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[PMID]:29176845
[Au] Autor:Basila M; Kelley ML; Smith AVB
[Ad] Endereço:Dharmacon, a Horizon Discovery Group company, Lafayette, Colorado, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Minimal 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate linkage modification pattern of synthetic guide RNAs for increased stability and efficient CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing avoiding cellular toxicity.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188593, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Since its initial application in mammalian cells, CRISPR-Cas9 has rapidly become a preferred method for genome engineering experiments. The Cas9 nuclease is targeted to genomic DNA using guide RNAs (gRNA), either as the native dual RNA system consisting of a DNA-targeting CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), or as a chimeric single guide RNA (sgRNA). Entirely DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 systems using either Cas9 protein or Cas9 mRNA and chemically synthesized gRNAs allow for transient expression of CRISPR-Cas9 components, thereby reducing the potential for off-targeting, which is a significant advantage in therapeutic applications. In addition, the use of synthetic gRNA allows for the incorporation of chemical modifications for enhanced properties including improved stability. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of chemically modified gRNAs, but have focused on one pattern with multiple modifications in co-electroporation with Cas9 mRNA or multiple modifications and patterns with Cas9 plasmid lipid co-transfections. Here we present gene editing results using a series of chemically modified synthetic sgRNA molecules and chemically modified crRNA:tracrRNA molecules in both electroporation and lipid transfection assessing indel formation and/or phenotypic gene knockout. We show that while modifications are required for co-electroporation with Cas9 mRNA, some modification patterns of the gRNA are toxic to cells compared to the unmodified gRNA and most modification patterns do not significantly improve gene editing efficiency. We also present modification patterns of the gRNA that can modestly improve Cas9 gene editing efficiency when co-transfected with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein (> 1.5-fold difference). These results indicate that for certain applications, including those relevant to primary cells, the incorporation of some, but not all chemical modification patterns on synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA or sgRNA can be beneficial to CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética
Edição de Genes
Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade
RNA Guia/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Eletroporação
Seres Humanos
Células K562
Lipídeos/química
Fenótipo
RNA Mensageiro/genética
RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
Transfecção
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Lipids); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (RNA, Guide); 0 (RNA, Messenger)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188593


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[PMID]:28763937
[Au] Autor:Gebauer P; Paschke K; Vera C; Toro JE; Pardo M; Urbina M
[Ad] Endereço:Centro i∼mar, Universidad de Los Lagos, Casilla 557 Puerto Montt, Chile. Electronic address: pgebauer@ulagos.cl.
[Ti] Título:Lethal and sub-lethal effects of commonly used anti-sea lice formulations on non-target crab Metacarcinus edwardsii larvae.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;185:1019-1029, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The pesticides used by the salmon industry to treat sea lice, are applied in situ via a bath solution and are subsequently discharged into the surrounding medium. The effects of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, azamethiphos and hydrogen peroxide were assessed on the performance of Metacarcinus edwardsii larvae, an important crab for Chilean fishery. All larvae were dead or dying after 30 min of exposure to cypermethrin and after 40 min to deltamethrin at concentrations 100 and 20 times lower (0.15 and 0.1 µg L , respectively) than the concentrations and exposure times recommended by the manufacturers (CRM) to treat sea lice. Azamethiphos affected all larvae at a concentration 10 times lower than CRM. Hydrogen peroxide had the lowest detrimental effects, but at the CRM, 100% of the larvae were affected. Sub-lethal effects, i.e prolonged developmental time, were observed at concentrations lower than CRM. Repeated exposure to azamethiphos (0.0625-0.5 µg L ) and hydrogen peroxide (188-1500 mg L ) had effects on survival. In conclusion, the pesticides used against parasitic copepod tested here, negatively affect non-target crustacean larvae. Due to the product's characteristics, the lethal effects of the pyrethroids probably are restricted to the time and area of application, while the action of azamethiphos may extend to a wider area. Current data are insufficient to accurately dimension the effects of these compounds in the field. More research is required to evaluate the consequences of prolonged developmental times and/or reduction in appendage mobility, so as the effects of these compounds on the pelagic and benthic communities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos
Praguicidas/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Aquicultura
Braquiúros
Chile
Pesqueiros
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Nitrilos
Organotiofosfatos
Piretrinas
Salmão/parasitologia
Testes de Toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Nitriles); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Pesticides); 0 (Pyrethrins); 1TR49121NP (cypermethrin); 2JTS8R821G (decamethrin); 9440R8149U (azamethiphos)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170803
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28646835
[Au] Autor:Nganchamung T; Robson MG; Siriwong W
[Ad] Endereço:College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
[Ti] Título:Association between blood cholinesterase activity, organophosphate pesticide residues on hands, and health effects among chili farmers in Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand
