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[PMID]:28458430
[Au] Autor:Adel M; Sadegh AB; Arizza V; Abbasi H; Inguglia L; Saravi HN
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Aquatic Animal Health and Diseases, Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran.
[Ti] Título:Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-xylazine, and ketamine-acepromazine in Caspian Pond turtles ( ).
[So] Source:Indian J Pharmacol;49(1):93-97, 2017 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1998-3751
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of different anesthetic drug combinations on the Caspian Pond turtles ( ). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three groups of the Caspian Pond turtles ( = 6) were anesthetized with three different drug combinations. Initially, a pilot study was conducted to determine the best drug doses for the anesthetization of the turtles, and according to these results, ketamine-diazepam (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 2 mg/kg diazepam [5%]), ketamine-acepromazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg acepromazine [1%]), and ketamine-xylazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg xylazine [2%]) were injected intramuscularly. The onset times of anesthetization and the recovery time were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by -tests, and < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the mean of the onset times of anesthesia and recovery time among the three drug combinations depending on the treatment used. The onset of anesthesia of the animals treated with the ketamine-diazepam combination was 60% and 42% shorter, for male and female turtles, respectively, compared to that obtained with the ketamine-acepromazine combination and 64% (male turtles) and 50% (female turtles) shorter than that obtained with the ketamine-xylazine combination. Further, the recovery time, in male turtles, was 17% shorter in animals treated with the first drug combination than those treated with the ketamine-acepromazine combination and 37% shorter than those treated with the ketamine-xylazine combination. The recovery time, in female turtles, did not seem to be significantly different among treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the ketamine-diazepam drug combination is the anesthetic combination with the fastest onset time and shortest recovery time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acepromazina/administração & dosagem
Diazepam/administração & dosagem
Ketamina/administração & dosagem
Xilazina/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acepromazina/farmacologia
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia
Anestésicos/administração & dosagem
Anestésicos/farmacologia
Animais
Diazepam/farmacologia
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Feminino
Injeções Intramusculares
Ketamina/farmacologia
Masculino
Projetos Piloto
Fatores Sexuais
Fatores de Tempo
Tartarugas
Xilazina/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anesthetics); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 54EJ303F0R (Acepromazine); 690G0D6V8H (Ketamine); Q3JTX2Q7TU (Diazepam)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.201023


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[PMID]:28910423
[Au] Autor:Dholakia U; Clark-Price SC; Keating SCJ; Stern AW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Anesthetic effects and body weight changes associated with ketamine-xylazine-lidocaine administered to CD-1 mice.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184911, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anesthesia for mice is commonly performed through the injection of parenteral agents via the intraperitoneal (IP) route. Variability in anesthetic sensitivities has been noted in mice resulting in inconsistencies in anesthetic depth and/or mortality. Anesthetic protocols that improve consistency and safety are needed. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) ketamine (95 mg/kg) and xylazine (7 mg/kg) alone or combined with lidocaine at 4, 8, or 16 mg/kg on time to loss (LRR) and return (RRR) of righting reflex, duration of immobilization and loss of pedal withdrawal response (PWR), body weight and histopathology in CD-1 mice. In a prospective, randomized trial, 36 male CD-1 mice, 4-6 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 5 groups: saline (SA, n = 4); ketamine-xylazine (KX, n = 8); ketamine-xylazine-lidocaine 4 mg/kg (KXL4, n = 8); ketamine-xylazine-lidocaine 8 mg/kg (KXL8, n = 8); ketamine-xylazine-lidocaine 16 mg/kg (KXL16, n = 8). Two mice in each group were euthanized at day 2 post-injection and the remaining mice were euthanized at day 11 post-injection. After IP injection, LRR and RRR, duration of immobilization and loss of PWR, body weight and histopathology were evaluated. LRR occurred sooner in mice receiving KXL16 compared with KX, with median (range) times of 78 (62-104) and 107 (91-298) seconds, respectively. Loss of PWR occurred in 1, 5, 4, 6 mice for groups KX, KXL4, KXL8, and KXL16 respectively. Median (range) duration of absent PWR was longer in mice receiving KXL16 at 13 (0-30) minutes, compared to KX at 0 (0-9) minutes. Duration of immobilization and RRR were not different between groups. Weight loss occurred 2 days following anesthesia but was not different between groups. Weight gain was significantly greater in all lidocaine groups 11 days post-injection compared to KX. No mortality or histopathologic abnormalities were observed in any group. Lidocaine administered with ketamine and xylazine shortens the onset of anesthesia in mice and improves anesthetic depth without prolonging recovery time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ketamina/administração & dosagem
Lidocaína/administração & dosagem
Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos
Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos
Xilazina/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anestesia/métodos
Animais
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Esquema de Medicação
Injeções Intraperitoneais
Ketamina/farmacologia
Lidocaína/farmacologia
Masculino
Camundongos
Estudos Prospectivos
Distribuição Aleatória
Xilazina/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 690G0D6V8H (Ketamine); 98PI200987 (Lidocaine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170915
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184911


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[PMID]:28410672
[Au] Autor:Raidal SL; Burnheim K; Evans D; Hughes KJ
[Ad] Endereço:School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia. Electronic address: sraidal@csu.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Effects of sedation and salbutamol administration on hyperpnoea and tidal breathing spirometry in healthy horses.
