Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : D20.749 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 1296 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28690307
[Au] Autor:Osuga A; Uematsu Y; Yamajima Y; Fujiwara T; Tahara S; Miyakawa H; Monma K
[Ad] Endereço:Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
[Ti] Título:Analyses of Acidic Tar Dyes in High-Protein Foods and Examination of Extraction and Clean-Up Methods for Various Foods.
[So] Source:Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi;58(3):160-165, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1882-1006
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Ab] Resumo:Extraction and clean-up methods were examined for the analysis of acidic tar dyes in various high-protein foods. 1% Aqueous ammonia followed by ethanol, 1% aqueous ammonia-ethanol (1 : 1) mixture, and 1% aqueous ammonia-tetrahydrofuran (1 : 1) mixture were used in sequence for boiled fish paste (kamaboko), pounded fish cake (hanpen), and sausage. The sausage extract was centrifuged at low temperature to solidify and remove the contained fat. Salted cod roe with red pepper was extracted twice with 1% aqueous ammonia-ethanol (1 : 1) mixture, followed by extraction with 1% aqueous ammonia-tetrahydrofuran (1 : 1) mixture. A divinylbenzene-N-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer column was used for the clean-up of xanthen dyes. In the case of clogging-prone samples, the same type of large-particle-size column was used. A polyamide column was used for clean-up of the other dyes. When each dye was added at 5 µg/g in the foods, recoveries from kamaboko, hanpen, and sausage ranged from 76 to 102%, and the average recovery from the two types of salted cold roe with red pepper ranged from 45 to 98%.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Produtos Pesqueiros/análise
Análise de Alimentos/métodos
Corantes de Alimentos/análise
Corantes de Alimentos/isolamento & purificação
Alcatrões/análise
Alcatrões/isolamento & purificação
Xantenos/análise
Xantenos/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Polivinil
Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Food Coloring Agents); 0 (Polyvinyls); 0 (Tars); 0 (Xanthenes); 0 (divinylbenzene-N-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170711
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3358/shokueishi.58.160


  2 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28647514
[Au] Autor:Begum AN; Aguilar JS; Hong Y
[Ad] Endereço:College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA.
[Ti] Título:Aqueous cigarette tar extracts disrupt corticogenesis from human embryonic stem cells in vitro.
[So] Source:Environ Res;158:194-202, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex. In this study, ACTEs were generated from smoked cigarette butts and then applied at different concentrations to neuronal progenitors and cortical neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells. RESULTS: ACTEs reduced the expression of the cortical neuronal progenitor markers pax6, tbr2, and neuroD and decreased the number of cortical layer neurons (tbr1, satb2, foxp2, and brn2) after exposure to as low as 1.87% of the extract from one smoked cigarette butt. Furthermore, our results showed that ACTEs increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cortical neurons, which caused a substantial loss of the synaptic proteins PSD95, synaptophysin, vesicular glutamate transporter1 (vGlut1), and the extracellular matrix molecule reelin; all of those molecules are important for the maintenance of cortical neuron identity and activity. CONCLUSION: ACTEs from smoked cigarettes have significant effects on cortical neuron development and neurodegeneration. The stem cell neuronal differentiation model holds great promise as a potentially powerful tool for the assessment of ACTEs on neurotoxicity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Alcatrões/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Neurônios/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Tars); 0 (tobacco tar)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171120
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171120
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170626
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28372926
[Au] Autor:Lormières F; Oger PM
[Ad] Endereço:Département de biologie, ENS de Lyon, 69364 Lyon, France; Université de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5276, 69364 Lyon, France.
[Ti] Título:Epsilonproteobacteria dominate bacterial diversity at a natural tar seep.
[So] Source:C R Biol;340(4):238-243, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1768-3238
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The bacterial diversity of a naturally seeping bitumen source was investigated by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. Epsilonproteobacteria were shown to dominate the bacterial diversity in the underground water and within the bitumen, representing ca. 75% of the total bacterial diversity. These Epsilonproteobacteria were dominated by Sulfurimonas OTUs, while Sulfurovum and Arcobacter OTUs completed the remaining diversity. Epsilonproteobacteria are sulfur-oxidizer, nitrate-reducing chemo-lithoautotrophic bacteria, unable to use most organics for growth but capable of CO fixation. Thus, reduced sulfur species, but not the complex organic matter of the tar, are utilized for growth by bacterial communities at the Puy-de-la-Poix. The large prevalence of populations of Epsilonproteobacteria is a clear indication that crude oil offers a competitive ecological niche for these organisms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Epsilonproteobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Alcatrões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Epsilonproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação
Microbiologia da Água
Poluentes da Água/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Tars); 0 (Water Pollutants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170606
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170606
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170405
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28164274
[Au] Autor:Meyers TJ; Chang SC; Chang PY; Morgenstern H; Tashkin DP; Rao JY; Cozen W; Mack TM; Zhang ZF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA.
