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[PMID]:26026384
[Au] Autor:Chen LY; Crum RM; Strain EC; Martins SS; Mojtabai R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N. Broadway, 7th Floor, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei City Hospital, No. 309, Songde Rd., Xinyi Dist., Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address: lianyu0928@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Patterns of concurrent substance use among adolescent nonmedical ADHD stimulant users.
[So] Source:Addict Behav;49:1-6, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6327
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: There are growing concerns about nonmedical use of ADHD stimulants among adolescents; yet, little is known whether there exist heterogeneous subgroups among adolescents with nonmedical ADHD stimulant use according to their concurrent substance use. METHODS: We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of past-year problematic substance use (meeting any criteria for abuse or dependence) in a sample of 2203 adolescent participants from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health 2006-2011 who reported past-year nonmedical use of ADHD stimulants. Multivariable latent regression was used to assess the association of socio-demographic characteristics, mental health and behavioral problems with the latent classes. RESULTS: The model fit indices favored a four-class model, including a large class with frequent concurrent use of alcohol and marijuana (Alcohol/marijuana class; 41.2%), a second large class with infrequent use of other substances (Low substance class, 36.3%), a third class characterized by more frequent misuse of prescription drugs as well as other substances (Prescription drug+class; 14.8%), and finally a class characterized by problematic use of multiple substances (Multiple substance class; 7.7%). Compared with individuals in Low substance class, those in the other three classes were all more likely to report mental health problems, deviant behaviors and substance abuse service use. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent nonmedical ADHD stimulants users are a heterogeneous group with distinct classes with regard to concurrent substance use, mental health and behavioral problems. The findings have implications for planning of tailored prevention and treatment programs to curb stimulant use for this age group.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central
Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia
Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Anfetaminas
Analgésicos Opioides
Criança
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia
Dextroanfetamina
Feminino
Alucinógenos
Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos
Abuso de Inalantes/epidemiologia
Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina
Masculino
Metilfenidato
Análise Multivariada
Pemolina
Análise de Regressão
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adderall); 0 (Amphetamines); 0 (Analgesics, Opioid); 0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants); 0 (Hallucinogens); 0 (Hypnotics and Sedatives); 207ZZ9QZ49 (Methylphenidate); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline); SJT761GEGS (Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate); TZ47U051FI (Dextroamphetamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1603
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150601
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26026155
[Au] Autor:Mücke M; Cuhls H; Peuckmann-Post V; Minton O; Stone P; Radbruch L; Mochamat
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Palliative Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, Bonn, Germany, 53127.
[Ti] Título:Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care.
[So] Source:Cochrane Database Syst Rev;(5):CD006788, 2015 May 30.
[Is] ISSN:1469-493X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: This review updates the original review, 'Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care' and also incorporates the review 'Drug therapy for the management of cancer-related fatigue'.In healthy individuals, fatigue is a protective response to physical or mental stress, often relieved by rest. By contrast, in palliative care patients' fatigue can be severely debilitating and is often not counteracted with rest, thereby impacting daily activity and quality of life. Fatigue frequently occurs in patients with advanced disease (e.g. cancer-related fatigue) and modalities used to treat cancer can often contribute. Further complicating issues are the multidimensionality, subjective nature and lack of a consensus definition of fatigue. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and evidence-based treatment approaches are needed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for fatigue in palliative care, with a focus on patients at an advanced stage of disease, including patients with cancer and other chronic diseases. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and a selection of cancer journals up to 28 April 2014. We searched the references of identified articles and contacted authors to obtain unreported data. To validate the search strategy we selected sentinel references. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) concerning adult palliative care with a focus on pharmacological treatment of fatigue compared to placebo, application of two drugs, usual care or a non-pharmacological intervention. The primary outcome had to be non-specific fatigue (or related terms such as asthenia). We did not include studies on fatigue related to antineoplastic treatment (e.g. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical intervention). We also included secondary outcomes that were assessed in fatigue-related studies (e.g. exhaustion, tiredness). