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[PMID]:29505539
[Au] Autor:Kim HH; Choi SC; Chae MK; Min YG
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Emergency Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Título:Neuroprotective effect of ethanol in acute carbon monoxide intoxication: A retrospective study.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(1):e9569, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication, treatment of neurologic injury and prevention of neurological sequelae are primary concerns. Ethanol is the one of the frequent substances which is co-ingested in intentional CO poisoning. Neuroprotective effect of ethanol was highlighted and demonstrated in isolated brain injury recently. We assessed the neuroprotective effect of ethanol in acute CO intoxication using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients who visited an emergency medical center of a university-affiliated hospital during a period of 73 months, from March 2009 to April 2015. Enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups, patients with or without abnormal brain lesion in brain MRI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with brain injury in MRI.A total of 109 patients with acute CO intoxication were evaluated of which 66 (60.55%) tested positive in brain MRI. MRI lesion-positive patients were more likely to have electrocardiogram change, elevation of serum troponin I and s100 protein level and lower serum ethanol level. Serum ethanol positivity was an independent factor for prevalence of brain injury in MRI in acute CO poisoning.This study revealed that ethanol which is co-ingested in acute CO intoxication may work the neuroprotective effect and could consequence more favorable neurological outcome in acute CO intoxication.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/complicações
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Etanol/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
Lesões Encefálicas/sangue
Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem
Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/sangue
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico por imagem
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue
Etanol/sangue
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estudos Retrospectivos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180306
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009569


  2 / 7099 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29378554
[Au] Autor:Nesa ML; Karim SMS; Api K; Sarker MMR; Islam MM; Kabir A; Sarker MK; Nahar K; Asadujjaman M; Munir MS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. luthfunnesa_ph@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:Screening of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.) extracts for cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antidiarrheal activities.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):35, 2018 Jan 30.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: It has been observed that the various part of Baccaurea ramiflora plant is used in rheumatoid arthritis, cellulitis, abscesses, constipation and injuries. This plant also has anticholinergic, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antiviral, antioxidant, diuretic and cytotoxic activities. The present studyaimed to assess the cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and antidiarrheal activities of methanol extract of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seeds in mice model. METHODS: The cytotoxic activity was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay; anti-nociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin- induced licking and biting, and tail immersion methods. The anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and anti-diarrheal activities were assessed by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, the open field and hole cross tests, and castor oil-induced diarrheal methods, respectively. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (analysis of variance) followed by Dunnett's test. RESULTS: In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC values of the methanol extracts of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seed were 40 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, respectively. Our investigation showed that Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) inhibited acetic acid induced pain 67.51 and 66.08%, respectively (p < 0.05) that was strongly comparable with that of Ibuprofen (72%) (p < 0.05). The Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced 58.5 and 53.4 in early and 80.8%, 76.61% in late phase of formalin-induced licking and biting. At 60 and 90 min pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) inhibited nociception of thermal stimulus 50.16 and 62.4%, respectively (p < 0.05) which was comparable with the standard (morphine, 75.9% inhibition). The pulp and seed extracts (200 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced inflammation (42.00 and 55.22%, respectively) in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and defecations (59.7 and 63.03%, respectively) in castor oil induced diarrhea. Both the extracts showed high sedative activity at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. CONCLUSION: Our investigation demonstrated significant cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and antidiarrheal activities of methanol extract of Baccaurea ramiflora pulp and seeds (200 mg/kg).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos/farmacologia
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
Antidiarreicos/farmacologia
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Analgésicos/química
Animais
Anti-Inflamatórios/química
Antidiarreicos/química
Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/química
Diarreia
Masculino
Camundongos
Manejo da Dor
Extratos Vegetais/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antidiarrheals); 0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-018-2100-5


