowledge gaps to highlight future research topics of interest.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desinfecção
Poluentes Químicos da Água
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Reatores Biológicos
Filtração
Trialometanos
Purificação da Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170820
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 966 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28785883
[Au] Autor:Yaman FB; Çakmakci M; Yüksel E; Özen I; Gengeç E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. fbyaman@yildiz.edu.tr.
[Ti] Título:Removal of micropollutants from Sakarya River water by ozone and membrane processes.
[So] Source:Environ Monit Assess;189(9):438, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2959
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The removal of some pollutants in the Sakarya River was investigated in this study. Sakarya River located in Turkey flows from the northeast of Afyonkarahisar City to the Black Sea. Nineteen different micropollutants including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) and pharmaceuticals personal care product (PPCP) groups, and water quality parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV ), hardness, and conductivity values were examined. To remove the micropollutants and improve the water quality, the treatment was performed with ozone, microfiltration (MF), and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes. The highest treatment efficiency was obtained with 1 mg/L ozone dosage and UP005 UF membrane. The trihalomethan formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) decreased with ozone + membrane at a concentration of 79 and 75%, respectively. After the treatment with ozone + membrane, the concentration of the micropollutants in the EDC and PPCP group remained below the detection limit. It was found that by using only membrane and only ozone, the maximum DOC removal efficiency achieved was 46 and 18%, respectively; and with ozone + membrane, this efficiency increased up to 82%. The results from the High-Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analyses pointed that the substances with high molecular weight were converted into substances with low molecular weight after the treatment. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis results showed that the aromatic and aliphatic functional groups in water changed after the treatment with ozone and that the peak values decreased more after the ozone + membrane treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ozônio/química
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mar Negro
Cidades
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise
Monitoramento Ambiental
Filtração/métodos
Água Doce
Ozônio/análise
Rios
Trialometanos/análise
Turquia
Qualidade da Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Endocrine Disruptors); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 66H7ZZK23N (Ozone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170809
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10661-017-6128-7


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[PMID]:28783018
[Au] Autor:Aslani H; Nasseri S; Nabizadeh R; Mesdaghinia A; Alimohammadi M; Nazmara S
[Ad] Endereço:Health and Environment Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: Haslani@tbzmed.ac.ir.
[Ti] Título:Haloacetic acids degradation by an efficient Ferrate/UV process: Byproduct analysis, kinetic study, and application of response surface methodology for modeling and optimization.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;203(Pt 1):218-228, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Haloacetic acids (HAAs) after trihalomethanes are the second main group of chlorination byproducts. In this study, decomposition of the two most common HAAs in drinking water was studied by an advanced oxidation process using a combination of Ferrate [Fe(VI)] and UV irradiation. The decomposition rate was measured, and the byproducts formed during the process and the mass balances were also analyzed. HAAs were quantified by GC-ECD, and the final products including acetate and chloride ions were measured by ion chromatography (IC). A central composite design was used for the experimental design, and the effect of four variables including the initial HAA concentration, pH, Fe(VI) dosage, and contact time were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Dichloroacetic acid decomposed more easily than TCAA. Results show that when TCAA and DCAA were studied individually, the degradation rates were 0.0179 and 0.0632 min , respectively. When the HAAs were simultaneously placed in the reactor, the decomposition rates of both TCAA and DCAA decreased dramatically. In this case their decomposition rate constants decreased by 67% and 49%, respectively. In the mixture, the decomposition rate of DCAA was 2.5 times higher than that of TCAA. In summary, Fe(VI)/UV process can be used as a promising treatment option for the decomposition of recalcitrant organic pollutants such as HAAs, and RSM can be used for modeling and optimizing the process.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Água Potável
Ferro
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetatos
Modelos Teóricos
Trialometanos
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Acetates); 0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 16836-06-9 (ferrate ion); E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170808
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 966 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28774629
[Au] Autor:Han J; Zhang X; Liu J; Zhu X; Gong T
[Ad] Endereço:Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.