[So] Source:Vet J;222:22-28, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2971
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sedation is often required to perform pulmonary function testing (PFT) in horses, but drug effects may influence respiratory function. The current study was designed to characterise the effects of sedation and bronchodilator administration on absolute and relative indices of pulmonary function during eupnoeic respiration and carbon dioxide-induced hyperpnoea (rebreathing) in healthy horses using a pneumotachographic spirometry system. Sedation with acetylpromazine (ACP), xylazine, or both drugs in combination was associated with significant reductions in respiratory frequency, minute ventilation and peak airflows during eupnoeic respiration. Peak expiratory airflow occurred later in the respiratory cycle than was observed in untreated horses, and expiratory relative flow-time indices were also affected during eupnoeic respiration. Rebreathing attenuated the effects of sedation on indices of pulmonary function, suggesting that future studies should consider the use of induced hyperpnoea as part of the spirometry protocol. Based on the finding that all sedative agents had some effect on eupnoeic respiration, albeit least pronounced with ACP, the latter drug should be considered for sedation of horses undergoing PFT. Salbutamol increased peak inspiratory flow during eupnoeic respiration in healthy horses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Albuterol/farmacologia
Broncodilatadores/farmacologia
Cavalos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia
Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acepromazina/farmacologia
Animais
Feminino
Estudos Prospectivos
Testes de Função Respiratória/veterinária
Espirometria/veterinária
Xilazina/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Hypnotics and Sedatives); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 54EJ303F0R (Acepromazine); QF8SVZ843E (Albuterol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170512
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170512
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170416
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28315642
[Au] Autor:Janssen CF; Maiello P; Wright MJ; Kracinovsky KB; Newsome JT
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Laboratory Animal Resources, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Center for Laboratory Animal Medicine and Care, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas;, Email: Christopher.F.Janssen@uth.tmc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Comparison of Atipamezole with Yohimbine for Antagonism of Xylazine in Mice Anesthetized with Ketamine and Xylazine.
[So] Source:J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci;56(2):142-147, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1559-6109
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other. This study is a single-dose crossover comparison of these 2 antagonist drugs, given intraperitoneally at clinically recommended doses, to determine which results in more rapid recovery of mice from xylazine-ketamine anesthesia. Time to return of righting reflex was used as the primary outcome measure. Mice were anesthetized with xylazine (10 mg/kg IP) and ketamine (80 mg/kg IP), followed 15 min later by injection of an α2 antagonist or saline (control). Time to return of righting reflex differed significantly among groups, with mice recovering in an average of 10.3 min after administration of atipamezole (1 mg/kg IP) as compared with 21.3 min after yohimbine (1.5 mg/kg IP) and 38.2 min after saline. When rapid recovery of mice after xylazine-ketamine anesthesia is desirable, administration of an antagonist to reverse the effects of the xylazine is indicated. When injection of the antagonist by the technically simple intraperitoneal route is desirable, our data indicate that (at the doses evaluated) atipamezole is more effective than yohimbine.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Imidazóis/farmacologia
Ketamina/farmacologia
Xilazina/farmacologia
Ioimbina/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem
Analgésicos/farmacologia
Anestesia
Animais
Estudos Cross-Over
Imidazóis/administração & dosagem
Ketamina/administração & dosagem
Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório
Masculino
Camundongos
Xilazina/administração & dosagem
Ioimbina/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists); 0 (Analgesics); 0 (Imidazoles); 03N9U5JAF6 (atipamezole); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 2Y49VWD90Q (Yohimbine); 690G0D6V8H (Ketamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170902
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170902
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170320
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28251651
[Au] Autor:Sandbaumhüter FA; Theurillat R; Bettschart-Wolfensberger R; Thormann W
[Ad] Endereço:Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Effect of the α -receptor agonists medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine, and romifidine on the ketamine metabolism in equines assessed with enantioselective capillary electrophoresis.
