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[PMID]:28712549
[Au] Autor:Weissberg A; Madmon M; Elgarisi M; Dagan S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Analytical Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), P.O.B. 19, Ness Ziona, Israel. Electronic address: aviwe@iibr.gov.il.
[Ti] Título:Determination of trace amounts of G-type nerve agents in aqueous samples utilizing "in vial" instantaneous derivatization and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;1512:71-77, 2017 Aug 25.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A methodology for sensitive determination of sarin (GB), soman (GD) and cyclosarin (GF) chemical warfare agents in aqueous media was developed. The method incorporates direct derivatization with 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenol (2-DMAMP), a commercially available, water-soluble reagent, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis in the positive ion mode. Five derivatization agents were characterized for their MS/MS fragmentation pattern, and their reaction time, temperature and derivatization-reagent amount were optimized. The developed derivatization reaction is simple, fast (1min) and proceeds at ambient temperature. Sample preparation consists of only the addition of the reagent directly into an injection vial prior to LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis. All 2-DMAMP derivatives were stable for at least 48h and had unique tandem mass spectra characterized by common product ions at m/z 230 and 185. Compared with conventional GC-MS or LC-MS methods, simplicity, better sensitivity and informative MS/MS spectra were achieved by this method. Limits of detection (LODs), identification (LOIs), and quantification (LOQs) were determined in tap water and found to be 1pg/ml, 4pg/ml and 4pg/ml respectively. The proposed methodology is appropriate for routine evaluation of contaminated water supplies and has the advantage of a simultaneous analysis of both derivatized G-nerve agents and their intact hydrolysis products within a single LC-MS analysis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
Agentes Neurotóxicos/química
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Hidrólise
Limite de Detecção
Sarina/química
Soman/química
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Nerve Agents); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 96-64-0 (Soman); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170718
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28693885
[Au] Autor:Rosenberg YJ; Mao L; Jiang X; Lees J; Zhang L; Radic Z; Taylor P
[Ad] Endereço:PlantVax Inc, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Electronic address: yjr@plantvax.com.
[Ti] Título:Post-exposure treatment with the oxime RS194B rapidly reverses early and advanced symptoms in macaques exposed to sarin vapor.
[So] Source:Chem Biol Interact;274:50-57, 2017 Aug 25.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7786
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides trigger a common mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from critical targeting and inhibition of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Therapeutic countermeasures have thus focused on either administering an oxime post-exposure, that can rapidly reactivate OP-inhibited AChE, or by preventing OP poisoning through administering pre-exposure treatments that scavenge OPs before they inhibit their physiological AChE targets. While several pyridinium aldoxime antidotes are currently approved, their utility is impaired due to their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently. The present study utilized a macaque (Ma) model to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel zwitterionic and centrally acting oxime RS194B to reactivate sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited macaque AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in vitro and to further assess the capacity of RS194B to effect a reversal of clinical symptoms following sarin inhalation in vivo. In vitro, oxime reactivation of MaAChE and MaBChE was shown to be comparable to their human orthologs, while the macaque studies indicated that IM administration of 62.5 mg/kg of RS194B and 0.28 mg/kg atropine after continuous exposure to 49.6 µg/kg sarin vapor, rapidly reactivated the inhibited AChE and BChE in blood and reversed both early and advanced clinical symptoms of sarin-induced toxicity following pulmonary exposure within 1 h. The rapid cessation of autonomic and central symptoms, including convulsions, observed in macaques bodes well for the use of RS194B as an intra- or post-exposure human treatment and validates the macaque model in generating efficacy and toxicology data required for approval under the FDA Animal rule.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acetamidas/farmacologia
Reativadores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Oximas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetamidas/administração & dosagem
Acetamidas/química
Acetilcolinesterase/sangue
Acetilcolinesterase/química
Acetilcolinesterase/genética
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo
Animais
Butirilcolinesterase/sangue
Butirilcolinesterase/química
Butirilcolinesterase/genética
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Reativadores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem
Reativadores da Colinesterase/química
Gases/química
Inalação
Macaca/metabolismo
Modelos Animais
Oximas/administração & dosagem
Oximas/química
Paraoxon/toxicidade
Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
Proteínas Recombinantes/química
Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
Sarina/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Acetamides); 0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Cholinesterase Reactivators); 0 (Gases); 0 (Oximes); 0 (RS194B); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin); EC 3.1.1.7 (Acetylcholinesterase); EC 3.1.1.8 (Butyrylcholinesterase); Q9CX8P80JW (Paraoxon)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170712
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28531843
[Au] Autor:Baygildiev T; Zatirakha A; Rodin I; Braun A; Stavrianidi A; Koryagina N; Rybalchenko I; Shpigun O
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow 119991, Russia.