[Ti] Título:Characterization of halogenated DBPs and identification of new DBPs trihalomethanols in chlorine dioxide treated drinking water with multiple extractions.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);58:83-92, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chlorine dioxide (ClO ) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO -treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis. In this study, characterization and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in a ClO -treated drinking water sample were conducted by pretreating the sample with multiple extractions. Compared to one-time LLE, the combined four-time LLEs improved the recovery of TOX by 2.3 times. The developmental toxicity of the drinking water sample pretreated with the combined four-time LLEs was 1.67 times higher than that pretreated with one-time LLE. With the aid of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, a new group of polar halogenated DBPs, trihalomethanols, were detected in the drinking water sample pretreated with multiple extractions; two of them, trichloromethanol and bromodichloromethanol, were identified with synthesized standard compounds. Moreover, these trihalomethanols were found to be the transformation products of trihalomethanes formed during ClO disinfection. The results indicate that multiple LLEs can significantly improve extraction efficiencies of polar halogenated DBPs and is a better pretreatment method for characterizing and identifying new polar halogenated DBPs in drinking water.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compostos Clorados/análise
Desinfetantes/análise
Água Potável/análise
Óxidos/análise
Trialometanos/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Desinfecção/métodos
Água Potável/química
Halogenação
Extração Líquido-Líquido
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chlorine Compounds); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Oxides); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 8061YMS4RM (chlorine dioxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 966 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28774628
[Au] Autor:Font-Ribera L; Cotta JC; Gómez-Gutiérrez A; Villanueva CM
[Ad] Endereço:ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), 08003 Barcelona, Spain; IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), 08003 Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08003 Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electr
[Ti] Título:Trihalomethane concentrations in tap water as determinant of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);58:77-82, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bottled water consumption is increasing worldwide, despite its huge economic and environmental cost. We aim to describe personal and tap water quality determinants of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. This cross-sectional study used data from the Health Survey of Barcelona in 2006 (N=5417 adults). The use of bottled water to drink and to cook was evaluated in relation to age, gender, educational level, district and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs), free chlorine, conductivity, chloride, sodium, pH, nitrate and aluminium in municipal tap water using Robust Poisson Regression. The prevalence of bottled water use to drink and cook was 53.9% and 6.7%, respectively. Chemical parameters in water had a large variability (interquartile range of THMs concentrations: 83.2-200.8µg/L) and were correlated between them, except aluminium. Drinking bottled water increased with educational level, while cooking with bottled water was higher among men than among women and decreased with age. After adjusting by these personal determinants, a dose-response relationship was found between concentrations of all chemicals except aluminium in tap water and bottled water use. The highest association was found for THMs, with a Prevalence Ratio of 2.00 (95%CI=1.86, 2.15) for drinking bottled water and 2.80 (95%CI=1.72, 4.58) for cooking with bottled water, among those with >150µg/L vs. <100µg/L THMs in tap water. CONCLUSION: More than half of Barcelona residents regularly drank bottled water, and the main determinant was the chemical composition of tap water, particularly THM level.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Água Potável/química
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
Trialometanos/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Trialometanos/normas
Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 966 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28774618
[Au] Autor:Allen JM; Cuthbertson AA; Liberatore HK; Kimura SY; Mantha A; Edwards MA; Richardson SD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
[Ti] Título:Showering in Flint, MI: Is there a DBP problem?
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);58:271-284, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Lead contamination in the City of Flint, MI has been well documented over the past two years, with lead levels above the EPA Action Level until summer 2016. This resulted from an ill-fated decision to switch from Detroit water (Lake Huron) with corrosion control, to Flint River water without corrosion control. Although lead levels are now closer to normal, reports of skin rashes have sparked questions surrounding tap water in some Flint homes. This study investigated the presence of contaminants, including disinfection by-products (DBPs), in the hot tap water used for showering in the homes of residents in Flint. Extensive quantitative analysis of 61 regulated and priority unregulated DBPs was conducted in Flint hot and cold tap water, along with the analysis of 50 volatile organic compounds and a nontarget comprehensive, broadscreen analysis, to identify a possible source for the reported skin rashes. For comparison, chlorinated hot and cold waters from three other cities were also sampled, including Detroit, which also uses Lake Huron as its source water. Results showed that hot water samples generally contained elevated levels of regulated and priority unregulated DBPs compared to cold water samples, but trihalomethanes were still within regulatory limits. Overall, hot shower water from Flint was similar to waters sampled from the three other cities and did not have unusually high levels of DBPs or other organic chemicals that could be responsible for the skin rashes observed by residents. It is possible that an inorganic chemical or microbial contaminant may be responsible.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desinfetantes/análise
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
Higiene
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Desinfecção/métodos
Água Potável/química
Seres Humanos
Michigan
Medição de Risco
Trialometanos/análise
Purificação da Água/métodos
Abastecimento de Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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