[So] Source:Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig;68(2):175-183, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0035-7715
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Background: Use of pesticides has been documented to lead to several adverse health effects. Farmers are likely to be exposed to pesticides through dermal exposure as a result of mixing, loading, and spraying. Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used in most of the agricultural areas throughout Thailand. OPs are cholinesterase inhibitors and blood cholinesterase activity is used as a biomarker of OP effects. Objective: This study aims to determine the association between blood cholinesterase activity and organophosphate pesticide residues on chili farmer's hands and their adverse health effects. Materials and Methods: Ninety chili farmers directly involved with pesticide applications (e.g. mixing, loading, spraying) were recruited and were interviewed face to face. Both enzymes, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma cholinesterase (PChE), were tested with the EQM Test-mate Cholinesterase Test System (Model 400). Hand wipe samples were used for collecting residues on both hands and OP residues for chlorpyrifos and profenofos were quantified using gas chromatography equipped with a flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Results: The average activity (±SD) of AChE and PChE was 2.73 (±0.88) and 1.58 (±0.56) U/mL, respectively. About 80.0% of the participants had detectable OP residues on hands. The median residues of chlorpyrifos and profenofos were found to be 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg/two hands, respectively. Half of participants reported having some acute health symptoms within 48 hours after applying pesticides. When adjusted for gender, number of years working in chili farming, and frequency of pesticide use, AChE activity (Adjusted OR = 0.03, 95%CI: 0.01-0.13) and detected OP residues on hands (Adjusted OR = 0.15, 95%CI: 0.02-0.95) were significantly associated with having health effects, but no significant association was found in PChE activity (Adjusted OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 0.63-6.99). Conclusions: This study suggests that regular monitoring for blood cholinesterase and effective interventions to reduce pesticide exposure to prevent health effects should be provided to chili farmers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clorpirifos/farmacologia
Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Colinesterases/sangue
Fazendeiros
Nível de Saúde
Organotiofosfatos/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Clorpirifos/análise
Colinesterases/efeitos dos fármacos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
Organotiofosfatos/análise
Tailândia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 7J04O7BS4W (profenofos); EC 3.1.1.8 (Cholinesterases); JCS58I644W (Chlorpyrifos)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170626
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28541776
[Au] Autor:Lu XT; Ma Y; Zhang HJ; Jin MQ; Tang JH
[Ad] Endereço:a College of Materials and Environmental Engineering , Hangzhou Dianzi University , Hangzhou , China.
[Ti] Título:Enantioselective apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by individual isomers of profenofos in primary hippocampal neurons.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci Health B;52(7):505-515, 2017 Jul 03.
[Is] ISSN:1532-4109
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptosis-related cytotoxic effects and molecular mechanisms of individual isomers of profenofos (PFF) on primary hippocampal neurons at 1.0 to 20 mg L . The cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux indicated that (-)-PFF exposure was associated with more toxic effects than (+)-PFF above the concentration of 5 mg L (P < 0.5). Flow cytometric results showed that the percentages of apoptotic cells incubated with 20 mg L (-)-PFF, (+)-PFF and rac-PFF for 24 h reached 23.4%, 9.2% and 14.2% (P < 0.01), respectively. Hippocampal neurons incubated with (-)-PFF, (+)-PFF and rac-PFF exhibited a dose-dependent accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, implying that the defense system of the tests induces oxidative damage. A statistically significant difference was observed between the two enantiomers at 5 mg L and above. Moreover, the results showed that (-)-PFF exposure caused a significant loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP), an upregulation of Ca and Bax protein expression, a downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a dose-dependent manner; (+)-PFF and rac-PFF exhibited these effects to a lesser degree. All results suggest that PFF induced apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons via the mitochondria-mediated pathway, and oxidative stress is one of the factors of PFF-induced apoptosis. In addition, (-)-PFF appears to play an important role in oxidative stress and apoptosis, indicating that enantioselectivity should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological effects and health risks of chiral pesticides.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Caspases/metabolismo
Catalase/metabolismo
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipocampo/citologia
Inseticidas/química
Inseticidas/toxicidade
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
Malondialdeído/metabolismo
Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
Neurônios/metabolismo
Neurônios/patologia
Organotiofosfatos/química
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
Estereoisomerismo
Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bax protein, rat); 0 (Insecticides); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 0 (bcl-2-Associated X Protein); 4Y8F71G49Q (Malondialdehyde); 7J04O7BS4W (profenofos); EC 1.1.1.27 (L-Lactate Dehydrogenase); EC 1.11.1.6 (Catalase); EC 1.15.1.1 (Superoxide Dismutase); EC 3.4.22.- (Caspases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/03601234.2017.1303324


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[PMID]:28531206
[Au] Autor:Myhre Jensen E; Sevatdal S; Bakke MJ; Kaur K; Horsberg TE
[Ad] Endereço:Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sea Lice Research Centre, Oslo, Norway.