[Ti] Título:Rapid IC-MS/MS determination of methylphosphonic acid in urine of rats exposed to organophosphorus nerve agents.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1058:32-39, 2017 Jul 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A direct approach for the determination of a specific hydrolysis product of organophosphorus nerve agents such as methylphosphonic acid (MPA) in urine by ion chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) has been developed. The first advantage of the proposed approach is a rapid and simple sample preparation, which does not require a large sample volume, complicated and laborious preconcentration and derivatization steps, and takes less than 7min per sample. The second advantage is the fast and selective IC determination of MPA carried out on a noncommercial anion exchanger based on a poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) substrate with a high degree of crosslinking and a covalently-bonded branched functional layer, which enables complete resolution of MPA from major urine matrix components and allows one to overcome matrix effects. Hyphenation of IC with tandem mass spectrometry results in highly sensitive and reliable MPA determination with the lowest detection limit (4ngmL ) reported so far for HPLC determination of MPA in urine. The proposed approach is successfully applied for the analysis of urine from rats exposed to nonlethal doses of organophosphorus nerve agents such as sarin, soman, and VR in up to 13days after initial exposure, which shows the possibility to verify the nerve agent exposure after a long period of time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agentes Neurotóxicos/metabolismo
Compostos Organofosforados/urina
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Limite de Detecção
Modelos Lineares
Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo
Compostos Organotiofosforados/administração & dosagem
Compostos Organotiofosforados/metabolismo
Ratos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sarina/administração & dosagem
Sarina/metabolismo
Soman/administração & dosagem
Soman/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Nerve Agents); 0 (Organophosphorus Compounds); 0 (Organothiophosphorus Compounds); 0 (S-(N,N-diethylaminoethyl) isobutyl methylphosphothiolate); 329W4YM10Z (methylphosphonic acid); 96-64-0 (Soman); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170523
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27320079
[Au] Autor:Wright LK; Lumley LA; Lee RB; Taylor JT; Miller DB; Muse WT; Emm EJ; Whalley CE
[Ad] Endereço:a US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) and.
[Ti] Título:Younger rats are more susceptible to the lethal effects of sarin than adult rats: 24 h LC for whole-body (10 and 60 min) exposures.
[So] Source:Drug Chem Toxicol;40(2):134-139, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1525-6014
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are among the most lethal chemicals known to man. Children are predicted to be vulnerable to CWNA exposure because of their smaller body masses, higher ventilation rates and immature central nervous systems. While a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in younger animals have been published, exposure routes relevant to battlefield or terrorist situations (i.e. inhalation for sarin) were not used. Thus, we estimated the 24 h LC for whole-body (10 and 60 min) exposure to sarin using a stagewise, adaptive dose design. Specifically, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a range of sarin concentrations (6.2-44.0 or 1.6-12.5 mg/m³) for either 10 or 60 min, respectively, at six different times during their development (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 70). For male and female rats, the lowest LC values were observed for PND 14 and the highest LC values for PND 28. Sex differences were observed only for PND 42 for the 10 min exposures and PND 21 and 70 for the 60 min exposures. Thus, younger rats (PND 14) were more susceptible than older rats (PND 70) to the lethal effects of whole-body exposure to sarin, while adolescent (PND 28) rats were the least susceptible and sex differences were minimal. These results underscore the importance of controlling for the age of the animal in research on the toxic effects associated with CWNA exposure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
Sarina/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores Etários
Animais
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Feminino
Exposição por Inalação
Dose Letal Mediana
Masculino
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Fatores Sexuais
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170404
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170404
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160621
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/01480545.2016.1188304


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[PMID]:27125569
[Au] Autor:de Lima WE; Francisco A; da Cunha EF; Radic Z; Taylor P; França TC; Ramalho TC
[Ad] Endereço:a Laboratory of Molecular Modeling, Chemistry Department , Federal University of Lavras , Lavras , MG 37200-000 , Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Mechanistic studies of new oximes reactivators of human butyryl cholinesterase inhibited by cyclosarin and sarin.
