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[PMID]:23908030
[Au] Autor:Sugawara T; Yamashita D; Tanaka Y; Kaneko J; Kamio Y; Tanaka I; Yao M
[Ad] Endereço:School of Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of staphylococcal α-haemolysin monomer.
[So] Source:Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun;69(Pt 8):868-70, 2013 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1744-3091
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Staphylococcal α-haemolysin is a ß-barrel pore-forming toxin expressed by Staphylococcus aureus. α-Haemolysin is secreted as a water-soluble monomeric protein which binds to target membranes and forms membrane-inserted heptameric pores. Although the crystal structures of the heptameric pore and monomer bound to an antibody have been determined, that of monomeric α-haemolysin without binder has yet to be elucidated. Previous mutation studies showed that mutants of His35 retain the monomeric structure but are unable to assemble into heptamers. Here, α-haemolysin H35A mutants were expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.90 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P61, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 151.3, c = 145.0 Å. Molecular replacement found four molecules in an asymmetric unit. The relative orientation among molecules was distinct from that of the pore, indicating that the crystal contained monomeric α-haemolysin.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Toxinas Bacterianas/química
Proteínas Hemolisinas/química
Toxoide Estafilocócico/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alanina/genética
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética
Cristalografia por Raios X
Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética
Histidina/genética
Mutação/genética
Toxoide Estafilocócico/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (Hemolysin Proteins); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 0 (staphylococcal alpha-toxin); 4QD397987E (Histidine); OF5P57N2ZX (Alanine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1312
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130803
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1107/S174430911301693X


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[PMID]:22691432
[Au] Autor:Spaulding AR; Lin YC; Merriman JA; Brosnahan AJ; Peterson ML; Schlievert PM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. adam-spaulding@uiowa.edu
[Ti] Título:Immunity to Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteins protects rabbits from serious illnesses.
[So] Source:Vaccine;30(34):5099-109, 2012 Jul 20.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Staphylococcus aureus causes significant illnesses throughout the world, including toxic shock syndrome (TSS), pneumonia, and infective endocarditis. Major contributors to S. aureus illnesses are secreted virulence factors it produces, including superantigens and cytolysins. This study investigates the use of superantigens and cytolysins as staphylococcal vaccine candidates. Importantly, 20% of humans and 50% of rabbits in our TSS model cannot generate antibody responses to native superantigens. We generated three TSST-1 mutants; G31S/S32P, H135A, and Q136A. All rabbits administered these TSST-1 toxoids generated strong antibody responses (titers>10,000) that neutralized native TSST-1 in TSS models, both in vitro and in vivo. These TSST-1 mutants lacked detectable residual toxicity. Additionally, the TSST-1 mutants exhibited intrinsic adjuvant activity, increasing antibody responses to a second staphylococcal antigen (ß-toxin). This effect may be due to TSST-1 mutants binding to the immune co-stimulatory molecule CD40. The superantigens TSST-1 and SEC and the cytolysin α-toxin are known to contribute to staphylococcal pneumonia. Immunization of rabbits against these secreted toxins provided complete protection from highly lethal challenge with a USA200 S. aureus strain producing all three exotoxins; USA200 strains are common causes of staphylococcal infections. The same three exotoxins plus the cytolysins ß-toxin and γ-toxin contribute to infective endocarditis and sepsis caused by USA200 strains. Immunization against these five exotoxins protected rabbits from infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis. These data suggest that immunization against toxoid proteins of S. aureus exotoxins protects from serious illnesses, and concurrently superantigen toxoid mutants provide endogenous adjuvant activity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia
Citotoxinas/imunologia
Proteínas Hemolisinas/imunologia
Coelhos/imunologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia
Superantígenos/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem
Animais
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia
Formação de Anticorpos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia
Toxinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem
Antígenos CD40/imunologia
Linhagem Celular
Citotoxinas/administração & dosagem
Endocardite Bacteriana/imunologia
Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia
Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia
Exotoxinas/imunologia
Feminino
Proteínas Hemolisinas/administração & dosagem
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Testes de Neutralização
Pneumonia Estafilocócica/imunologia
Pneumonia Estafilocócica/microbiologia
Pneumonia Estafilocócica/terapia
Coelhos/microbiologia
Choque Séptico/imunologia
Choque Séptico/microbiologia
Choque Séptico/terapia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
Toxoide Estafilocócico/administração & dosagem
Toxoide Estafilocócico/imunologia
Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/imunologia
Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
Superantígenos/administração & dosagem
Vacinação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adjuvants, Immunologic); 0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (CD40 Antigens); 0 (Cytotoxins); 0 (Exotoxins); 0 (Hemolysin Proteins); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 0 (Staphylococcal Vaccines); 0 (Superantigens); 0 (staphylococcal alpha-toxin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1211
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:120614
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.05.067


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[PMID]:21933444
[Au] Autor:Graef RR; Anderson GP; Doyle KA; Zabetakis D; Sutton FN; Liu JL; Serrano-González J; Goldman ER; Cooper LA
[Ad] Endereço:MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102, USA.