[So] Source:Electrophoresis;38(15):1895-1904, 2017 08.
[Is] ISSN:1522-2683
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The combination of ketamine and an α -receptor agonist is often used in veterinary medicine. Four different α -receptor agonists, medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine, and romifidine, which differ in their chemical structure and thus in selectivity for the α -receptor and in the sedative and analgesic potency, are typically employed during surgery of equines. Recovery following anesthesia with ketamine and an α -receptor agonist is dependent on the α -receptor agonist. This prompted us to investigate (i) the inhibition characteristics for the N-demethylation of ketamine to norketamine and (ii) the formation of the ketamine metabolites norketamine, 6-hydroxynorketamine (6HNK), and 5,6-dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in presence of the four α -receptor agonists and equine liver microsomes. Samples were analyzed with enantioselective capillary electrophoresis using highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector. All four α -receptor agonists have an impact on the ketamine metabolism. Medetomidine was found to be the strongest inhibitor, followed by detomidine, whereas xylazine and romifidine showed almost no effect on the ketamine N-demethylation in the inhibition studies with a short-incubation period of the reaction mixture. After prolonged incubation, inhibition with xylazine and romifidine was also observed. The formation of 6HNK and DHNK is affected by all selected α -receptor agonists. With medetomidine, levels of these metabolites are reduced compared to the case without an α -receptor agonist. For detomidine, xylazine, and romifidine, the opposite was found.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos
Imidazóis/farmacologia
Ketamina/metabolismo
Xilazina/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cavalos
Ketamina/análise
Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos
Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo
Estereoisomerismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists); 0 (Imidazoles); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 690G0D6V8H (Ketamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/elps.201700017


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[PMID]:28122088
[Au] Autor:Zhou TE; Sayah DN; Noueihed B; Mazzaferri J; Costantino S; Brunette I; Chemtob S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada 2Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Preventing Corneal Calcification Associated With Xylazine for Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography in Young Rodents.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;58(1):461-469, 2017 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and recently gained popularity in laboratory research involving small rodents. Its noninvasive nature allows repeated measurements, thereby decreasing the number of animals required. However, when used at a conventional dosage, xylazine (an α2-adrenoceptor) can cause irreversible corneal calcification, especially among young rodents. In the present study, we test whether corneal calcification associated with xylazine is mediated by the α2-adrenoceptor. Methods: Our study tested Sprague-Dawley rats, Long-Evans rats, and CD-1 mice (postnatal day [P]14). Retinal images were captured by SD-OCT. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to study gene expression, whereas receptor localization was examined by immunofluorescent staining followed by confocal microscopy. Calcium deposits were detected via von Kossa staining. Results: When used at dosages appropriate for adult animals, ketamine-xylazine anesthetics led to a high rate of respiratory failure, increased apoptotic activity in the corneal epithelium, and irreversible corneal calcification in P14 rat pups. Meanwhile, OCT image quality decreased drastically as a result of corneal calcification among animals recovering from anesthesia. α2-Adrenoceptor subtypes were highly expressed on P14, in line with rodents' age-specific sensitivity to xylazine. Clonidine, a potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist, dose-dependently induced corneal calcification, which could be prevented by an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist. Conclusions: These data suggest that α2-adrenoceptors contribute to corneal calcification in young rodents. Therefore, we developed a suitable OCT imaging protocol for this cohort, including a carefully tailored ketamine-xylazine dosage (60 mg/kg and 2.5 kg/mg, respectively).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Calcinose/prevenção & controle
Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos
Doenças da Córnea/prevenção & controle
Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
Xilazina/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/toxicidade
Animais
Calcinose/patologia
Cálcio/metabolismo
Córnea/metabolismo
Córnea/patologia
Doenças da Córnea/induzido quimicamente
Doenças da Córnea/patologia
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Imuno-Histoquímica
Camundongos
Microscopia Confocal
Ratos
Ratos Long-Evans
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Xilazina/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170623
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170623
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.16-20526


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[PMID]:28029289
[Au] Autor:Rajaei SM; Mood MA; Paryani MR; Williams DL
[Ti] Título:Effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).