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[PMID]:29335427
[Au] Autor:Renteria R; Baltz ET; Gremel CM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
[Ti] Título:Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):211, 2018 01 15.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits. We find CIE results in decreased excitability of orbital frontal cortex (OFC) excitatory circuits supporting goal-directed control, and, strikingly, selectively reduces OFC output to the direct output pathway in dorsal medial striatum. Increasing the activity of OFC circuits restores goal-directed control in CIE-exposed mice. Our findings show habitual control in alcohol dependence can arise through disrupted communication between top-down, goal-directed processes onto basal ganglia pathways controlling action selection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Gânglios da Base/efeitos dos fármacos
Etanol/farmacologia
Hábitos
Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Gânglios da Base/metabolismo
Gânglios da Base/fisiologia
Encéfalo/citologia
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos
Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Neurônios/fisiologia
Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
Transmissão Sináptica/genética
Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02615-9


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[PMID]:27771284
[Au] Autor:Moorman DE; James MH; Kilroy EA; Aston-Jones G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences & Neuroscience and Behavior Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Electronic address: moorman@cns.umass.edu.
[Ti] Título:Orexin/hypocretin-1 receptor antagonism reduces ethanol self-administration and reinstatement selectively in highly-motivated rats.
[So] Source:Brain Res;1654(Pt A):34-42, 2017 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6240
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system regulates motivation for natural rewards and drugs of abuse such as alcohol. ORX receptor antagonists, most commonly OX1R antagonists including SB-334867 (SB), decrease alcohol drinking, self-administration and reinstatement in both genetically-bred alcohol-preferring and outbred strains of rats. Importantly, levels of alcohol seeking and drinking in outbred rats are variable, as they are in humans. We have shown that OX1R antagonism selectively decreases homecage alcohol drinking in high-, but not low-alcohol-preferring rats. It is unknown, however, whether this effect is selective to homecage drinking or whether it also applies to alcohol seeking paradigms such as self-administration and reinstatement following extinction, in which motivation is high in the absence of alcohol. Here we trained Sprague Dawley rats to self-administer 20% ethanol paired with a light-tone cue on an FR3 regimen. Rats were then extinguished and subjected to cue-induced reinstatement. Rats were segregated into high- and low-ethanol-responding groups (HR and LR) based on self-administration levels. During self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement, rats were given SB or vehicle prior to ethanol seeking. In both conditions, OX1R antagonism decreased responding selectively in HR, but not LR rats. There were no non-specific effects of SB treatment on arousal or general behavior. These data indicate that ORX signaling at the OX1R receptor specifically regulates high levels of motivation for alcohol, even in the absence of direct alcohol reinforcement. This implicates the ORX system in the pathological motivation underlying alcohol abuse and alcoholism and demonstrates that the OX1R may be an important target for treating alcohol abuse.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico
Benzoxazóis/farmacologia
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem
Comportamento de Procura de Droga/efeitos dos fármacos
Etanol/administração & dosagem
Antagonistas dos Receptores de Orexina/farmacologia
Ureia/análogos & derivados
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/tratamento farmacológico
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/metabolismo
Animais
Animais não Endogâmicos
Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia
Sinais (Psicologia)
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Comportamento de Procura de Droga/fisiologia
Masculino
Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos
Motivação/fisiologia
Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Autoadministração
Ureia/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (1-(2-methylbenzoxazol-6-yl)-3-(1,5)naphthyridin-4-yl urea); 0 (Benzoxazoles); 0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 0 (Hcrtr1 protein, rat); 0 (Orexin Receptor Antagonists); 0 (Orexin Receptors); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); 8W8T17847W (Urea)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29073787
[Au] Autor:Bramley H; Henson A; Lewis MM; Kong L; Stetter C; Silvis M
[Ad] Endereço:1 Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Sleep Disturbance Following Concussion Is a Risk Factor for a Prolonged Recovery.
[So] Source:Clin Pediatr (Phila);56(14):1280-1285, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2707
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sleep disturbance is a common problem following concussion. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a regional concussion clinic on patients 13 to 18 years of age between 2005 and 2011. Statistical analysis evaluated sleep disturbance and duration of concussion, as well as the use and effectiveness of melatonin. A total of 417 patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred twenty-three (34%) reported disturbance in sleep. There was no difference in sleep disturbance based on age, gender, or past number of concussions. Sleep disturbance was associated with a 3- to 4-fold increase in recovery time. Non-sport-related concussions were more likely to be associated with sleep disturbance compared to sport-related concussions (45% vs 29%, P = .01). Melatonin improved sleep disturbance in 67% of the patients. Evaluating sleep disorders following concussion is an important part of the assessment. These findings will help clinicians provide anticipatory guidance and treatment for adolescents recovering from concussion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Concussão Encefálica/complicações
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
Melatonina/uso terapêutico
Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Risco
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
Tempo
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); JL5DK93RCL (Melatonin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171028
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0009922816681603