[Ti] Título:A selection study on a laboratory-designed population of salmon lic (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0178068, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Resistance towards antiparasitic agents in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a widespread problem along the Norwegian coast, reducing treatments efficacies and slowing down the envisioned expansion of Norwegian salmon production. The present study was conducted in order to assess the efficacies of two of the most widely used anti-parasitic substances-azamethiphos and deltamethrin-as well as assessing the benefit of having a resistant genotype compared to being fully sensitive when exposed to one of these substances. Atlantic salmon were exposed to a mix of salmon lice copepodids from a fully sensitive, a double resistant and a multi-resistant strain. Once the lice reached pre-adult stages, one group was exposed to 100 µg/L azamethiphos for 60 minutes, the other to 2 µg/L deltamethrin for 30 minutes, and the last was kept in a seawater control. Detached lice were collected at a series of time points following exposure, and all lice (immobilized and surviving) were analysed for both pyrethroid (sensitive "S" and resistant "R") and azamethiphos (fully sensitive "SS", heterozygous resistant "RS" and fully resistant "RR") resistance markers. We found that the efficacies of deltamethrin on parasites with genotype S and R were 70.3 and 13.2%, respectively. The overall efficacy of the deltamethrin treatment was 32.3%. The efficacies of azamethiphos on parasites with genotype SS, RS and RR were 100, 80 and 19.1%, respectively. The overall efficacy of the azamethiphos treatment was 80.4%. Survival analyses revealed that the median survival time in deltamethrin-sensitive and-resistant parasites were 16.8 and >172 hours, respectively. The differences were even more pronounced in the azamethiphos-treated group, where SS, RS and RR parasites survived for 0.26, 6.6 and >172 hours, respectively. The substantial differences in survival between sensitive and resistant lice following treatment demonstrate the ability of medicinal treatments to drive genetic selection towards a much more resistant salmon lice population within a very short time span if there is no influx of sensitive genotypes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos
Organofosfatos/farmacologia
Piretrinas/farmacologia
Salmo salar/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Copépodes/genética
Copépodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Resistência a Medicamentos
Genótipo
Nitrilos/farmacologia
Organotiofosfatos/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Nitriles); 0 (Organophosphates); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Pyrethrins); 2JTS8R821G (decamethrin); 9440R8149U (azamethiphos)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170523
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178068


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[PMID]:28043332
[Au] Autor:Mansoor MM; Raza AB; Abbas N; Aqueel MA; Afzal M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. Electronic address: honeybeepak@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Resistance of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens to nitenpyram: Cross-resistance patterns, mechanism, stability, and realized heritability.