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (MM and MC) independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We screened the search results and included studies if they met the selection criteria. If we identified two or more studies that investigated a specific drug with the same dose in a population with the same disease and using the same assessment instrument or scale, we conducted meta-analysis. In addition, we compared the type of drug investigated in specific populations, as well as the frequent adverse effects of fatigue treatment, by creating overview tables. MAIN RESULTS: For this update, we screened 1645 publications of which 45 met the inclusion criteria (20 additional studies to the previous reviews). In total, we analysed data from 18 drugs and 4696 participants. There was a very high degree of statistical and clinical heterogeneity in the trials and we discuss the reasons for this in the review. There were some sources of potential bias in the included studies, including a lack of description of the methods of blinding and allocation concealment, and the small size of the study populations. We included studies investigating pemoline and modafinil in participants with multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated fatigue and methylphenidate in patients suffering from advanced cancer and fatigue in meta-analysis. Treatment results pointed to weak and inconclusive evidence for the efficacy of amantadine, pemoline and modafinil in multiple sclerosis and for carnitine and donepezil in cancer-related fatigue. Methylphenidate and pemoline seem to be effective in patients with HIV, but this is based only on one study per intervention, with only a moderate number of participants in each study. Meta-analysis shows an estimated superior effect for methylphenidate in cancer-related fatigue (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.83). Therapeutic effects could not be described for dexamphetamine, paroxetine or testosterone. There were a variety of results for the secondary outcomes in some studies. Most studies had low participant numbers and were heterogeneous. In general, adverse reactions were mild and had little or no impact. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on limited evidence, we cannot recommend a specific drug for the treatment of fatigue in palliative care patients. Fatigue research in palliative care seems to focus on modafinil and methylphenidate, which may be beneficial for the treatment of fatigue associated with palliative care although further research about their efficacy is needed. Dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, acetylsalicylic acid, armodafinil, amantadine and L-carnitine should be further examined. Consensus is needed regarding fatigue outcome parameters for clinical trials.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico
Cuidados Paliativos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Amantadina/uso terapêutico
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico
Carnitina/uso terapêutico
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
Doença Crônica
Fadiga/etiologia
Seres Humanos
Falência Renal Crônica/complicações
Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico
Esclerose Múltipla/complicações
Neoplasias/complicações
Pemolina/uso terapêutico
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants); 207ZZ9QZ49 (Methylphenidate); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline); BF4C9Z1J53 (Amantadine); R3UK8X3U3D (modafinil); S7UI8SM58A (Carnitine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1510
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150531
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD006788.pub3


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[PMID]:24574157
[Au] Autor:Hess C; Ritke N; Sydow K; Mehling LM; Ruehs H; Madea B; Musshoff F
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bonn, Stiftsplatz 12, D-53111, Bonn, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Determination of levamisole, aminorex, and pemoline in plasma by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and application to a pharmacokinetic study of levamisole.
[So] Source:Drug Test Anal;6(10):1049-54, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1942-7611
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Levamisole is an anti-helminthic drug and gained forensic interest after it was found that it was used as a cocaine adulterant. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the determination of levamisole and its metabolite aminorex in human plasma is described. Selectivity is given; calibration curves were linear within a calibration range of 1 ng/mL-500 ng/mL. Limits of detection and quantification (LODs, LOQs) were 0.85 ng/mL for levamisole and 0.09 ng/mL, and 0.34 ng/mL for aminorex, respectively. Precision data was in accordance with the GTFCh guidelines. The validated method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of levamisole after administration of 100 mg of levamisole orally. Levamisole could be detected up to 36 h after ingestion in serum, while aminorex never exceeded the LOQ. A one-compartment model best described levamisole pharmacokinetics. The following parameters were calculated: ka = 1.2 [1/h], CL/F = 52 l/h, V/F = 347 l, f (renal) = 0.0005, t ½ = 2.0 h, AUC = 1923 ng/mL*h, cmax = 214 ng/mL, tmax = 1.98 h. Levamisole could be quantified in 42.5% of cocaine--positive plasma samples (2.2 to 224 ng/mL). Aminorex was positive in only 11.3% of the cases; however, it was never found higher than the LOQ. Pemoline, another stimulant detected in horse urine samples after administration of levamisole, was not found either in serum or in urine of this pharmacokinetic study. In post-mortem cases, levamisole and aminorex could be detected in femoral blood and the urine of cocaine users. Pemoline was not detected.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aminorex/análise
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
Levamisol/farmacocinética
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Oral
Adulto
Aminorex/metabolismo
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem
Anti-Helmínticos/análise
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacocinética
Área Sob a Curva
Meia-Vida
Seres Humanos
Levamisol/administração & dosagem
Levamisol/análise
Limite de Detecção
Masculino
Modelos Biológicos
Pemolina/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anthelmintics); 2880D3468G (Levamisole); 2SH16612I9 (Aminorex); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1506
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160511
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160511
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/dta.1619


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[PMID]:23419225
[Au] Autor:Olfson M; Blanco C; Wang S; Greenhill LL
[Ad] Endereço:New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. mo49@columbia.edu
[Ti] Título:Trends in office-based treatment of adults with stimulants in the United States.