[So] Source:Am J Vet Res;78(1):85-89, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1943-5681
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). ANIMALS 90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females). PROCEDURES IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route. The IOP was measured before (time 0 [baseline]) and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after administration of drugs. RESULTS Mean ± SD IOP values were 2.58 ± 0.87 mm Hg, 4.46 ± 1.58 mm Hg, and 5.96 ± 1.23 mm Hg at 7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm, respectively. Mean baseline IOP was 6.25 ± 0.28 mm Hg, 6.12 ± 0.23 mm Hg, 5.75 ± 0.64 mm Hg, 5.12 ± 1.40 mm Hg, and 4.50 ± 1.30 mm Hg for the ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, KD, and KX groups, respectively. A significant decrease in IOP, compared with baseline IOP, was detected in only the KX group at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum IOP in Syrian hamsters was detected at night. The ketamine-xylazine anesthetic combination significantly decreased IOP in Syrian hamsters.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anestésicos/farmacologia
Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos
Mesocricetus/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anestésicos/administração & dosagem
Animais
Ritmo Circadiano
Diazepam/administração & dosagem
Quimioterapia Combinada
Feminino
Ketamina/administração & dosagem
Masculino
Valores de Referência
Tonometria Ocular/veterinária
Xilazina/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anesthetics); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 690G0D6V8H (Ketamine); Q3JTX2Q7TU (Diazepam)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170118
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170118
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161229
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2460/ajvr.78.1.85


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[PMID]:27643584
[Au] Autor:Cagnardi P; Villa R; Ravasio G; Lucatello L; Di Cesare F; Capolongo F; Boccardo A; Pravettoni D
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety , Università degli Studi di Milano , Milan 20133 , Italy.
[Ti] Título:Pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of dexmedetomidine in dairy calves.
[So] Source:N Z Vet J;65(1):14-18, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1176-0710
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine (DEX) administered I/V at a dose of 5 µg/kg bodyweight in dairy calves and to compare the sedative effects of anaesthetic protocols involving DEX and xylazine. METHODS: Nine dairy calves, aged 17-20 days, were treated with 5 µg/kg I/V dexmedetomidine. For pharmacokinetic evaluation, blood samples were collected over 12 hours and serum samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Another nine dairy calves, aged 16-20 days, were treated with 0.2 mg/kg I/V xylazine. After both treatments, heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were measured for 20 minutes. Sedation quality and recovery times were also assessed. RESULTS: The kinetics of DEX was best described by a two-compartment model. The distribution and elimination half-lives were 8.7 (SD 5.0) and 83.5 (SD 67.5) minutes, respectively. Mean maximum concentration and body clearance were 12.5 (SD 8.6) ng/mL and 27.9 (SD 13.1) mL/minute/kg, respectively; the mean volume of distribution at steady state was 2,170.8 (SD 1,657.5) mL/kg. A decrease in heart rate was observed after treatments with both DEX and xylazine. No differences in heart or respiration rate, or rectal temperature were observed between the two treatment groups. The onset of sedation occurred after 2.7 (SD 0.67) minutes for calves treated with DEX and 2.8 (SD 0.78) minutes for calves treated with xylazine, and was characterised by a similar degree of deep sedation and ease of handling of the calves. All recoveries were eventless, and no adverse reactions were noted. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dexmedetomidine treatment resulted in a reliable and long lasting sedation in calves, a transient decrease in heart rate and no modification in respiratory rate or rectal temperature. The results were comparable to xylazine, the most popular alpha-2-agonist among bovine practitioners. The use of DEX in dairy calves for rapid procedures such as dehorning or castration could be suggested.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sedação Consciente/veterinária
Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Recém-Nascidos
Bovinos
Sedação Consciente/métodos
Dexmedetomidina/sangue
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia
Feminino
Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/sangue
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia
Masculino
Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
Xilazina/farmacocinética
Xilazina/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hypnotics and Sedatives); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 67VB76HONO (Dexmedetomidine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170208
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170208
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160920
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27296204
[Au] Autor:Nout-Lomas YS; Page KM; Kang HG; Aanstoos ME; Greene HM
[Ad] Endereço:College of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
[Ti] Título:Objective assessment of gait in xylazine-induced ataxic horses.