[So] Source:Pestic Biochem Physiol;135:59-63, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9939
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a major generalist predator employed in integrated pest management (IPM) plans for pest control on many crops. Nitenpyram, a neonicotinoid insecticide has widely been used against the sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. Therefore, a field green lacewing strain was exposed to nitenpyram for five generations to investigate resistance evolution, cross-resistance pattern, stability, realized heritability, and mechanisms of resistance. Before starting the selection with nitenpyram, a field collected strain showed 22.08-, 23.09-, 484.69- and 602.90-fold resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin, spinosad and acetamiprid, respectively compared with the Susceptible strain. After continuous selection for five generations (G1-G5) with nitenpyram in the laboratory, the Field strain (Niten-SEL) developed a resistance ratio of 423.95 at G6. The Niten-SEL strain at G6 showed no cross-resistance to buprofezin and acetamiprid and negative cross-resistance to spinosad compared with the Field strain (G1). For resistance stability, the Niten-SEL strain was left unexposed to any insecticide for four generations (G6-G9) and bioassay results at G10 showed that resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin and spinosad was stable, while resistance to acetamiprid was unstable. The realized heritability values were 0.97, 0.16, 0.03, and -0.16 to nitenpyram, buprofezin, acetamiprid and spinosad, respectively, after five generations of selection. Moreover, the enzyme inhibitors (PBO or DEF) significantly decreased the nitenpyram resistance in the resistant strain, suggesting that resistance was due to microsomal oxidases and esterases. These results are very helpful for integration of green lacewings in IPM programs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos
Resistência a Inseticidas
Inseticidas/toxicidade
Piridinas/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/toxicidade
Esterases/antagonistas & inibidores
Padrões de Herança
Insetos/genética
Resistência a Inseticidas/genética
Dose Letal Mediana
Neonicotinoides
Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade
Butóxido de Piperonila/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Insecticides); 0 (Neonicotinoids); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Pyridines); 3A837VZ81Y (nitenpyram); 53075G8GRF (butyl phosphorotrithioate); EC 3.1.- (Esterases); LWK91TU9AH (Piperonyl Butoxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170104
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28019697
[Au] Autor:de Perre C; Murphy TM; Lydy MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences, and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.
[Ti] Título:Mixture toxicity of phostebupirim and cyfluthrin: Species-specific responses.
[So] Source:Environ Toxicol Chem;36(7):1947-1954, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1552-8618
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Currently, the potential impact of insecticide mixtures to nontarget organisms is largely unknown, and additional study is needed. The present study investigated the mixture toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide phostebupirim and the pyrethroid insecticide cyfluthrin using 4 nontarget species including Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), and Danio rerio (zebrafish). For each species, the toxicity of equipotent mixtures was compared with the expected toxicity estimated using the independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA) models. Lethal and sublethal responses to D. magna and H. azteca were best described with the IA model. For both fish species, mixture toxicity was significantly higher than that estimated using either mixture model. The synergism noted in fish exposed to the combination of phostebupirim and cyfluthrin was confirmed by exposing P. promelas larvae to a nontoxic dose of phostebupirim and a range of toxic cyfluthrin concentrations, and vice versa. Sublethal and lethal concentrations to fish were up to 7 times lower for the mixture than in concurrently run individual compound exposures. Potential mechanisms for the synergistic responses found in fish are presented. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1947-1954. © 2016 SETAC.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inseticidas/toxicidade
Nitrilos/toxicidade
Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade
Piretrinas/toxicidade
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anfípodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Anfípodes/fisiologia
Animais
Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Cyprinidae/fisiologia
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos
Daphnia/fisiologia
Inseticidas/análise
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Dose Letal Mediana
Espectrometria de Massas
Nitrilos/análise
Organotiofosfatos/análise
Piretrinas/análise
Especificidade da Espécie
Testes de Toxicidade
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insecticides); 0 (Nitriles); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Pyrethrins); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (phostebupirim); SCM2QLZ6S0 (cyfluthrin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/etc.3724


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[PMID]:27859350
[Au] Autor:Gautam R; Vanderstichel R; Boerlage AS; Revie CW; Hammell KL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Health Management and Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology Research, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Evaluating bath treatment effectiveness in the control of sea lice burdens on Atlantic salmon in New Brunswick, Canada.
