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Referências encontradas : 397 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28966029
[Au] Autor:Tang S; Yan Q; Shi W; Wang X; Sun X; Yu P; Wu J; Xiao Y
[Ad] Endereço:School of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Measuring the impact of air pollution on respiratory infection risk in China.
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;232:477-486, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:China is now experiencing major public health challenges caused by air pollution. Few studies have quantified the dynamics of air pollution and its impact on the risk of respiratory infection. We conducted an integrated data analysis to quantify the association among air quality index (AQI), meteorological variables and respiratory infection risk in Shaanxi province of China in the period of November 15th, 2010 to November 14th, 2016. Our analysis illustrated a statistically significantly positive correlation between the number of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and AQI, and the respiratory infection risk has increased progressively with increased AQI with a time lag of 0-3 days. We also developed mathematical models for the AQI trend and respiratory infection dynamics, incorporating AQI-dependent incidence and AQI-based behaviour change interventions. Our combined data and modelling analysis estimated the basic reproduction number for the respiratory infection during the studying period to be 2.4076, higher than the basic reproduction number of the 2009 pandemic influenza in the same province. Our modelling-based simulations concluded that, in terms of respiratory infection risk reduction, the persistent control of emission in the China's blue-sky programme is much more effective than substantial social-economic interventions implemented only during the smog days.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Poluição do Ar/análise
China/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Influenza Humana
Modelos Teóricos
Saúde Pública
Risco
Smog
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Smog)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171003
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28150760
[Au] Autor:Zhang B; Hughes RM
[Ad] Endereço:Information Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, China.
[Ti] Título:Environment: China deploys big data to clear smog.
[So] Source:Nature;542(7639):31, 2017 02 01.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluição do Ar/análise
Ecologia/métodos
Smog/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acesso à Informação
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle
China
Disseminação de Informação
Comunicações Via Satélite
Smog/prevenção & controle
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Smog)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170210
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170210
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/542031a


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[PMID]:27629231
[Au] Autor:Yang S; Shi L
[Ad] Endereço:a Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health , Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Xiamen, Fujian , China.
[Ti] Título:Public perception of smog: A case study in Ningbo City, China.
[So] Source:J Air Waste Manag Assoc;67(2):219-230, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:2162-2906
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Smog has become a public environmental crisis in most areas of China, and in response, research efforts have mainly focused on the chemical properties of smog and its impact on human health. However, in-depth research on the public's perception of smog has not yet been conducted. A survey of residents living around eight state-controlled atmospheric environmental monitoring sites in Ningbo City was conducted using stratified sampling. The data was statistically analyzed to investigate people's views and behavioral tendencies in smog weather, the influence of different media reports on public outlook, and public opinions on the local atmosphere and pollution management in different areas. The results showed that people's perception of smog differs greatly from actual conditions, indicating that the public opinion tends to deviate when faced with a public crisis. Mainstream media (TV, newspaper, etc.), accounting for 67% of all media sources, are the main source for dissemination of smog information. The main sources of pollution, in order of decreasing contribution, according to residents of Ningbo City are as follows: motor vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, large-scale construction, biomass burning, and kitchen fumes. IMPLICATIONS: Since 2011, most areas of China have been affected by frequent smog. Most research on smog has been concentrated on its causes, alert systems, and prevention measures, whereas in-depth research on the public perception of smog has not yet been conducted. When a risky environmental event such as smog occurs, consequences may be more serious than the event itself will cause if people take irrational measures because of lacking relevant knowledge. Therefore, investigating people's attitude and response to smog is both theoretically and practically significant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluição do Ar/análise
Opinião Pública
Smog/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle
Atitude
China
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Smog/prevenção & controle
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Smog)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170804
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170804
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10962247.2016.1229235


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[PMID]:27959987
[Ti] Título:From Internal Combustion to Electricity.
[So] Source:JAMA;316(22):2435, 2016 12 13.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos
Automóveis
Eletricidade
Saúde Pública
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Automóveis/história
California
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Smog
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Smog)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.17113