[Ti] Título:Case-control study of cumulative cigarette tar exposure and lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers.
[So] Source:Int J Cancer;140(9):2040-2050, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0215
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The development of comprehensive measures for tobacco exposure is crucial to specify effects on disease and inform public health policy. In this population-based case-control study, we evaluated the associations between cumulative lifetime cigarette tar exposure and cancers of the lung and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The study included 611 incident cases of lung cancer; 601 cases of UADT cancers (oropharyngeal, laryngeal and esophageal cancers); and 1,040 cancer-free controls. We estimated lifetime exposure to cigarette tar based on tar concentrations abstracted from government cigarette records and self-reported smoking histories derived from a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the associations for cumulative tar exposure with lung and UADT cancer, overall and according to histological subtype. Cumulative tar exposure was highly correlated with pack-years among ever smoking controls (Pearson coefficient = 0.90). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence limits) for the estimated effect of about 1 kg increase in tar exposure (approximately the interquartile range in all controls) was 1.61 (1.50, 1.73) for lung cancer and 1.21 (1.13, 1.29) for UADT cancers. In general, tar exposure was more highly associated with small, squamous and large cell lung cancer than adenocarcinoma. With additional adjustment for pack-years, positive associations between tar and lung cancer were evident, particularly for small cell and large cell subtypes. Therefore, incorporating the composition of tobacco carcinogens in lifetime smoking exposure may improve lung cancer risk estimation. This study does not support the claim of a null or inverse association between "low exposure" to tobacco smoke and risk of these cancer types.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adenocarcinoma/induzido quimicamente
Adenocarcinoma/patologia
Adulto
Idoso
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/induzido quimicamente
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/induzido quimicamente
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia
Feminino
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/induzido quimicamente
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores de Risco
Fumar/efeitos adversos
Alcatrões/efeitos adversos
Tabaco/efeitos adversos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Tars); 0 (tobacco tar)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170812
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170812
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170207
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ijc.30632


  5 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27982577
[Au] Autor:Zhang J; Zuo W; Tian Y; Chen L; Yin L; Zhang J
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE), School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology , Harbin 150090, China.
[Ti] Título:Sulfur Transformation during Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Technol;51(1):709-717, 2017 Jan 03.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5851
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The sulfur distributions and evolution of sulfur-containing compounds in the char, tar and gas fractions were investigated during the microwave and conventional pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Increased accumulation of sulfur in the char and less production of H S were obtained from microwave pyrolysis at higher temperatures (500-800 °C). Three similar conversion pathways were identified for the formation of H S during microwave and conventional pyrolysis. The cracking of unstable mercaptan structure in the sludge contributed to the release of H S below 300 °C. The decomposition of aliphatic-S compounds in the tars led to the formation of H S (300-500 °C). The thermal decomposition of aromatic-S compounds in the tars generated H S from 500 to 800 °C. However, the secondary decomposition of thiophene-S compounds took place only in conventional pyrolysis above 700 °C. Comparing the H S contributions from microwave and conventional pyrolysis, the significant increase of H S yields in conventional pyrolysis was mainly attributed to the decomposition of aromatic-S (increasing by 10.4%) and thiophene-S compounds (11.3%). Further investigation on the inhibition mechanism of H S formation during microwave pyrolysis confirmed that, with the special heating characteristics and relative shorter residence time, microwave pyrolysis promoted the retention of H S on CaO and inhibited the secondary cracking of thiophene-S compounds at higher temperatures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Micro-Ondas
Esgotos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temperatura Alta
Enxofre
Alcatrões
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Sewage); 0 (Tars); 70FD1KFU70 (Sulfur)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170609
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170609
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.est.6b03784


  6 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28025455
[Au] Autor:Osuga A; Uematsu Y; Yamajima Y; Fujiwara T; Tahara S; Miyakawa H; Mizumachi T; Monma K
[Ad] Endereço:Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
[Ti] Título:Analysis of Acidic Tar Dyes in High Protein Food: Effect of pH of Column Loading Solution for Clean-Up.