[So] Source:Equine Vet J;49(3):334-340, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:2042-3306
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: There is poor agreement between observers of equine neurological gait abnormalities using the modified Mayhew grading scale. OBJECTIVES: To stimulate a dose-dependent ataxia in horses through xylazine administration and identify quantifiable relevant gait parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Balanced, randomised, 2-way crossover design. METHODS: Eight horses were assessed before and after administration of xylazine (low dose and high dose). Gait analyses performed before and after xylazine administration included: 1) kinematic data collected on an equine high-speed treadmill (flat and 10% decline) and from accelerometers placed on head and sacrum; and 2) kinetic data collected on a force plate. RESULTS: All horses developed dose-dependent ataxia. Horses developed a dose-dependent increased stride time, stride length, and time of contact (P<0.0001), and a decreased stride frequency (P<0.0002) after administration of xylazine. Although pelvic acceleration increased in the mediolateral direction (P<0.05) in horses walked on the treadmill, this movement decreased when walking over ground after administration of xylazine (P<0.05). Furthermore, centre of pressure and path length indices changed significantly in horses following administration of xylazine (P<0.05). MAIN LIMITATIONS: This study examined one breed of horse (Arabian), all of similar height and weight. Accelerometers were attached to skin, not bone; no correction was made for artefacts from skin displacement. The sedative drug effect is of certain duration, limiting the data collection period. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of xylazine induced a dose-dependent ataxia in horses and resulted in significant changes of gait parameters, pelvic accelerations, and stabilographic variables, some of which changed in a dose-dependent fashion. Some of the altered gait parameters in this model were probably a result of overall slowing down of the stride cycle secondary to the sedative effect. Continued efforts to discover and evaluate quantifiable gait parameters that are susceptible to change following development of clinical neurological disease in horses is warranted.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ataxia/veterinária
Marcha/efeitos dos fármacos
Cavalos
Xilazina/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acelerometria/veterinária
Animais
Ataxia/induzido quimicamente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170828
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170828
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160615
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/evj.12602


  10 / 1669 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27023715
[Au] Autor:Alirezaei M; Rezaei M; Hajighahramani S; Sookhtehzari A; Kiani K
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, PO Box 465, Khorramabad, Iran. alirezaei_m54@yahoo.co.
[Ti] Título:Oleuropein attenuates cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by some anesthetic drugs in the hippocampal area of rats.
[So] Source:J Physiol Sci;67(1):131-139, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1880-6562
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of oleuropein against oxidative stress in the hippocampal area of rats. We used seven experimental groups as follows: Control, Propofol, Propofol-Ketamine (Pro.-Ket.), Xylazine-Ketamine (Xyl.-Ket.), and three oleuropein-pretreated groups (Ole.-Pro., Ole.-Pro.-Ket. and Ole.-Xyl.-Ket.). The oleuropein-pretreated groups received oleuropein (15 mg/kg body weight as orally) for 10 consecutive days. Propofol 100 mg/kg, xylazine 3 mg/kg, and ketamine 75 mg/kg once as ip was used on the 11th day of treatment. Spatial memory impairment and antioxidant status of hippocampus were measured via Morris water maze, lipid peroxidation marker, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Spatial memory impairment and lipid peroxidation significantly increased in Xyl.-Ket.-treated rats in comparison to the control, propofol, Ole.-Pro. and Ole.-Pro.-Ket. groups. Oleuropein pretreatment significantly reversed spatial memory impairment and lipid peroxidation in the Ole.-Xyl.-Ket. group as compared to the Xyl.-Ket.-treated rats. There was no significant difference between the control and the propofol group in lipid peroxidation and spatial memory status. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities both significantly decreased in Xyl.-Ket.-treated rats when compared to the control, propofol, Ole.-Pro., Ole.-Pro.-Ket., and Ole.-Xyl.-Ket. groups. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase activity in Xyl.-Ket.-treated rats significantly increased as compared to the control, propofol, Pro.-Ket., Ole.-Pro., and Ole.-Pro.-Ket. groups. We concluded that xylazine in combination with ketamine is an oxidative anesthetic drug and oleuropein pretreatment attenuates cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by anesthesia in the hippocampal area of rats. We also confirmed the antioxidant properties of propofol as a promising antioxidant anesthetic agent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos
Iridoides/farmacologia
Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anestésicos
Animais
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico
Catalase/metabolismo
Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente
Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo
Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo
Hipocampo/metabolismo
Iridoides/uso terapêutico
Ketamina
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
Masculino
Propofol
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
Xilazina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anesthetics); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Iridoids); 2KFG9TP5V8 (Xylazine); 2O4553545L (oleuropein); 690G0D6V8H (Ketamine); EC 1.11.1.6 (Catalase); EC 1.11.1.9 (Glutathione Peroxidase); EC 1.15.1.1 (Superoxide Dismutase); YI7VU623SF (Propofol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160330
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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