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[PMID]:27717408
[Au] Autor:Pal C; Bengtsson-Palme J; Kristiansson E; Larsson DG
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:The structure and diversity of human, animal and environmental resistomes.
[So] Source:Microbiome;4(1):54, 2016 10 07.
[Is] ISSN:2049-2618
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widespread but cause problems only when present in pathogens. Environments where selection and transmission of antibiotic resistance frequently take place are likely to be characterized by high abundance and diversity of horizontally transferable ARGs. Large-scale quantitative data on ARGs is, however, lacking for most types of environments, including humans and animals, as is data on resistance genes to potential co-selective agents, such as biocides and metals. This paucity prevents efficient identification of risk environments. RESULTS: We provide a comprehensive characterization of resistance genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and bacterial taxonomic compositions for 864 metagenomes from humans (n = 350), animals (n = 145) and external environments (n = 369), all deeply sequenced using Illumina technology. Environment types showed clear differences in both resistance profiles and bacterial community compositions. Human and animal microbial communities were characterized by limited taxonomic diversity and low abundance and diversity of biocide/metal resistance genes and MGEs but a relatively high abundance of ARGs. In contrast, external environments showed consistently high taxonomic diversity which in turn was linked to high diversity of both biocide/metal resistance genes and MGEs. Water, sediment and soil generally carried low relative abundance and few varieties of known ARGs, whereas wastewater/sludge was on par with the human gut. The environments with the largest relative abundance and/or diversity of ARGs, including genes encoding resistance to last resort antibiotics, were those subjected to industrial antibiotic pollution and a limited set of deeply sequenced air samples from a Beijing smog event. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies air and antibiotic-polluted environments as under-investigated transmission routes and reservoirs for antibiotic resistance. The high taxonomic and genetic diversity of external environments supports the hypothesis that these also form vast sources of unknown resistance genes, with potential to be transferred to pathogens in the future.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Bactérias/genética
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética
Genes Bacterianos/genética
Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética
Seleção Genética/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
Transferência Genética Horizontal
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
Seres Humanos
Metais/farmacologia
Seleção Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
Esgotos/microbiologia
Smog
Microbiologia do Solo
Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Metals); 0 (Sewage); 0 (Smog)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161009
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27669272
[Au] Autor:Lou CR; Liu HY; Li YF; Li YL
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023, China. loucairong@126.com.
[Ti] Título:Socioeconomic Drivers of PM2.5 in the Accumulation Phase of Air Pollution Episodes in the Yangtze River Delta of China.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;13(10), 2016 Sep 22.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent studies in PM2.5 sources show that anthropogenic emissions are the main contributors to haze pollution. Due to their essential roles in establishing policies for improving air quality, socioeconomic drivers of PM2.5 levels have attracted increasing attention. Unlike previous studies focusing on the annual PM2.5 concentration (Cyear), this paper focuses on the accumulation phase of PM2.5 during the pollution episode (PMAE) in the Yangtze River Delta in China. This paper mainly explores the spatial variations of PMAE and its links to the socioeconomic factors using a geographical detector and simple linear regression. The results indicated that PM2.5 was more likely to accumulate in more developed cities, such as Nanjing and Shanghai. Compared with Cyear, PMAE was more sensitive to socioeconomic impacts. Among the twelve indicators chosen for this study, population density was an especially critical factor that could affect the accumulation of PM2.5 dramatically and accounted for the regional difference. A 1% increase in population density could cause a 0.167% rise in the maximal increment and a 0.214% rise in the daily increase rate of PM2.5. Additionally, industry, energy consumption, and vehicles were also significantly associated with PM2.5 accumulation. These conclusions could serve to remediate the severe PM2.5 pollution in China.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/provisão & distribuição
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos
Monitoramento Ambiental
Resíduos Industriais/estatística & dados numéricos
Material Particulado/provisão & distribuição
Rios/química
Emissões de Veículos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos
Poluição do Ar/análise
China
Cidades
Seres Humanos
Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos
Resíduos Industriais/análise
Centrais Elétricas
Smog/efeitos adversos
Smog/análise
Urbanização
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/provisão & distribuição
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Industrial Waste); 0 (Particulate Matter); 0 (Smog); 0 (Vehicle Emissions); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170816
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170816
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160927
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27552041
[Au] Autor:Wu Y; Gu B; Erisman JW; Reis S; Fang Y; Lu X; Zhang X
[Ad] Endereço:Policy Simulation Laboratory, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, PR China.
[Ti] Título:PM pollution is substantially affected by ammonia emissions in China.
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;218:86-94, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Urban air quality in China has been declining substantially in recent years due to severe haze episodes. The reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO ) and nitrogen oxide (NO ) emissions since 2013 does not yet appear to yield substantial benefits for haze mitigation. As the reductions of those key precursors to secondary aerosol formation appears not to sufficient, other crucial factors need to be considered for the design of effective air pollution control strategies. Here we argue that ammonia (NH ) plays a - so far - underestimated role in the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, a main component of urban fine particulate matter (PM ) concentrations in China. By analyzing in situ concentration data observed in major cities alongside gridded emission data obtained from remote sensing and inventories, we find that emissions of NH have a more robust association with the spatiotemporal variation of PM levels than emissions of SO and NO . As a consequence, we argue that urban PM pollution in China in many locations is substantially affected by NH emissions. We highlight that more efforts should be directed to the reduction of NH emissions that help mitigate PM pollution more efficiently than other PM precursors. Such efforts will yield substantial co-benefits by improving nitrogen use efficiency in farming systems. As a consequence, such integrated strategies would not only improve urban air quality, but also contribute to China's food-security goals, prevent further biodiversity loss, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lead to economic savings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Poluição do Ar/análise
Amônia/análise
Cidades
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Smog/análise
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aerossóis/análise
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química
Amônia/química
China
Poluição Ambiental
Seres Humanos
Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise
Ozônio
Tamanho da Partícula
Material Particulado/análise
Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Aerosols); 0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Nitrogen Oxides); 0 (Particulate Matter); 0 (Smog); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds); 0UZA3422Q4 (Sulfur Dioxide); 66H7ZZK23N (Ozone); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170923
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170923
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160824
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27547987
[Au] Autor:Malecha KT; Nizkorodov SA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry, University of California , Irvine, California 92697, United States.
[Ti] Título:Photodegradation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles as a Source of Small, Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Technol;50(18):9990-7, 2016 Sep 20.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5851
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We investigated the photodegradation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles by near-UV radiation and photoproduction of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) from various types of SOA. We used a smog chamber to generate SOA from α-pinene, guaiacol, isoprene, tetradecane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene under high-NOx, low-NOx, or ozone oxidation conditions. The SOA particles were collected on a substrate, and the resulting material was exposed to several mW of near-UV radiation (λ ∼ 300 nm) from a light-emitting diode. Various OVOCs, including acetic acid, formic acid, acetaldehyde, and acetone were observed during photodegradation, and their SOA-mass-normalized fluxes were estimated with a Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). All the SOA, with the exception of guaiacol SOA, emitted OVOCs upon irradiation. Based on the measured OVOC emission rates, we estimate that SOA particles would lose at least ∼1% of their mass over a 24 h period during summertime conditions in Los Angeles, California. This condensed-phase photochemical process may produce a few Tg/year of gaseous formic acid, the amount comparable to its primary sources. The condensed-phase SOA photodegradation processes could therefore measurably affect the budgets of both particulate and gaseous atmospheric organic compounds on a global scale.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fotólise
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aerossóis
Poluentes Atmosféricos
Smog
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Aerosols); 0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Smog); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170608
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170608
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160823
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.est.6b02313