[So] Source:J Fish Dis;40(7):895-905, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2761
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The use of medicinal bath treatment for sea lice is becoming more common, due to increasing resistance to in-feed treatments with emamectin benzoate. Common treatment modalities in New Brunswick, Canada, include Salmosan administered by tarpaulin or wellboat, and Paramove administered by wellboat. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of these treatment modalities in the field between 2010 and 2015 using a web-based sea lice data management system (Fish-iTrends ). Effectiveness was evaluated for adult female (AF) and for pre-adult and adult male (PAAM) life stages separately. We also investigated the impact of variability in pretreatment lead and post-treatment lag time on effectiveness measures. There were 1185 treatment events at 57 farms that uniquely matched our pre- and post-treatment count criteria. The effectiveness of treatment modality was significantly influenced by season, pretreatment level of sea lice and by lead and lag times. In summer, Salmosan administered by tarpaulin had the greatest effectiveness on both AF and PAAM, when pretreatment levels were above 10 sea lice; whereas in autumn, the performance of treatment modalities varied significantly, depending on the pretreatment levels for the life stages. Ignoring the lead or lag time effect generally resulted in an underestimation of treatment effectiveness.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aquicultura/métodos
Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária
Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle
Praguicidas/farmacologia
Salmo salar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia
Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia
Novo Brunswick
Organotiofosfatos/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Pesticides); 9440R8149U (azamethiphos); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jfd.12569


  9 / 730 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27628767
[Au] Autor:Angthararuk D; Harir M; Schmitt-Kopplin P; Sutthivaiyakit S; Kettrup A; Sutthivaiyakit P
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry , Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University , Bangkok , Thailand.
[Ti] Título:Degradation products of profenofos as identified by high-field FTICR mass spectrometry: Isotopic fine structure approach.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci Health B;52(1):10-22, 2017 Jan 02.
[Is] ISSN:1532-4109
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study was performed to identify the degradation products of profenofos "a phenyl organothiophosphate insecticide" in raw water (RW) collected from the entry point of Metropolitan Water Works Authority "Bangkaen, Thailand" and ultrapure water (UPW) with and without TiO under simulated sunlight irradiation. Degradation of profenofos was followed with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and follows pseudo first-order kinetic. Accordingly, high-field FTICR mass spectrometry coupled to an electrospray ionization source was used to reveal the degradation routes of profenofos and the isotopic fine structures (IFS) elucidations to approve the chemical structures of its degradation products. More degradation products were detected in UPW as compared to RW. Consequently, two main degradation pathways namely (i) interactive replacements of bromine and hydrogen by hydroxyl functional groups and (ii) rupture of PO, PS, CBr and CCl bonds were observed. None interactive replacement of chlorine by hydroxyl functional group was detected. Accordingly, mechanistical pathways of the main degradation products were established.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
Inseticidas/análise
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
Organotiofosfatos/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Inseticidas/metabolismo
Cinética
Organotiofosfatos/metabolismo
Fotólise
Luz Solar
Tailândia
Titânio/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insecticides); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 15FIX9V2JP (titanium dioxide); 7J04O7BS4W (profenofos); D1JT611TNE (Titanium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/03601234.2016.1224696


  10 / 730 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27914535
[Au] Autor:Gondhalekar AD; Nakayasu ES; Silva I; Cooper B; Scharf ME
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 901 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
[Ti] Título:Indoxacarb biotransformation in the German cockroach.
[So] Source:Pestic Biochem Physiol;134:14-23, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9939
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As shown in other insect species we found evidence for hydrolase-based bioactivation of indoxacarb to a toxic decarbomethoxylated metabolite, DCJW. In addition, both indoxacarb and DCJW were further metabolized to hydroxy, oxadiazine ring-opened and hydroxylated ring-opened metabolites. In general, higher indoxacarb disappearance, increased formation of DCJW and the above-mentioned metabolites were observed in the three field strains. In vitro biotransformation studies showed that hydroxylated and oxadiazine ring-opened metabolite formation is NADPH/cytochrome P450-dependent. Bioassays and in vivo metabolism experiments using the enzyme-inhibiting insecticide synergists, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), provided insights into potential indoxacarb resistance mechanisms that may proliferate in German cockroach field strains following unchecked selection pressures. The information presented here is an essential step toward developing indoxacarb resistance management programs and also reveals mechanisms of secondary/tertiary indoxacarb toxicity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Blattellidae/metabolismo
Inseticidas/farmacocinética
Oxazinas/farmacocinética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biotransformação
Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia
Masculino
Organotiofosfatos/farmacologia
Sinergistas de Praguicidas/farmacologia
Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Insecticides); 0 (Organothiophosphates); 0 (Oxazines); 0 (Pesticide Synergists); 52H0D26MWR (indoxacarb); 53075G8GRF (butyl phosphorotrithioate); LWK91TU9AH (Piperonyl Butoxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161205
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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