[So] Source:J Biomol Struct Dyn;35(6):1272-1282, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1538-0254
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) has been seen as a key enzyme in the search for new strategies in the treatment of poisoning by organophosphates (OPs), since human BChE (HssBChE), complexed with the appropriate oxime, can be a suitable scavenger and deactivator for OPs in the blood stream. However, the efficacy of HssBChE is limited by its strict stoichiometric scavenging, slow reactivation, and propensity for aging. The improvement of the reactivation rate by new and more efficient oximes could contribute to mitigate this problem and increase the HssBChE efficiency as scavenger. Several oximes have been synthesized and tested with this goal, some with promising results, but the mechanistic aspects of the reactivation reaction are not fully understood yet. In order to better investigate this mechanism, docking and mixed quantum and molecular mechanics combined with principal components analysis were performed here to evaluate the capacity of reactivation and determine the preferred route for the reactivation reaction of two new oximes on HssBChE inhibited by the neurotoxic agents cyclosarin and sarin. Plots of potential energies were calculated and all the transition states of the reactional mechanism were determined. Our results showed a good correlation with experimental data and pointed to the most efficient oxime with both OPs. The protocol used could be a suitable tool for a preliminary evaluation of the HssBChE reactivation rates by new oximes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Butirilcolinesterase/química
Inibidores da Colinesterase/química
Reativadores da Colinesterase/química
Compostos Organofosforados/química
Oximas/química
Sarina/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Reativadores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Modelos Químicos
Modelos Moleculares
Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia
Oximas/farmacologia
Ligação Proteica
Sarina/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Cholinesterase Reactivators); 0 (Organophosphorus Compounds); 0 (Oximes); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin); EC 3.1.1.8 (Butyrylcholinesterase); VM36F9N236 (cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/07391102.2016.1178173


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[PMID]:28102531
[Au] Autor:Droste DJ; Shelley ML; Gearhart JM; Kempisty DM
[Ad] Endereço:Environmental Compliance Officer, Marine Corps Installation Command, 3000 Marine Corps, Pentagon, Washington, District of Columbia.
[Ti] Título:A systems dynamics approach to the efficacy of oxime therapy for mild exposure to sarin gas.
[So] Source:Am J Disaster Med;11(2):89-118, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-149X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years." With these recent events clear in our mind, we must focus on the horrific nature of these chemical agents to devise a strategy that will enable first responders to counteract these insidious chemicals. This paper presents research on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to determine whether the current treatment protocol prescribed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the US Army is effective in treating victims suffering from acute exposure symptoms. The model was used to determine what treatment should be used for victims suffering from mild exposure symptoms. The results indicate that the current CDC and US Army treatment is effective, but treatment with oxime therapy was not effective in alleviating symptoms of mild exposure. By applying these results, an effective treatment protocol was developed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antídotos/farmacocinética
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/farmacocinética
Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/tratamento farmacológico
Oximas/farmacocinética
Sarina/farmacocinética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antídotos/uso terapêutico
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento
Seres Humanos
Modelos Teóricos
Oximas/uso terapêutico
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
Compostos de Pralidoxima/uso terapêutico
Sarina/envenenamento
Análise de Sistemas
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antidotes); 0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Oximes); 0 (Pralidoxime Compounds); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin); P7MU9UTP52 (pralidoxime)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170629
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170629
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170120
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27705071
[Au] Autor:Abou-Donia MB; Siracuse B; Gupta N; Sobel Sokol A
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology , Duke University , Durham , NC , USA.
[Ti] Título:Sarin (GB, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) neurotoxicity: critical review.
[So] Source:Crit Rev Toxicol;46(10):845-875, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1547-6898
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sarin (GB, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent that inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) irreversibly. The subsequent build-up of acetylcholine (ACh) in the central nervous system (CNS) provokes seizures and, at sufficient doses, centrally-mediated respiratory arrest. Accumulation of ACh at peripheral autonomic synapses leads to peripheral signs of intoxication and overstimulation of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, which is described as "cholinergic crisis" (i.e. diarrhea, sweating, salivation, miosis, bronchoconstriction). Exposure to high doses of sarin can result in tremors, seizures, and hypothermia. More seriously, build-up of ACh at neuromuscular junctions also can cause paralysis and ultimately peripherally-mediated respiratory arrest which can lead to death via respiratory failure. In addition to its primary action on the cholinergic system, sarin possesses other indirect effects. These involve the activation of several neurotransmitters including gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and the alteration of other signaling systems such as ion channels, cell adhesion molecules, and inflammatory regulators. Sarin exposure is associated with symptoms of organophosphate-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) and organophosphate-induced chronic neurotoxicity (OPICN). Moreover, sarin has been involved in toxic and immunotoxic effects as well as organophosphate-induced endocrine disruption (OPIED). The standard treatment for sarin-like nerve agent exposure is post-exposure injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, accompanied by an oxime, an AChE reactivator, and diazepam.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos
Sarina/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin); EC 3.1.1.7 (Acetylcholinesterase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161006
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27639501
[Au] Autor:Worek F; Seeger T; Neumaier K; Wille T; Thiermann H
[Ad] Endereço:Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich, Germany. Electronic address: franzworek@bundeswehr.org.