[Ti] Título:Isolation of a highly thermal stable lama single domain antibody specific for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.
[So] Source:BMC Biotechnol;11:86, 2011 Sep 21.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6750
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Camelids and sharks possess a unique subclass of antibodies comprised of only heavy chains. The antigen binding fragments of these unique antibodies can be cloned and expressed as single domain antibodies (sdAbs). The ability of these small antigen-binding molecules to refold after heating to achieve their original structure, as well as their diminutive size, makes them attractive candidates for diagnostic assays. RESULTS: Here we describe the isolation of an sdAb against Staphyloccocus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). The clone, A3, was found to have high affinity (Kd = 75 pM) and good specificity for SEB, showing no cross reactivity to related molecules such as Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED), and Shiga toxin. Most remarkably, this anti-SEB sdAb had an extremely high Tm of 85°C and an ability to refold after heating to 95°C. The sharp Tm determined by circular dichroism, was found to contrast with the gradual decrease observed in intrinsic fluorescence. We demonstrated the utility of this sdAb as a capture and detector molecule in Luminex based assays providing limits of detection (LODs) of at least 64 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: The anti-SEB sdAb A3 was found to have a high affinity and an extraordinarily high Tm and could still refold to recover activity after heat denaturation. This combination of heat resilience and strong, specific binding make this sdAb a good candidate for use in antibody-based toxin detection technologies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia
Camelídeos Americanos/imunologia
Enterotoxinas/imunologia
Imunoensaio
Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química
Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação
Especificidade de Anticorpos
Dicroísmo Circular
Enterotoxinas/química
Fluorescência
Temperatura Alta
Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/química
Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/isolamento & purificação
Limite de Detecção
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Biblioteca de Peptídeos
Redobramento de Proteína
Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
Toxoide Estafilocócico/imunologia
Staphylococcus aureus/química
Temperatura de Transição
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Monoclonal); 0 (Enterotoxins); 0 (Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains); 0 (Peptide Library); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 39424-53-8 (enterotoxin B, staphylococcal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1202
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:110922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/1472-6750-11-86


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[PMID]:21252391
[Au] Autor:Barregard L; Rekic D; Horvat M; Elmberg L; Lundh T; Zachrisson O
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. lars.barregard@amm.gu.se
[Ti] Título:Toxicokinetics of mercury after long-term repeated exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine.