[So] Source:J Clin Psychiatry;74(1):43-50, 2013 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1555-2101
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated trends and patterns in stimulant treatment of adults visiting office-based medical practices in the United States. METHOD: A time series analysis of data from the 1994 to 2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (no. of visits = 372,702) was performed, focusing on adult (aged ≥ 18 years) visits in which stimulant medications (amphetamine salts, methylphenidate, or pemoline) were prescribed. The authors computed trends in the percentage of visits in which a stimulant was prescribed stratified by background and clinical patient characteristics. Results are reported as odds ratios (ORs) over the 1994 to 2009 period. The authors also compare visits to psychiatrists and nonpsychiatrist physicians that yielded a stimulant prescription to an adult. RESULTS: The percentage of visits in which stimulants were prescribed increased from 0.11% (1994-1997) to 0.70% (2006-2009) (OR = 13.72, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.40-20.03). Among adults aged 18 to 29 years, the corresponding increase in stimulant visits was from 0.17% to 1.83% (OR = 30.14, 95% CI, 15.84-57.36). Stimulant prescriptions increased significantly more rapidly among visits without a clinical ADHD diagnosis (OR = 11.86, 95% CI, 7.49-18.80) than among visits with such a diagnosis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI, 2.96-10.04) (interaction P = .04) and among visits to nonpsychiatrist physicians (OR = 21.54, 95% CI, 12.84-36.12) than psychiatrists (OR = 10.64, 95% CI, 6.72-16.86) (interaction P = .03). By 2006-2009, nonpsychiatrist physicians provided most (57.7%) of the stimulant prescriptions linked to adult office-based visits. As compared with psychiatrists, nonpsychiatrist physicians diagnosed ADHD in a significantly smaller proportion of their adult visits in which stimulants were prescribed (62.5% vs 34.4%, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Between 1994 and 2009, there was a substantial increase in stimulant prescriptions during adult outpatient visits, especially during visits of younger adults. The increase in stimulant treatment occurred significantly more rapidly in the practices of nonpsychiatrist physicians than in those of psychiatrists.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Assistência Ambulatorial
Anfetaminas/uso terapêutico
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico
Pemolina/uso terapêutico
Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Uso de Medicamentos/tendências
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Razão de Chances
Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências
Psiquiatria/tendências
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amphetamines); 0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants); 207ZZ9QZ49 (Methylphenidate); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1304
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130220
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4088/JCP.12m07975


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[PMID]:22935407
[Au] Autor:Induruwa I; Constantinescu CS; Gran B
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Fatigue in multiple sclerosis - a brief review.
[So] Source:J Neurol Sci;323(1-2):9-15, 2012 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5883
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is believed to be distinctly different from fatigue seen in other chronic conditions. It can affect a patient's mood, sleep and have a detrimental effect on their quality of life. In the recent years much literature has emerged in an attempt to elucidate the potential causes and treatment of this common symptom. This review article aims to examine the most recent theories on the pathophysiology of fatigue in MS as well as its association with sleep and depression. We describe the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to its treatment and propose a multidisciplinary, patient enabled and individualised manner to the management of fatigue in MS.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fadiga/etiologia
Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Amantadina/uso terapêutico
Atrofia
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico
Encéfalo/patologia
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
Terapia Cognitiva
Terapia Combinada
Citocinas/fisiologia
Depressão/etiologia
Depressão/fisiopatologia
Lesão Axonal Difusa/etiologia
Lesão Axonal Difusa/patologia
Método Duplo-Cego
Terapia por Exercício
Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico
Fadiga/fisiopatologia
Fadiga/prevenção & controle
Fadiga/psicologia
Fadiga/terapia
Seres Humanos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico
Esclerose Múltipla/complicações
Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico
Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia
Pemolina/uso terapêutico
Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia
Qualidade de Vida
Método Simples-Cego
Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/etiologia
Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/fisiopatologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Immunologic Factors); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline); BF4C9Z1J53 (Amantadine); R3UK8X3U3D (modafinil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1304
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:120901
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:22343062
[Au] Autor:Bloom CM; Holly S; Miller AM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Providence College, Providence, RI 02918, USA. cbloom@providence.edu
[Ti] Título:Self-injurious behavior vs. nonsuicidal self-injury: the CNS stimulant pemoline as a model of self-destructive behavior.
