Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : D20.944.460.300 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29424987
[Au] Autor:Balakayeva AV; Rusakov NV
[Ti] Título:[Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of plants for disinfection of medical waste].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(7):614-7, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:There are presented results of the comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of plants for disinfection of medical waste which use 4 most common hardware technologies: treatment by saturated steam pressure, moist heat, microwave exposure and chemical disinfection with refinement. The efficiency ofplants using physical methods of influence was shown to be higher in comparison with hardware chemical disinfection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desinfecção
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade
Desinfecção/instrumentação
Desinfecção/métodos
Desinfecção/organização & administração
Seres Humanos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Federação Russa/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste Disposal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29283033
[Au] Autor:Hodges S
[Ad] Endereço:a History Department , University of Warwick , Coventry , UK.
[Ti] Título:Hospitals as factories of medical garbage.
[So] Source:Anthropol Med;24(3):319-333, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2910
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Over the course of the twentieth century, as hospitals cleaned up, they came to produce more and more rubbish. Beginning in the 1970s and gaining pace in the 1980s and 1990s, single-use plastic items (syringes, blood bags, tubing) saturated everyday medical practice across the globe. This essay brings the question of plastic to bear upon the longer history of twentieth century sanitary science. The widespread adoption of single-use disposable medical plastics consolidated a century's worth of changes in medical hygiene. As strange as it may seem today, the initial uptake of medical plastics was not driven primarily by concerns about hygiene. Plastic began as a mid-century technology of convenience and durability. It was not until the end of the twentieth century that it morphed into a powerful symbol and instrument of medical hygiene. Today, both patients and practitioners have embraced plastic as an indispensable technology of clean medicine. The procession of single-use medical plastics through everyday medicine now comprises a constant, if disposable, infrastructure of medical hygiene. This new processional infrastructure of disposable hygiene has produced another, albeit unintended, consequence. This new regime has exponentially increased hospitals' material outputs. In so doing, plastic has refigured the ecologies of everyday medicine. Plastic hygiene has rendered hospitals factories of medical garbage.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hospitais
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
Plásticos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia Médica
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Índia
Masculino
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste); 0 (Medical Waste Disposal); 0 (Plastics)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171229
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/13648470.2017.1389165


  3 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28452819
[Au] Autor:Hubbard RM; Hayanga JA; Quinlan JJ; Soltez AK; Hayanga HK
[Ad] Endereço:From the Departments of *Anesthesiology, †Cardiothoracic Surgery, and ‡Presbyterian University Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Título:Optimizing Anesthesia-Related Waste Disposal in the Operating Room: A Brief Report.
[So] Source:Anesth Analg;125(4):1289-1291, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1526-7598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Misappropriation of noncontaminated waste into regulated medical waste (RMW) containers is a source of added expense to health care facilities. The operating room is a significant contributor to RMW waste production. This study sought to determine whether disposing of anesthesia-related waste in standard waste receptacles before patient entry into the operating room would produce a reduction in RMW. A median of 0.35 kg of waste was collected from 51 cases sampled, with a potential annual reduction of 13,800 kg of RMW to the host institution, and a cost savings of $2200.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anestesia/normas
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
Salas Cirúrgicas/normas
Relatório de Pesquisa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anestesia/economia
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos
Hospitais Universitários/economia
Hospitais Universitários/normas
Seres Humanos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/economia
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/economia
Salas Cirúrgicas/economia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste); 0 (Medical Waste Disposal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000001932


  4 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque de
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[PMID]:28464731
[Au] Autor:Vieira CD; Tagliaferri TL; Carvalho MAR; Oliveira CAS; Magalhães PP; Santos SGD; Farias LM
[Ad] Endereço:1 Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Knowledge, behaviour and microbial load of workers handling dental solid waste in a public health service in Brazil.
[So] Source:Waste Manag Res;35(6):680-685, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1096-3669
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Healthcare wastes are those generated inside healthcare services, including dental clinics. Workers coming into close proximity to hazardous healthcare waste are potentially at risk. In an attempt to assess the knowledge and attitudes of workers dealing with infectious waste, a questionnaire was administered. The biological risk was investigated by evaluating the microbial load and screening some clinically relevant micro-organisms in the nasal mucosa, hands and coats of these workers. The results showed that 66.6% of the study population had incomplete primary education. Only two workers have had their blood tested to confirm anti-HBs levels. Microbial load evaluation on hand surfaces of morning workers showed statistically significant lower microbial loads after the workday when compared with the beginning of the work period. It is important to highlight that some clinically relevant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from worker's hands. This study revealed the need for more training programmes regarding awareness of safe waste disposal protocols and also the necessity of discussing vaccination and its implications. Data regarding microbial loads of the worker's hands, mostly at the beginning of the workday when handwashing is recommended worldwide, emphasise that hygiene measures should receive more attention during training exercises.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Resíduos Odontológicos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Resíduos Perigosos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Pessoal de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Risco
Resíduos Sólidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dental Waste); 0 (Hazardous Waste); 0 (Medical Waste Disposal); 0 (Solid Waste)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171204
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171204
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0734242X17704714