[So] Source:Toxicol Sci;120(2):499-506, 2011 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0929
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The preservative thimerosal contains ethyl mercury (EtHg). Concerns over possible toxicity have re-emerged recently due to its presence in (swine and other) flu vaccines. We examined the potential accumulation of mercury in adults given repeated injections of a thimerosal-preserved vaccine for many years. Fifteen female patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic running a clinical trial with repeated injections (1 ml every 3-4 weeks) of a staphylococcus toxoid vaccine containing 0.01% thimerosal to treat chronic fatigue syndrome. Fifteen untreated female patients with the same diagnoses served as controls. Blood samples were taken before injecting the vaccine, 1 day later, about 2 weeks later, and just before the next injection. In the 15 controls, samples were taken twice. Blood was analyzed for total mercury and EtHg. The toxicokinetics were assessed for each patient separately as well as with a population-based pharmacokinetic model. Total mercury in blood increased on Day 1 in all treated patients (median: 0.33, range: 0.17-1.3 µg/l), as did EtHg (median: 0.14 µg/l, range: 0.06-0.43 µg/l). After a few weeks, levels were back to normal and similar to those in controls. Levels of methyl mercury (MeHg; from fish consumption) were much higher than those of EtHg. After exclusion of an outlier, the mean half-life in a population-based model was 5.6 (95% CI: 4.8-6.3) days. The results indicate that mercury from thimerosal is not accumulated in blood in adults. This is in accordance with short half-lives and rapid metabolism of EtHg to inorganic mercury.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mercúrio/sangue
Conservantes Farmacêuticos/farmacocinética
Toxoide Estafilocócico/farmacocinética
Timerosal/farmacocinética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
Feminino
Meia-Vida
Seres Humanos
Injeções Subcutâneas
Masculino
Mercúrio/toxicidade
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/sangue
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade
Meia-Idade
Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química
Toxoide Estafilocócico/administração & dosagem
Toxoide Estafilocócico/química
Timerosal/sangue
Timerosal/química
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Methylmercury Compounds); 0 (Preservatives, Pharmaceutical); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 2225PI3MOV (Thimerosal); FXS1BY2PGL (Mercury)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1107
[Cu] Atualização por classe:131121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
131121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:110122
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfr009


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[PMID]:19136695
[Au] Autor:McCormick CC; Caballero AR; Balzli CL; Tang A; O'Callaghan RJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. cmccormick@microbio.umsmed.edu
[Ti] Título:Chemical inhibition of alpha-toxin, a key corneal virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;50(6):2848-54, 2009 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: alpha-Toxin mediates extreme corneal damage during Staphylococcus aureus keratitis. Chemical inhibition of this toxin was sought to provide relief from toxin-mediated pathology. METHODS: Inhibition of alpha-toxin by phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.1% methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD), or CD plus cholesterol (0.1%, CD-cholesterol) was assayed by hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes. Pathologic changes in rabbit corneas injected with 12 hemolytic units of alpha-toxin suspended in PBS, 1% CD, or 1% CD-cholesterol were compared over time. Rabbit corneas injected with 10(2) colony forming units (CFU) of S. aureus were treated from 7 to 13 hours postinfection (PI) with a total of 15 drops of CD-cholesterol, CD, or PBS. Slit lamp examination (SLE) and measurement of erosions were performed at 13 hours PI and bacteria were quantified at 14 hours PI. RESULTS: Toxin-mediated lysis of erythrocytes was inhibited up to 16,000-fold in the presence of CD-cholesterol compared with CD or PBS. Eyes injected with alpha-toxin mixed with CD-cholesterol had, at 7 hours postinjection, significantly smaller erosions than eyes injected with alpha-toxin in PBS or alpha-toxin mixed with CD (P = 0.0090 and P = 0.0035, respectively). Eyes infected with S. aureus and treated with CD-cholesterol had significantly lower SLE scores than eyes treated with CD or PBS (P or= 0.0648). CONCLUSIONS: CD-cholesterol is a potent inhibitor of alpha-toxin activity in vitro and an effective means to arrest corneal damage during S. aureus keratitis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Toxinas Bacterianas/antagonistas & inibidores
Colesterol/farmacologia
Úlcera da Córnea/prevenção & controle
Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/prevenção & controle
Proteínas Hemolisinas/antagonistas & inibidores
Toxoide Estafilocócico/antagonistas & inibidores
Fatores de Virulência/antagonistas & inibidores
beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Córnea/microbiologia
Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia
Úlcera da Córnea/patologia
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Quimioterapia Combinada
Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
Exotoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores
Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia
Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/patologia
Hemólise
Coelhos
Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle
Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
Virulência/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (Exotoxins); 0 (Hemolysin Proteins); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 0 (Virulence Factors); 0 (beta-Cyclodextrins); 0 (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin); 0 (staphylococcal alpha-toxin); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride); 97C5T2UQ7J (Cholesterol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0906
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:090113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.08-3157


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[PMID]:19006835
[Au] Autor:Semenova IB
[Ti] Título:[Adverse immunologic effects of immunomodulators revealed in experiment and ways to their surmounting].
