Base de dados : MEDLINE
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[PMID]:29338028
[Au] Autor:Chen F; Yang M; Li Q; Pan J; Li X; Meng Q
[Ad] Endereço:West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
[Ti] Título:Does providing more services increase the primary hospitals' revenue? An assessment of national essential medicine policy based on 2,675 counties in China.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190855, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To understand whether the increased outpatient service provision (OSP) brings in enough additional income (excluding income from essential medicine) for primary hospitals (INCOME) to compensate for reduced costs of medicine. METHODS: The two outcomes, annual OSP and INCOME for the period of 2008-2012, were collected from 34,506 primary hospitals in 2,675 counties in 31 provinces in China by the national surveillance system. The data had a four-level hierarchical structure; time points were nested within primary hospital, hospitals within county, and counties within province. We fitted bivariate five-level random effects regression models to examine correlations between OSP and INCOME in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of the essential medicine policy (EMP). We adjusted for the effects of time period and selected hospital resources. FINDINGS: The estimated correlation coefficients between the two outcomes' mean values were strongly positive among provinces (r = 0.910), moderately positive among counties (r = 0.380), and none among hospitals (r = 0.002) and time (r = 0.007). The correlation between their policy effects was weakly positive among provinces (r = 0.234), but none at the county and hospital levels. However, there were markedly negative correlation coefficients between the mean and policy effects at -0.328 for OSP and -0.541 for INCOME at the hospital level. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence to suggest an association between the two outcomes in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of EMP at the hospital level. This indicated that increased OSP did not bring enough additional INCOME. Sustainable mechanisms to compensate primary hospitals are needed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicamentos Essenciais/economia
Economia Hospitalar
Política de Saúde/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: China
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/economia
Recursos em Saúde/economia
Hospitais
Seres Humanos
Modelos Econômicos
Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Essential)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190855


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[PMID]:28458429
[Au] Autor:Samal S; Swain TR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology, VIMSAR, Burla, Sambalpur, Odisha, India.
[Ti] Título:Pricing and components analysis of some key essential pediatric medicine in Odisha state.
[So] Source:Indian J Pharmacol;49(1):89-92, 2017 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1998-3751
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Study highlighting prices, i.e., the patients actually pay at ground level is important for interventions such as alternate procurement schemes or to expedite regulatory assessment of essential medicines for children. The present study was undertaken to study pricing and component analysis of few key essential medicines in Odisha state. METHODOLOGY: Six child-specific medicines of different formulations were selected based on use in different disease condition and having widest pricing variation. Data were collected, entered, and analyzed in the price components data collection form of the World Health Organization-Health Action International (WHO-HAI) 2007 Workbook version 5 - Part II provided as part of the WHO/HAI methodology. The analysis includes the cumulative percent markup, total cumulative percent markup, and percent contribution of individual components to the final medicine price in both public and private sector of Odisha state. RESULTS: Add-on costs such as taxes, wholesale, and retail markups contribute substantially to the final price of medicines in private sector, particularly for branded-generic products. The largest contributor to add-on costs is at the level of retailer shop. CONCLUSION: Policy should be framed to achieve a greater transparency and uniformity of the pricing of medicines at different health sectors of Odisha.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comércio/economia
Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
Medicamentos Essenciais/economia
Medicamentos Genéricos/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Revelação
Política de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Índia
Setor Privado/economia
Setor Público/economia
Organização Mundial da Saúde
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Essential); 0 (Drugs, Generic)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171229
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171229
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.201021