[Ti] Título:Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.
[So] Source:Toxicol Lett;262:12-16, 2016 Nov 16.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3169
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Baratas/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Arsenicais
Vesícula/induzido quimicamente
Vesícula/patologia
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
Feminino
Masculino
Gás de Mostarda/toxicidade
Agentes Neurotóxicos/toxicidade
Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade
Projetos Piloto
Sarina/toxicidade
Soman/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Arsenicals); 0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Nerve Agents); 0 (Organophosphorus Compounds); 0N54LGU5WS (lewisite); 96-64-0 (Soman); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin); T8KEC9FH9P (Mustard Gas); VM36F9N236 (cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170828
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170828
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160919
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27639427
[Au] Autor:Lazar S; Egoz I; Brandeis R; Chapman S; Bloch-Shilderman E; Grauer E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel.
[Ti] Título:Propagation of damage in the rat brain following sarin exposure: Differential progression of early processes.
[So] Source:Toxicol Appl Pharmacol;310:87-97, 2016 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0333
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and a highly toxic warfare agent. Following the overt, dose-dependent signs (e.g. tremor, hyper secretion, seizures, respiratory depression and eventually death), brain damage is often reported. The goal of the present study was to characterize the early histopathological and biochemical events leading to this damage. Rats were exposed to 1LD50 of sarin (80µg/kg, i.m.). Brains were removed at 1, 2, 6, 24 and 48h and processed for analysis. Results showed that TSPO (translocator protein) mRNA increased at 6h post exposure while TSPO receptor density increased only at 24h. In all brain regions tested, bax mRNA decreased 1h post exposure followed by an increase 24h later, with only minor increase in bcl2 mRNA. At this time point a decrease was seen in both anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and pro-apoptotic Bax, followed by a time and region specific increase in Bax. An immediate elevation in ERK1/2 activity with no change in JNK may indicate an endogenous "first response" mechanism used to attenuate the forthcoming apoptosis. The time dependent increase in the severity of brain damage included an early bi-phasic activation of astrocytes, a sharp decrease in intact neuronal cells, a time dependent reduction in MAP2 and up to 15% of apoptosis. Thus, neuronal death is mostly due to necrosis and severe astrocytosis. The data suggests that timing of possible treatments should be determined by early events following exposure. For example, the biphasic changes in astrocytes activity indicate a possible beneficial effects of delayed anti-inflammatory intervention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
Sarina/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Substâncias para a Guerra Química
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170531
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170531
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160919
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27509164
[Au] Autor:Ash T; Debnath T; Banu T; Das AK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science , Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032, India.
[Ti] Título:Exploration of Unimolecular Gas-Phase Detoxication Pathways of Sarin and Soman: A Computational Study from the Perspective of Reaction Energetics and Kinetics.
[So] Source:Chem Res Toxicol;29(9):1439-57, 2016 Sep 19.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5010
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A mechanistic investigation has been carried out to explore all possible gas phase unimolecular isomerization as well as decomposition pathways of toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPCs), namely, sarin (GB) and soman (GD), which are better known as nerve agents. We have identified a total of 13 detoxication pathways for sarin, where the α-H, ß-H, and γ-H take part in the H-transfer process. However, for soman, due to the presence of ω-H, three additional detoxication pathways are obtained, where the ω-H is involved in the H-transfer process. Among all the pathways, the D3 decomposition pathway, where the phosphorus oxoacid derivative and alkene are generated via the formation of a six-membered ring in the transition state, is identified as the most feasible pathway from the perspective of both activation barrier and reaction enthalpy values. Moreover, we have studied the feasibility of the isomerization and decomposition pathways by performing the reaction kinetics in the temperature range of 300 K-1000 K using the one-dimensional Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) master equation. From the RRKM calculation also, D3 pathway is confirmed as the most feasible pathway for both OPCs. The rate constant values associated with the D3 pathway within the temperature range of 600 K-700 K imply that the degradation of the OPCs is possible within this temperature range via the D3 pathway, which is in good agreement with the earlier reported experimental result. It is also observed that at higher temperature range (∼900 K), the increased rate constant values of other detoxication pathways indicate that along with D3, all other pathways become more or less equally feasible. Therefore, the entire work provides a widespread idea about the kinetic as well as thermodynamic feasibility of the explored detoxication pathways of the titled OPCs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sarina/metabolismo
Soman/metabolismo
Termodinâmica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Gases
Cinética
Estrutura Molecular
Transição de Fase
Sarina/química
Sarina/toxicidade
Soman/química
Soman/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Gases); 96-64-0 (Soman); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170714
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160811
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00132



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