[So] Source:Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol;(5):70-5, 2008 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0372-9311
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Immunomodulators licopid (synthetic analogue of muramylpeptide) and purified staphylococcal toxoid (PST) in some variants of experiments on mice caused adverse immunologic effects: enhancement of virus-induced immunosupression, shift from latent immunosupression (revealed only by low, but not standard, doses of test-antigen) to manifested one. Described adverse effects are not a contraindication for use of the studied drugs in practice. Their adverse effects were revealed only after single inoculation, whereas in clinical conditions PST and licopid are used by courses with duration of 5-7 and 10 days respectively. Our experiments show that inoculation of suppressive doses of the preparations repeated by 2-4 times can prevent the shift from latent to manifested immunosupression. Enhancement of immunosupression was not observed in case of combined administration of suppressive doses of PST and adjuvant dose of licopid.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/análogos & derivados
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia
Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos
Imunossupressão
Toxoide Estafilocócico/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/administração & dosagem
Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/efeitos adversos
Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/imunologia
Animais
Células Produtoras de Anticorpos/imunologia
Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica
Esquema de Medicação
Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/imunologia
Enterovirus/imunologia
Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem
Injeções Intraperitoneais
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA
Toxoide Estafilocócico/administração & dosagem
Toxoide Estafilocócico/imunologia
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Immunologic Factors); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 0 (glikopin); 53678-77-6 (Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0901
[Cu] Atualização por classe:081113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
081113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:081114
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:18819411
[Au] Autor:Semenova IB; Akhmatova NK; Kurbatova EA
[Ti] Título:[Cytokine profile in mice with enhanced or depressed immune response to sheep erythrocytes induced by immunomodulator of bacterial origin--purified staphylococcal toxoid].
[So] Source:Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol;(4):69-72, 2008 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0372-9311
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Influence of immunomodulator of bacterial origin - purified staphylococcal toxoid (PST) - on the synthesisof proinlammatory (IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IFN-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (IL- 10) cytokines, as well as cytokines directing the immune response to Th1 (IL-12) or Th2 (IL-4) type was studied in mice. Serum cytokines levels as well as levels of cytokines produced by splenocytes spontaneously or after stimulation by phytohemagglutinin were measured 4 and 24 hours after inoculation of PST. It was shown that PST in wide spectrum of doses (15; 1.5; 0.15 BU per mouse) was able to enhance or suppress synthesis of cytokines. Effect was nonlinear and its direction was depended from cytokine, time interval passed before obtaining the sample and dose of PST. For example, 15 BU of PST enhanced whereas 0.15 BU of PST suppressed the IL-6 production 4 hours after inoculation. Decrease of IL-6 level in serum 24 hours after inoculation of PST was detected. Synthesis of several serum interleukins (IL-2, IL-10) did not changed 4 and 24 hours after inoculation irrespective from dose of PST. It was demonstrated that modulation of humoral immune response in vivo induced by PST did not associated with modulation of cytokine profile. For example, increase of number of cells secreting antibodies to sheep erythrocytes was registered both during increased synthesis of cytokines (4 hours, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12) and during period of its depression (IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma), as well as during stable production of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Citocinas/biossíntese
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia
Toxoide Estafilocócico/farmacologia
Células Th1/imunologia
Células Th2/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos
Proliferação Celular
Células Cultivadas
Citocinas/sangue
Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica
Eritrócitos/imunologia
Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA
Ovinos
Baço/efeitos dos fármacos
Baço/imunologia
Baço/metabolismo
Toxoide Estafilocócico/imunologia
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cytokines); 0 (Immunologic Factors); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0812
[Cu] Atualização por classe:080929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
080929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:080930
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:18278849
[Au] Autor:Croquette V
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS UMR8550, Université P. M. Curie et Paris Diderot, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France. Vincent.Croquette@lps.ens.fr
[Ti] Título:Sensing single base incorporation with nanopore micromanipulation.
[So] Source:ACS Chem Biol;3(2):92-4, 2008 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1554-8937
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Using single-molecule techniques, scientists can routinely investigate the action of a single enzyme. The goal of such studies is usually to gain accurate information unachievable in ensemble assays, such as the maximum instantaneous rate of reaction, the existence of pauses or backward steps, etc. In the article discussed here, the authors have increased their experimental sensitivity so that they can detect a single enzymatic cycle. This improvement makes possible the use of a polymerase enzyme to sequence a single DNA molecule.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Toxinas Bacterianas/química
DNA de Cadeia Simples/biossíntese
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química
Proteínas Hemolisinas/química
Nanotecnologia/instrumentação
Nanotecnologia/métodos
Nucleotídeos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Catálise
Primers do DNA/química
DNA de Cadeia Simples/química
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química
Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo
Toxoide Estafilocócico/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (DNA Primers); 0 (DNA, Single-Stranded); 0 (Hemolysin Proteins); 0 (Lipid Bilayers); 0 (Nucleotides); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 0 (staphylococcal alpha-toxin); EC 2.7.7.7 (DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0805
[Cu] Atualização por classe:080218
[Lr] Data última revisão:
080218
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:080219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/cb8000205


  9 / 445 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:17886372
[Au] Autor:Semenova IB; Akhmatova NK; Kurbatova EA
[Ti] Título:[Modulation of antigen-presenting functions in peritoneal macrophages and changes in production of several cytokines in mice caused by purified staphylococcal toxoid].