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Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:28977281
[Au] Autor:Osorio-de-Castro CGS
[Ad] Endereço:Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Uncertain future for essential medicines in Brazilian Unified National Health System.
[Ti] Título:Rumo nebuloso para os medicamentos essenciais no Sistema Único de Saúde..
[So] Source:Cad Saude Publica;33(9):e00151617, 2017 09 28.
[Is] ISSN:1678-4464
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng; por; spa
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicamentos Essenciais
Programas Nacionais de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL; COMMENT
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Essential)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171005
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28813502
[Au] Autor:Gronde TV; Uyl-de Groot CA; Pieters T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Addressing the challenge of high-priced prescription drugs in the era of precision medicine: A systematic review of drug life cycles, therapeutic drug markets and regulatory frameworks.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182613, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:CONTEXT: Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. METHOD: A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. FINDINGS: Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies. Market failure in combination with high merger and acquisition activity in the sector have allowed price increases for even off-patent drugs. With market interventions and the introduction of QALY measures in health care, governments have tried to influence drug prices, but often encounter unintended consequences. Patent reform legislation, reference pricing, outcome-based pricing and incentivizing physicians and pharmacists to prescribe low-cost drugs are among the most promising short-term policy options. Due to the lack of systematic research on the effectiveness of policy measures, an increasing number of ad hoc decisions have been made with counterproductive effects on the availability of essential drugs. Future challenges demand new policies, for which recommendations are offered. CONCLUSION: A fertile ground for high-priced drugs has been created by changes in drug life-cycle dynamics, the unintended effects of patent legislation, government policy measures and orphan drug programs. There is an urgent need for regulatory reform to curtail prices and safeguard equitable access to innovative medicines.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicina de Precisão/economia
Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Medicamentos Biossimilares
Custos de Medicamentos
Descoberta de Drogas/economia
Descoberta de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência
Indústria Farmacêutica
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes
Medicamentos Essenciais/economia
Gastos em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência
Parcerias Público-Privadas
Pesquisa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals); 0 (Drugs, Essential); 0 (Prescription Drugs)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182613


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[PMID]:28665490
[Au] Autor:Wei X; Yin J; Walley JD; Zhang Z; Hicks JP; Zhou Y; Sun Q; Zeng J; Lin M
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Clinical Public Health, and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Impact of China's essential medicines scheme and zero-mark-up policy on antibiotic prescriptions in county hospitals: a mixed methods study.
[So] Source:Trop Med Int Health;22(9):1166-1174, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3156
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the national essential medicines scheme and zero-mark-up policy on antibiotic prescribing behaviour. METHODS: In rural Guangxi, a natural experiment compared one county hospital which implemented the policy with a comparison hospital which did not. All outpatient and inpatient records in 2011 and 2014 were extracted from the two hospitals. Primary outcome indicator was antibiotic prescribing rate (APR) among children aged 2-14 presenting in outpatients with a primary diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). We organised independent physician reviews to determine inappropriate prescribing for inpatients. Difference-in-difference analyses based on multivariate regressions were used to compare APR over time after adjusting potential confounders. We conducted 12 in-depth interviews with paediatricians, hospital directors and health officials. RESULTS: A total of 8219 and 4142 outpatient prescriptions of childhood URTIs were included in the intervention and comparison hospitals, respectively. In 2011, APR was 30% in the intervention and 88% in the comparison hospital. In 2014, the intervention hospital significantly reduced outpatient APR by 21% (95% CI:-23%, -18%), intravenous infusion by 58% (95% CI: -64%, -52%) and prescription cost by 31 USD (95% CI: -35, -28), compared with the controls. We collected 251 inpatient records, but did not find reductions in inappropriate antibiotic use. Interviews revealed that the intervention hospital implemented a thorough antibiotics stewardship programme containing training, peer review of prescriptions and restrictions for overprescribing. CONCLUSION: The national essential medicines scheme and zero-mark-up policy, when implemented with an antimicrobial stewardship programme, may be associated with reductions in outpatient antibiotic prescribing and intravenous infusions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia
Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
Prescrição Inadequada/economia
Políticas
Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Antibacterianos/economia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
China
Medicamentos Essenciais/economia
Feminino
Pessoal de Saúde
Hospitais de Condado
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Pediatria
Infecções Respiratórias/economia
População Rural
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Drugs, Essential)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170913
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170913
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tmi.12922