  5 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28886977
[Au] Autor:Mantzaras G; Voudrias EA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-67100 Xanthi, Greece.
[Ti] Título:An optimization model for collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal of infectious medical waste: Application to a Greek region.
[So] Source:Waste Manag;69:518-534, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2456
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective of this work was to develop an optimization model to minimize the cost of a collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal system for infectious medical waste (IMW). The model calculates the optimum locations of the treatment facilities and transfer stations, their design capacities (t/d), the number and capacities of all waste collection, transport and transfer vehicles and their optimum transport path and the minimum IMW management system cost. Waste production nodes (hospitals, healthcare centers, peripheral health offices, private clinics and physicians in private practice) and their IMW production rates were specified and used as model inputs. The candidate locations of the treatment facilities, transfer stations and sanitary landfills were designated, using a GIS-based methodology. Specifically, Mapinfo software with exclusion criteria for non-appropriate areas was used for siting candidate locations for the construction of the treatment plant and calculating the distance and travel time of all possible vehicle routes. The objective function was a non-linear equation, which minimized the total collection, transport, treatment and disposal cost. Total cost comprised capital and operation costs for: (1) treatment plant, (2) waste transfer stations, (3) waste transport and transfer vehicles and (4) waste collection bins and hospital boxes. Binary variables were used to decide whether a treatment plant and/or a transfer station should be constructed and whether a collection route between two or more nodes should be followed. Microsoft excel software was used as installation platform of the optimization model. For the execution of the optimization routine, two completely different software were used and the results were compared, thus, resulting in higher reliability and validity of the results. The first software was Evolver, which is based on the use of genetic algorithms. The second one was Crystal Ball, which is based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model was applied to the Region of East Macedonia - Thrace in Greece. The optimum solution resulted in one treatment plant located in the sanitary landfill area of Chrysoupolis, required no transfer stations and had a total management cost of 38,800 €/month or 809 €/t. If a treatment plant is sited in the most eastern part of the Region, i.e., the industrial area of Alexandroupolis, the optimum solution would result in a transfer station of 23 m , located near Kavala General Hospital, and a total cost of 39,800 €/month or 831 €/t. A sensitivity analysis was conducted and two alternative scenarios were optimized. In the first scenario, a 15% rise in fuel cost and in the second scenario a 25% rise in IMW production were considered. At the end, a cost calculation in €/t/km for every type of vehicle used for haul and transfer was conducted. Also, the cost of the whole system was itemized and calculated in €/t/km and €/t. The results showed that the higher percentage of the total cost was due to the construction of the treatment plant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
Grécia
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Software
Transportes
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste); 0 (Medical Waste Disposal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170910
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28838168
[Au] Autor:Wanyoike S; Ramirez Gonzalez A; Dolan SB; Garon J; Veira CL; Hampton LM; Chang Blanc D; Patel MM
[Ad] Endereço:Task Force for Global Health, Atlanta, Georgia.
[Ti] Título:Disposing of Excess Vaccines After the Withdrawal of Oral Polio Vaccine.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;216(suppl_1):S202-S208, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Until recently, waste management for national immunization programs was limited to sharps waste, empty vaccine vials, or vaccines that had expired or were no longer usable. However, because wild-type 2 poliovirus has been eradicated, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization deemed that all countries must simultaneously cease use of the type 2 oral polio vaccine and recommended that all countries and territories using oral polio vaccine (OPV) "switch" from trivalent OPV (tOPV; types 1, 2, and 3 polioviruses) to bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3 polioviruses) during a 2-week period in April 2016. Use of tOPV after the switch would risk outbreaks of paralysis related to type 2-circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2). To minimize risk of vaccine-derived polio countries using OPV were asked to dispose of all usable, unexpired tOPV after the switch to bOPV. In this paper, we review the rationale for tOPV disposal and describe the global guidelines provided to countries for the safe and appropriate disposal of tOPV. These guidelines gave countries flexibility in implementing this important task within the confines of their national regulations, capacities, and resources. Steps for appropriate disposal of tOPV included removal of all tOPV vials from the cold chain, placement in appropriate bags or containers, and disposal using a recommended approach (ie, autoclaving, boiling, chemical inactivation, incineration, or encapsulation) followed by burial or transportation to a designated waste facility. This experience with disposal of tOPV highlights the adaptability of national immunization programs to new procedures, and identifies gaps in waste management policies and strategies with regard to disposal of unused vaccines. The experience also provides a framework for future policies and for developing programmatic guidance for the ultimate disposal of all OPV after the eradication of polio.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poliomielite/prevenção & controle
Vacina Antipólio Oral
Gerenciamento de Resíduos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
Esterilização
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste Disposal); 0 (Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170826
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiw572