[So] Source:Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol;(4):25-8, 2007 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0372-9311
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:With adaptive transfer method it has been shown that immunomodulator purified staphylococcal toxoid (PST) changed (stimulate or suppress) antigen-presenting function (APF) of mice peritoneal macrophages (MF) in vivo. This phenomenon was registered during assessment of ability of peritoneal MF to present heterologous (with regard to PST) antigen--sheep erythrocytes (SE). Modulation vector depended from time interval between PST and SE inoculations. Inoculation of PST 1.5 h before SE resulted in stimulation of APF. When SE were inoculated to donor mice 24 h after PST, suppression of APF was developed. Suppression of APF was observed along with suppression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha) as well as B-lymphocytes growth factor (IL-4). When cytokine profile was assessed 4 h after PST injection, the suppression of synthesis of these cytokines was not observed. Production of IL-12 increased in 9-12 times in 4 and 24 h after PST injection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Citocinas/biossíntese
Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia
Toxoide Estafilocócico/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Apresentação do Antígeno
Eritrócitos/imunologia
Interleucina-12/biossíntese
Interleucina-1beta/biossíntese
Interleucina-4/biossíntese
Interleucina-6/biossíntese
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA
Ovinos
Toxoide Estafilocócico/administração & dosagem
Fatores de Tempo
Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cytokines); 0 (Interleukin-1beta); 0 (Interleukin-6); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha); 187348-17-0 (Interleukin-12); 207137-56-2 (Interleukin-4)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:070921
[Lr] Data última revisão:
070921
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:070922
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 445 MEDLINE  
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Fotocópia
[PMID]:17163136
[Au] Autor:Akhmatova NK; Semenova IB; Donenko FV; Kiselevskii MV; Kurbatova EA; Egorova NB
[Ti] Título:[Immunomodulators of microbial origin enhance cytotoxicity of human mononuclear leukocytes and reduce metastatic progression of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].
[So] Source:Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol;(6):35-40, 2006 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0372-9311
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Effect of immunomodulators for microbial origin on innate immunity and antitumor system was continued to study. Immunomodificator Immunovac VP-4, purified staphylococcal toxoid and glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide (GMDP) equally enhanced cytotoxicity of mononuclear leukocytes of peripheral blood of healthy donors. Index of cytotoxicity was 2.78, 2.77 and 2.70 respectively. Reduced metastatic progression of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed after Immunovac VP-4 and GMDP administration. Effectiveness was seen when preparations administered according to schedules including their administration before implantation of the tumor. If preparations were administered number of metastases reduced in 4.4-5.6 times and size of metastases reduced in 7-10 times. Interplay between antitumor activity of studied immunomodulators and cytotoxic activity of NK-cells, which are base effectors of antitumor immune response, are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/análogos & derivados
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia
Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico
Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia
Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia
Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico
Toxoide Estafilocócico/imunologia
Toxoide Estafilocócico/uso terapêutico
Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia
Vacinas Combinadas/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/imunologia
Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/uso terapêutico
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem
Animais
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/secundário
Testes Imunológicos de Citotoxicidade
Esquema de Medicação
Seres Humanos
Injeções Intraperitoneais
Células K562
Pulmão/patologia
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico
Toxoide Estafilocócico/administração & dosagem
Vacinas Combinadas/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adjuvants, Immunologic); 0 (Bacterial Vaccines); 0 (Immunologic Factors); 0 (Staphylococcal Toxoid); 0 (VP-4 vaccine); 0 (Vaccines, Combined); 53678-77-6 (Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine); 755SXX41RZ (glucosaminylmuramyl-2-alanine-D-isoglutamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:061214
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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