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[PMID]:27392261
[Au] Autor:Bharadwaj P; Zivin JG; Mullins JT; Neidell M
[Ad] Endereço:1 Department of Economics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.
[Ti] Título:Early-Life Exposure to the Great Smog of 1952 and the Development of Asthma.
[So] Source:Am J Respir Crit Care Med;194(12):1475-1482, 2016 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1535-4970
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:RATIONALE: Little is known about the long-term effects of air pollution exposure and the root causes of asthma. We use exposure to intense air pollution from the 1952 Great Smog of London as a natural experiment to examine both issues. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether exposure to extreme air pollution in utero or soon after birth affects asthma development later in life. METHODS: This was a natural experiment using the unanticipated pollution event by comparing the prevalence of asthma between those exposed to the Great Smog in utero or the first year of life with those conceived well before or after the incident and those residing outside the affected area at the time of the smog. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Prevalence of asthma during childhood (ages 0-15) and adulthood (ages >15) is analyzed for 2,916 respondents to the Life History portion of the English Longitudinal Study on Aging born from 1945 to 1955. Exposure to the Great Smog in the first year of life increases the likelihood of childhood asthma by 19.87 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.37-36.38). We also find suggestive evidence that early-life exposure led to a 9.53 percentage point increase (95% CI, -4.85 to 23.91) in the likelihood of adult asthma and exposure in utero led to a 7.91 percentage point increase (95% CI, -2.39 to 18.20) in the likelihood of childhood asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These results are the first to link early-life pollution exposure to later development of asthma using a natural experiment, suggesting the legacy of the Great Smog is ongoing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos
Asma/epidemiologia
Smog/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Causalidade
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Londres/epidemiologia
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Gravidez
Prevalência
Fatores de Risco
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Smog)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170719
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170719
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160709
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27362400
[Au] Autor:Pothirat C; Tosukhowong A; Chaiwong W; Liwsrisakun C; Inchai J
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
[Ti] Título:Effects of seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations requiring emergency visits in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
[So] Source:Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol;34(4):284-289, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0125-877X
[Cp] País de publicação:Thailand
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Seasonal smog produces particulate matters that are less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), which are known to have several impacts on the respiratory system. OBJECTIVE: This study was to determine the association of an increased PM10 level due to seasonal smog in Chiang Mai and emergency visits for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. METHOD: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of January and March from 2006 until 2009. The association of an increased PM10 level and the daily number of asthma and COPD exacerbations were analyzed using a generalized linear model; a Poisson regression model was fit to the number of daily emergency visits using predictor variables: lags of PM10, day of the week, and time. RESULTS: There were a total of 917 emergency visits for acute exacerbations of asthma and COPD, with a median of 2 visits per day (range 0-10). The median PM10 level during the same interval was 64.5 microgram per cubic meter (µg/m3) (16-304). For every 10 µg/m3 rise in PM10 concentration, there was a lag time of 6 days for asthma exacerbations [Adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.020; 95% confident interval (CI), 1.001-1.040; (p=0.014)], 7 days for COPD exacerbations [RR=1.030; 95%CI, 1.010-1.050 (p=0.024)] and 7 days for all exacerbations [RR=1.030 95%CI, 1.010-1.040 (p<0.001)]. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the effect of increasing PM10 concentrations from seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations. However, there was an approximately 1 week lag time between the elevated PM10 levels and time to emergency visits due to disease exacerbation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Asma/etiologia
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia
Smog/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Asma/epidemiologia
Estudos Transversais
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
Estudos Retrospectivos
Estações do Ano
Tailândia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Smog)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170601
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170601
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.12932/AP0668



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