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[PMID]:28582409
[Au] Autor:Walker J; Chaar BB; Vera N; Pillai AS; Lim JS; Bero L; Moles RJ
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Medicine shortages in Fiji: A qualitative exploration of stakeholders' views.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0178429, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Medicine access is a human right; yet, concerningly, there are international instances of shortages. Quantitative data has allowed WHO to propose global solutions; however, individualised understanding of specific regions is still required to work towards national solutions. Fiji has an established issue with medication supply and the aim of this study was to use qualitative methods to gain a fuller understanding of this context. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were used to gain the perspective of key stakeholders involved in the Fijian medicine supply chain in regards to causes, impacts and possible solutions of medicine shortages. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview data. RESULTS: In total, 48 stakeholders participated and the information was synthesised into three main themes, causes, impacts and solutions and the sub-themes including; political, system and patient causes, adverse health effects on patients, professional dissatisfaction, monetary loss and loss of faith in the health system, workarounds, operation improvements, government intervention and education and training. CONCLUSIONS: The situation in Fiji is not dissimilar to other instances of shortages around the world and hence international solutions like that proposed by WHO are feasible; however, they must be modified to be uniquely Fijian to work in this context.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribuição
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fiji
Seres Humanos
Farmacêuticos/psicologia
Médicos/psicologia
Política
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Essential); 0 (Prescription Drugs)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170606
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178429


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[PMID]:28507092
[Au] Autor:Barr RD
[Ad] Endereço:Founding Chair, Working Group on Essential Medicines, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, and Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.
[Ti] Título:List of essential medicines for Canada.
[So] Source:CMAJ;189(19):E703, 2017 05 15.
[Is] ISSN:1488-2329
[Cp] País de publicação:Canada
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicamentos Essenciais
Organização Mundial da Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Canadá
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Essential)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170517
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1503/cmaj.732971


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[PMID]:28444095
[Au] Autor:Nisihara RM; Possebom AC; Borges LMC; Shwetz ACA; Bettes FFB
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Positivo, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Judicial demand of medications through the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná.
[So] Source:Einstein (Sao Paulo);15(1):85-91, 2017 Jan-Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2317-6385
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng; por
[Ab] Resumo:Objective: To describe the profile of lawsuits related to drug requests filled at the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná. Methods: A cross-sectional study, and the data were obtained through consulting the lawsuits at the online system of the Federal Justice of Paraná. Results: Out of 347 lawsuits included in the study, 55% of plaintiffs were women, with a median age of 56 years. Oncology was the field with more requests (23.6%), and the highest mean costs. A wide variety of diseases and broad variety of requested drugs were found in the lawsuits. Approximately two-thirds of them were requested by the brand name, and the most often requested drugs were palivizumab and tiotropium bromide. Only 14.5% of the requested medicines were registered in the National Medication Register. The Public Defender's Office filled actions in 89.6% of cases and all lawsuits had an interim relief. The mean time for approval was 35 days and 70% of requests were granted. Conclusion: Oncology was the field with the highest demand for medicines at the Federal Justice of Paraná in 2014. A great variety of medications was requested. The Public Defender´s Office represented most lawsuits. All demands had an interim relief, and the majority of requests were granted, within an average of 35 days. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil das ações que solicitam medicamentos ajuizadas na Justiça Federal do Paraná. Métodos: Estudo transversal descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos por meio de consulta aos processos no sistema on-line da Justiça Federal do Paraná. Resultados: Dentre os 347 processos incluídos no estudo, 55% dos autores eram mulheres, com mediana da idade de 56 anos, sendo a área mais procurada a oncologia (23,6%). A área oncológica também foi a que apresentou maiores custos médios. Foi ampla a variedade de doenças geradoras das ações e também foi consequentemente grande a variedade de medicamentos solicitados. Cerca de dois terços dos fármacos foram solicitados pelo nome comercial, e os mais requeridos foram o palivizumabe e brometo de tiotrópio. Apenas 14,5% dos medicamentos solicitados estavam cadastrados no Registro Nacional de Medicamentos. A Defensoria Pública impetrou as ações em 89,6% dos casos. Todos os processos pediam antecipação de tutela do medicamento. O tempo médio para deferimento foi de 35 dias, sendo que 70% dos pedidos foram deferidos. Conclusão: A área com maior número de casos de demanda de medicamentos na Justiça Federal do Paraná no ano de 2014 foi de Oncologia. Observou-se grande variedade de medicamentos solicitados. A maioria das ações foi impetrada pela Defensoria Pública. Todas as demandas exigiram antecipação de tutela, sendo que a maioria dos pedidos foram deferidos, num prazo médio de 35 dias.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
Legislação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência
Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Brasil
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Custos de Medicamentos
Medicamentos Essenciais/economia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia
Estudos Retrospectivos
Distribuição por Sexo
Justiça Social
Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Essential); 0 (Pharmaceutical Preparations)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170829
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170829
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170427
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28419126
[Au] Autor:Khuluza F; Heide L
[Ad] Endereço:Pharmacy Department, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi.
[Ti] Título:Availability and affordability of antimalarial and antibiotic medicines in Malawi.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0175399, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Availability and affordability of medicines are key determinants of universal health coverage, yet achieving them presents a major challenge especially in low-income countries. We here present an analysis of availability and prices of antimalarial and antibiotic medicines in public, faith-based and private health facilities in Malawi. Medicines are provided free of charge in the public health care system of Malawi. In contrast, facilities of the Christian Health Association of Malawi (CHAM) usually charge their patients for medicines, as do private for-profit facilities. METHODS: As part of a study on medicine quality, samples of six antimalarial and six antibiotic medicines were collected in 31 health facilities in four districts of southern Malawi. These included 15 public facilities (i.e. health centres, district hospitals and central hospitals), eight CHAM and eight private facilities. Random selection was used in choosing the included health facilities. The availability of medicines was recorded, including the number of units which could be collected of each medicine, as well as the prices of medicines which were charged in CHAM and private facilities. These data were analyzed using the standard methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI). RESULTS: Availability of the antimalarials artemether/lumefantrine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, which are provided with financial support from international donors, was high in public and CHAM facilities (93% and 100%, respectively). However, availability of antibiotics was much lower (e.g. 40% availability of amoxicillin tablets/capsules in public health centres). Medicine prices were lower than reported from many other countries. The median price ratio (MPR) to a wholesale international procurement price was 2.8 in CHAM facilities and even lower in the private sector (MPR 2.3). Nevertheless, for 10 of the 12 investigated medicines the cost for one course of treatment exceeded the daily wage of a low-paid government worker in Malawi and therefore had to be considered as unaffordable for a major part of the population. CONCLUSIONS: Continued efforts are required to improve the availability of essential medicines in Malawi. The free provision of medicines in the public health care system remains important in order to achieve universal health coverage, due to the low income in this country.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
Medicamentos Essenciais/economia
Seres Humanos
Malaui
Setor Privado/economia
Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos
Setor Público/economia
Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antimalarials); 0 (Drugs, Essential)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170522
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170522
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170419
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0175399