  7 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28521776
[Au] Autor:Udofia EA; Gulis G; Fobil J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. eudofia@ug.edu.gh.
[Ti] Título:Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;17(1):464, 2017 May 18.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to investigate household disposal practices and harm resulting from SMW generated in households and the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 600 households was undertaken in Ga South Municipal Assembly in Accra, Ghana from mid-April to June, 2014. Factors investigated included socio-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. RESULTS: Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins respectively. A corresponding 23% and 35% of respondents discarded these items without a container. Harm from SMW in the household and in the community was reported by 5% and 3% of respondents respectively. Persons who believed they were at risk of diseases associated with SMW were nearly three times more likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring on it hazardous properties. Given the low rates of harm reported, elimination of preventable harm might justify community intervention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Habitação
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Meio Ambiente
Gana
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Percepção
Distribuição Espacial da População
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste Disposal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170520
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4366-9


  8 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28506258
[Au] Autor:Hangulu L; Akintola O
[Ad] Endereço:Health Promotion Postdoctoral Programme, Discipline of Psychology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, MTB Ground Floor, 1X09, Durban, 4041, South Africa. lydiamudenda@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Health care waste management in community-based care: experiences of community health workers in low resource communities in South Africa.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;17(1):448, 2017 May 15.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs) working in community-based care (CBC) programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW), there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC. This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs. METHODS: We used three ethnographic approaches to collect data: focus group discussions, participant observations and informal discussions. Data was collected from 85 CHWs working in 29 communities in the Durban metropolis, South Africa. Data collection took place from July 2013 to August 2014. RESULTS: CHWs provided nursing care activities to patients many of whom were incontinent or bedridden. Some the patients were living with HIV/AIDS/TB, stroke, diabetes, asthma, arthritis and high blood pressure. These caregiving activities generate sharps and infectious waste but CHWs and family members did not segregate HCW according to the risk posed as stipulated by the HCWM policy. In addition, HCW was left with domestic waste. Major barriers to proper HCWM identified by CHWs include, lack of assistance from family members in assisting patients to use the toilet or change diapers and removing HCW from homes, irregular waste collection by waste collectors, inadequate water for practicing hygiene and sanitation, long distance between the house and the toilets and poor conditions of communal toilets and pit latrines. As a result of these barriers, HCW was illegally dumped along roads or in the bush, burnt openly and buried within the yards. Liquid HCW such as vomit, urine and sputum were disposed in open spaces near the homes. CONCLUSION: Current policies on primary health care (PHC) and HCWM in South Africa have not paid attention to HCWM. Findings suggest the need for primary health care reform to develop the competencies of CHWs in HCWM. In addition, PHC and HCWM policies should address the infrastructure deficit in low resource communities. In order for low-and-middle-income-countries (LMICs) to develop effective community health worker programmes, there is a need for synergies in PHC and HCWM policies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
África do Sul
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste Disposal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170517
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4378-5


  9 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28494423
[Au] Autor:Vatovec C; Van Wagoner E; Evans C
[Ad] Endereço:Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources and College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA. Electronic address: cvatovec@uvm.edu.
[Ti] Título:Investigating sources of pharmaceutical pollution: Survey of over-the-counter and prescription medication purchasing, use, and disposal practices among university students.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;198(Pt 1):348-352, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pharmaceutical pollution in surface waters poses a range of risks to public health and aquatic ecosystems. Consumers contribute to pharmaceutical pollution via use and disposal of medications, though data on such behaviors is limited. This paper investigates the purchasing, use, and disposal practices among a population that has been researched only minimally to date, yet will determine pharmaceutical pollution for decades to come: young adults represented by a university student population. We employed an online, 21-question survey to examine behaviors related to pharmaceuticals among students at the University of Vermont (n = 358). Results indicate that the majority of respondents had purchased medications in the previous 12 months (94%), and had leftover drugs (61%). Contrary to previous studies of older populations, only a small proportion of students had disposed of drugs (18%); municipal trash was the primary route of drug disposal (25%), and very few students disposed drugs via flushing (1%). Less than a quarter of students were aware of drug take-back programs (24%), and only 4% had ever used take-back services. These findings indicate that the university student population may be storing a large volume of unused drugs that will require future disposal. Increasing awareness of, access to, and participation in pro-environment pharmaceutical behaviors, such as purchasing over-the-counter medication in smaller quantities and utilizing drug take-back programs, could minimize future pharmaceutical pollution from this population.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluição Ambiental
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
Preparações Farmacêuticas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Estudantes
Inquéritos e Questionários
Universidades
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste Disposal); 0 (Pharmaceutical Preparations)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170512
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 2008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28412179
[Au] Autor:Ali M; Ashraf U; Chaudhry N; Geng Y
[Ad] Endereço:School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address: aliseunanjing@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Unsafe waste management practices and hepatitis C among hospital sanitary staff in Pakistan.
[So] Source:J Hosp Infect;96(1):95-96, 2017 05.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2939
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hepacivirus
Hepatite C
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
Paquistão
Recursos Humanos em Hospital
Gerenciamento de Resíduos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste Disposal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170824
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170824
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170417
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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