[So] Source:Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi;57(6):207-212, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1882-1006
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Ab] Resumo:The effect of pH of the clean-up process in the analysis of 11 permitted tar dyes in high protein food was investigated by using a handmade polyamide column (PA column) and Oasis HLB. Boiled fish paste spiked with the 11 dyes was extracted with appropriate solvents and the pH of the extract was adjusted to 3.0-7.0 in increments of 0.5, followed by clean-up with the PA column. At pH 3.0-5.5, precipitate formed in the extract clogged the column, and the recoveries of R3, R104 and R105 were 26-68%. At pH 6.0-7.0, clogging was not observed and the recoveries of the 3 dyes were somewhat higher, at 38-79%. The recoveries of other dyes were more than 80% at pH 3.0-7.0. With Oasis HLB, column loading was conducted at pH 11.0, and the recoveries of the 3 dyes improved to 70-83%. In conclusion, all 11 dyes could be cleaned-up with the PA column and Oasis HLB and the recoveries exceeded 70%.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Produtos Pesqueiros/análise
Análise de Alimentos/métodos
Corantes de Alimentos/análise
Corantes de Alimentos/isolamento & purificação
Produtos da Carne/análise
Alcatrões/análise
Alcatrões/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Nylons
Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
Soluções
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Food Coloring Agents); 0 (Nylons); 0 (Solutions); 0 (Tars)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3358/shokueishi.57.207


  7 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27692487
[Au] Autor:Sanyal O; Shinde VL; Meena RM; Damare S; Shenoy BD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Food and Biotechnology, Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women's University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; Biological Oceanography Division, CSIR-National Institute Oceanography, Dona Paula 403004, Goa, India.
[Ti] Título:The ITS-based phylogeny of fungi associated with tarballs.
[So] Source:Mar Pollut Bull;113(1-2):277-281, 2016 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3363
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Tarballs, the remnants of crude oil which change into semi-solid phase due to various weathering processes in the sea, are rich in hydrocarbons, including toxic and almost non-degradable hydrocarbons. Certain microorganisms such as fungi are known to utilize hydrocarbons present in tarballs as sole source of carbon for nutrition. Previous studies have reported 53 fungal taxa associated with tarballs. There is apparently no gene sequence-data available for the published taxa so as to verify the fungal identification using modern taxonomic tools. The objective of the present study is to isolate fungi from tarballs collected from Candolim beach in Goa, India and investigate their phylogenetic diversity based on 5.8S rRNA gene and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) sequence analysis. In the ITS-based NJ tree, eight tarball-associated fungal isolates clustered with 3 clades of Dothideomycetes and 2 clades of Saccharomycetes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has employed ITS-based phylogeny to characterize the fungal diversity associated with tarballs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role of the tarball-associated fungi in degradation of recalcitrant hydrocarbons present in tarballs and the role of tarballs as carriers of human pathogenic fungi.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Petróleo/microbiologia
Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação
Alcatrões/química
Poluentes Químicos da Água
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Praias/normas
Biodegradação Ambiental
DNA Fúngico/genética
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico
Seres Humanos
Índia
Filogenia
Saccharomycetales/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Fungal); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal Spacer); 0 (Petroleum); 0 (Tars); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161004
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27634061
[Au] Autor:McAdam K; Eldridge A; Fearon IM; Liu C; Manson A; Murphy J; Porter A
[Ad] Endereço:Group Research & Development, British American Tobacco (BAT), Regents Park Road, Southampton, SO15 8TL, UK. Electronic address: Kevin_McAdam@bat.com.
[Ti] Título:Influence of cigarette circumference on smoke chemistry, biological activity, and smoking behaviour.