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[PMID]:28397532
[Au] Autor:Wang H; Sun Q; Vitry A; Nguyen TA
[Ad] Endereço:1 School of Health Care Management, Key Lab of Health Economics and Policy Research, NHFPC, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.
[Ti] Título:Availability, Price, and Affordability of Selected Essential Medicines for Chronic Diseases in 11 Countries of the Asia Pacific Region: A Secondary Analysis.
[So] Source:Asia Pac J Public Health;29(4):268-277, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1941-2479
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Access to affordable essential medicines for noncommunicable, chronic diseases is critical in management of the diseases. This study aims to assess the availability, prices, and affordability of medicines for common chronic diseases in the Asia Pacific Region (APR). A secondary analysis of medicines price and availability data from the Health Action International's (HAI) database was undertaken using the standardized WHO/HAI methodology. The median availability of any medicine in the public sector was 35.5% compared with 56.7% in the private sector. Countries paid 1.4 times the International Reference Price to procure lowest-priced generics (LPGs) and 9.1 times for innovator brands (IBs). Patients would have to spend 2.3 and 0.4 day's wages to purchase one month's treatment of a chronic disease for IBs and LPGs, respectively in the private sector. These findings highlight the need to increase availability, reduce prices, and improve affordability of the medicines.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos
Medicamentos Essenciais/economia
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ásia
Bases de Dados Factuais
Seres Humanos
Ilhas do Pacífico
Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos
Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Essential)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170609
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170609
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1010539517700472



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