[So] Source:Crisis;33(2):106-12, 2012 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:2151-2396
[Cp] País de publicação:Canada
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Historically, the field of self-injury has distinguished between the behaviors exhibited among individuals with a developmental disability (self-injurious behaviors; SIB) and those present within a normative population (nonsuicidal self-injury; NSSI),which typically result as a response to perceived stress. More recently, however, conclusions about NSSI have been drawn from lines of animal research aimed at examining the neurobiological mechanisms of SIB. Despite some functional similarity between SIB and NSSI, no empirical investigation has provided precedent for the application of SIB-targeted animal research as justification for pharmacological interventions in populations demonstrating NSSI. AIMS: The present study examined this question directly, by simulating an animal model of SIB in rodents injected with pemoline and systematically manipulating stress conditions in order to monitor rates of self-injury. METHODS: Sham controls and experimental animals injected with pemoline (200 mg/kg) were assigned to either a low stress (discriminated positive reinforcement) or high stress (discriminated avoidance) group and compared on the dependent measures of self-inflicted injury prevalence and severity. RESULTS: The manipulation of stress conditions did not impact the rate of self-injury demonstrated by the rats. The results do not support a model of stress-induced SIB in rodents. CONCLUSIONS: Current findings provide evidence for caution in the development of pharmacotherapies of NSSI in human populations based on CNS stimulant models. Theoretical implications are discussed with respect to antecedent factors such as preinjury arousal level and environmental stress.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Pemolina/farmacologia
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/induzido quimicamente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1208
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160318
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160318
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:120221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1027/0227-5910/a000127


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[PMID]:22231812
[Au] Autor:Devine DP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. dpdevine@ufl.edu
[Ti] Título:The pemoline model of self-injurious behaviour.
[So] Source:Methods Mol Biol;829:155-63, 2012.
[Is] ISSN:1940-6029
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Traditional models of neuropsychiatric disorders consist of attempts to replicate the broad spectrum of behavioural and neurochemical sequelae that characterize a specific disorder. However, these disorders comprise complex constellations of symptoms, including emotional instability, perseverative thoughts, and aberrant behaviours. Close examination often reveals heterogeneity of symptom expression within patient groups and homogeneity in expression of specific symptoms across diagnostic categories. Accordingly, it may not be possible to model the entire spectrum of characteristics for any one of these disorders in any single animal model. A focus on one or more specific behavioural characteristics (e.g. self-injury) may be a more fruitful strategy. Development of behaviourally focused models yields increased understanding of the genetic basis and biochemical abnormalities that underlie specific psychiatric dysfunctions. Furthermore, by revealing pathophysiology that underlies specific disease characteristics, behaviourally focused models improve translational power and help to identify targets for effective pharmacotherapies. One such behaviourally focused animal model is the pemoline model of self-injurious behaviour.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pemolina/administração & dosagem
Pemolina/farmacologia
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Dopamina
Seres Humanos
Camundongos
Transtornos do Humor
Transtornos da Personalidade
Ratos
Ratos Long-Evans
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline); VTD58H1Z2X (Dopamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1206
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:120111
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-458-2_9


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[PMID]:22231807
[Au] Autor:Devine DP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. dpdevine@ufl.edu
[Ti] Título:Animal models of self-injurious behaviour: an overview.
[So] Source:Methods Mol Biol;829:65-84, 2012.
[Is] ISSN:1940-6029
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Self-injurious behaviour is highly prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, it is not restricted to any individual diagnostic group. Rather, it is exhibited in various forms across patient groups with distinct genetic defects and classifications of disorders. This suggests that there may be shared neuropathology that confers vulnerability. Convergent evidence from clinical pharmacotherapy, brain imaging studies, postmortem neurochemical analyses, and animal models indicates that dopaminergic insufficiency is a key culprit. This chapter provides an overview of studies in which animal models have been used to investigate the biochemical basis of self-injury, and highlights the convergence in findings between these models and expression of self-injury in humans.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Animais de Doenças
Dopamina/deficiência
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Éster Metílico do Ácido 3-Piridinacarboxílico, 1,4-Di-Hidro-2,6-Dimetil-5-Nitro-4-(2-(Trifluormetil)fenil)/administração & dosagem
Éster Metílico do Ácido 3-Piridinacarboxílico, 1,4-Di-Hidro-2,6-Dimetil-5-Nitro-4-(2-(Trifluormetil)fenil)/farmacologia
Animais
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia
Cafeína/administração & dosagem
Cafeína/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/psicologia
Pemolina/administração & dosagem
Pemolina/farmacologia
Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
3G6A5W338E (Caffeine); 71145-03-4 (3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline); VTD58H1Z2X (Dopamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1206
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:120111
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-458-2_4


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[PMID]:21988194
[Au] Autor:Muehlmann AM; Kies SD; Turner CA; Wolfman S; Lewis MH; Devine DP
[Ad] Endereço:Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-2250, USA.