[So] Source:Regul Toxicol Pharmacol;82:111-126, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0295
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cigarettes with reduced circumference are increasingly popular in some countries, hence it is important to understand the effects of circumference reduction on their burning behaviour, smoke chemistry and bioactivity. Reducing circumference reduces tobacco mass burn rate, puff count and static burn time, and increases draw resistance and rod length burned during puff and smoulder periods. Smoulder temperature increases with decreasing circumference, but with no discernible effect on cigarette ignition propensity during a standard test. At constant packing density, mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) tar and nicotine yields decrease approximately linearly with decreasing circumference, as do the majority of smoke toxicants. However, volatile aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, show a distinctly non-linear relationship with circumference and increases in the ratios of aldehydes to tar and nicotine have been observed as the circumference decreases. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and tumorigenic specific activities of smoke condensates (i.e. per unit weight of condensate) decrease as circumference decreases. Recent studies suggest that there is no statistical difference in mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine among smokers of cigarettes with different circumferences. Commercially available slim cigarettes usually have changes in other cigarette design features compared with cigarettes with standard circumference, so it is difficult to isolate the effect of circumference on the properties of commercial products. However, available data shows that changes in cigarette circumference offer no discernible change to the harm associated with smoking.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fumaça/efeitos adversos
Fumaça/análise
Fumar/efeitos adversos
Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos
Produtos do Tabaco/análise
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento do Consumidor
Segurança de Produtos ao Consumidor
Seres Humanos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos
Modelos Animais
Testes de Mutagenicidade
Nicotina/efeitos adversos
Nicotina/análise
Medição de Risco
Alcatrões/efeitos adversos
Alcatrões/análise
Temperatura Ambiente
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Smoke); 0 (Tars); 0 (Tobacco Smoke Pollution); 6M3C89ZY6R (Nicotine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170316
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170316
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160917
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27420155
[Au] Autor:Beneroso D; Bermúdez JM; Montes-Morán MA; Arenillas A; Menéndez JA
[Ad] Endereço:Microwave Process Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD Nottingham, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Microwave-induced cracking of pyrolytic tars coupled to microwave pyrolysis for syngas production.
[So] Source:Bioresour Technol;218:687-91, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2976
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Herein a new process is proposed to produce a syngas-rich gas fraction (>80vol% H2+CO) from biowaste based on microwave heating within two differentiated steps in order to avoid tars production. The first step consists of the microwave pyrolysis of biowaste induced by a char-based susceptor at 400-800°C; tars, char and syngas-rich gas fractions being produced. The tars are then fed into the second step where a portion of the char from the first step is used as a bed material in a 0.3:1wt% ratio. This bed is heated up by microwaves up to 800°C, allowing thermal cracking of tars and additional syngas (>90vol% H2+CO) being then produced. This new concept arises as an alternative technology to the gasification of biowastes for producing syngas with no need for catalysts or gasifying reagents to minimise tars production.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biocombustíveis
Micro-Ondas
Alcatrões/efeitos da radiação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biomassa
Catálise
Temperatura Alta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biofuels); 0 (Tars)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160716
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1296 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27251490
[Au] Autor:Higashi T; Mai Y; Mazaki Y; Horinouchi T; Miwa S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University.
[Ti] Título:A Standardized Method for the Preparation of a Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke.
[So] Source:Biol Pharm Bull;39(6):898-902, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5215
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The gas phase of cigarette smoke is important from the viewpoint of human health, because it can pass through alveolar epithelium and enter the circulation. There is no standard method for the preparation of a gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE), although CSE is widely used for research instead of whole cigarette smoke. We have established a standard method for the preparation of CSE. One cigarette per trial is continuously combusted under a reduced pressure generated by an aspiration pump with a velocity of 1.050 L/min: the main stream of the smoke is passed through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, and subsequently, bubbled through a glass ball filter (pore size, 20-30 µm) into 15 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To express the concentration of CSE, a virtual tar concentration is introduced, which is calculated assuming that tar trapped on the Cambridge filter is dissolved in the PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original virtual tar concentration≤15 mg/mL) show similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations. CSEs prepared from various brands of cigarettes and by different smoking regimes (continuous and puff smoking) show similar cytotoxic potency if the virtual tar concentrations are the same. In conclusion, using the standardized method for CSE preparation in combination with the virtual tar concentration, it becomes possible to simply and rapidly prepare standard CSEs with defined concentrations from any brand of cigarettes, which are toxicologically equivalent to CSE prepared by puff smoking.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fumaça/análise
Tabaco
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Gases/análise
Seres Humanos
Fumar
Alcatrões/análise
Produtos do Tabaco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Gases); 0 (Smoke); 0 (Tars); 0 (tobacco tar)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170131
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170131
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1248/bpb.b16-00062



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