[Ti] Título:Self-injurious behaviour: limbic dysregulation and stress effects in an animal model.
[So] Source:J Intellect Disabil Res;56(5):490-500, 2012 May.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2788
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However, variables that predispose vulnerability have not been as clearly characterised. This study reports the aetiology and expression of self-injury in an animal model of pemoline-induced SIB. It describes changes in gross neuronal activity in selected brain regions after chronic treatment with pemoline, and it describes the impact that a history of social defeat stress has on the subsequent expression of SIB during pemoline treatment. METHODS: Experiment 1--Male Long-Evans rats were injected on each of five consecutive days with pemoline or vehicle, and the expression of SIB was evaluated using a rating scale. The brains were harvested on the morning of the sixth day, and were assayed for expression of cytochrome oxidase, an index of sustained neuronal metabolic activity. Experiment 2--Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of 12 daily sessions of social defeat stress or 12 daily sessions of handling (i.e. controls). Starting on the day after completion of the social defeat or handling regimen, each rat was given five daily injections of pemoline. The durations of self-injurious oral contact and other stereotyped behaviours were monitored, and the areas of tissue injury were quantified. RESULTS: Experiment 1--Neuronal metabolic activity was significantly lower in a variety of limbic and limbic-associated brain structures in the pemoline-treated rats, when compared with activity in the same regions of vehicle-treated controls. In addition, neuronal activity was low in the caudate-putamen, and in subfields of the hypothalamus, but did not differ between groups for a variety of other brain regions, including nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, ventral tegmentum, thalamus, amygdala, and cortical regions. Experiment 2--All the pemoline-treated rats exhibited SIB, and whereas the social defeat regimen did not alter the total amount of self-injurious oral contact or other stereotyped behaviours, it significantly increased the severity of tissue injury. CONCLUSIONS: A broad sampling of regional metabolic activity indicates that the pemoline regimen produces enduring changes that are localised to specific limbic, hypothalamic and striatal structures. The potential role of limbic function in aetiology of SIB is further supported by the finding that pemoline-induced self-injury is exacerbated by prior exposure to social defeat stress. Overall, the results suggest brain targets that should be investigated further, and increase our understanding of the putative role that stress plays in the pathophysiology of SIB.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/fisiopatologia
Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/fisiopatologia
Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade
Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos
Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo
Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia
Sistema Límbico/efeitos dos fármacos
Masculino
Pemolina/toxicidade
Ratos
Ratos Long-Evans
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/induzido quimicamente
Predomínio Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline); EC 1.9.3.1 (Electron Transport Complex IV)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1208
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:111013
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01485.x


  10 / 456 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:21882111
[Au] Autor:Koren G; Elzagallaai A; Etwel F
[Ad] Endereço:The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, M5G 1X8, ON, Canada. gidiup_2000@yahoo.com
[Ti] Título:Safety assessment in pediatric studies.
[So] Source:Handb Exp Pharmacol;205:169-80, 2011.
[Is] ISSN:0171-2004
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:It typically takes many years before an association of a drug with a rare, serious adverse reaction is established. As related to pediatric drug use, evidence is even more erratic, as most drugs are used off labels. To enhance child safety, there is an urgent need to develop robust and rapid methods to identify such associations in as timely a manner as possible. In this chapter, several novel methods, both clinically based pharmacoepidemiological approaches and laboratory-based methods, are described.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico
Determinação de Ponto Final/métodos
Pediatria/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos
Anticonvulsivantes/imunologia
Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico
Canadá/epidemiologia
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia
Seres Humanos
Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente
Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia
Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos
Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia
Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
Linfócitos/imunologia
Pemolina/efeitos adversos
Pemolina/uso terapêutico
Farmacoepidemiologia
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados
Risco
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
United States Food and Drug Administration
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anticonvulsants); 7GAQ2332NK (Pemoline)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1202
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:110902
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-20195-0_8



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