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[PMID]:28869676
[Au] Autor:Weissbach A; Werner E; Bally JF; Tunc S; Löns S; Timmann D; Zeuner KE; Tadic V; Brüggemann N; Lang A; Klein C; Münchau A; Bäumer T
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Alcohol improves cerebellar learning deficit in myoclonus-dystonia: A clinical and electrophysiological investigation.
[So] Source:Ann Neurol;82(4):543-553, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1531-8249
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To characterize neurophysiological subcortical abnormalities in myoclonus-dystonia and their modulation by alcohol administration. METHODS: Cerebellar associative learning and basal ganglia-brainstem interaction were investigated in 17 myoclonus-dystonia patients with epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene mutation and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by means of classical eyeblink conditioning and blink reflex recovery cycle before and after alcohol intake resulting in a breath alcohol concentration of 0.08% (0.8g/l). The alcohol responsiveness of clinical symptoms was evaluated by 3 blinded raters with a standardized video protocol and clinical rating scales including the Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. RESULTS: Patients showed a significantly reduced number of conditioned eyeblink responses before alcohol administration compared to controls. Whereas the conditioning response rate decreased under alcohol intake in controls, it increased in patients (analysis of variance: alcohol state × group, p = 0.004). Blink reflex recovery cycle before and after alcohol intake did not differ between groups. Myoclonus improved significantly after alcohol intake (p = 0.016). The severity of action myoclonus at baseline correlated negatively with the conditioning response in classical eyeblink conditioning in patients. INTERPRETATION: The combination of findings of reduced baseline acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses and normal blink reflex recovery cycle in patients who improved significantly with alcohol intake suggests a crucial role of cerebellar networks in the generation of symptoms in these patients. Ann Neurol 2017;82:543-553.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Piscadela/efeitos dos fármacos
Distúrbios Distônicos/complicações
Etanol/administração & dosagem
Etanol/farmacologia
Transtornos de Aprendizagem/tratamento farmacológico
Transtornos de Aprendizagem/etiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração por Inalação
Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos
Distúrbios Distônicos/genética
Eletromiografia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Mutação/genética
Sarcoglicanas/genética
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Gravação em Vídeo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 0 (SGCE protein, human); 0 (Sarcoglycans); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170905
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ana.25035


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[PMID]:28833174
[Au] Autor:Rotermund C; Reolon GK; Leixner S; Boden C; Bilbao A; Kahle PJ
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Functional Neurogenetics, Department of Neurodegeneration, German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Enhanced motivation to alcohol in transgenic mice expressing human α-synuclein.
[So] Source:J Neurochem;143(3):294-305, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1471-4159
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:α-Synuclein (αSYN) is the neuropathological hallmark protein of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, the gene encoding αSYN (SNCA) is a major genetic contributor to PD. Interestingly, independent genome-wide association studies also identified SNCA as the most important candidate gene for alcoholism. Furthermore, single-nucleotide-polymorphisms have been associated with alcohol-craving behavior and alcohol-craving patients showed augmented αSYN expression in blood. To investigate the effect of αSYN on the addictive properties of chronic alcohol use, we examined consumption, motivation, and seeking responses induced by environmental stimuli and relapse behavior in transgenic mice expressing the human mutant [A30P]αSYN throughout the brain. The primary reinforcing effects of alcohol under operant self-administration conditions were increased, while consumption and the alcohol deprivation effect were not altered in the transgenic mice. The same mice were subjected to immunohistochemical measurements of immediate-early gene inductions in brain regions involved in addiction-related behaviors. Acute ethanol injection enhanced immunostaining for the phosphorylated form of cAMP response element binding protein in both amygdala and nucleus accumbens of αSYN transgenic mice, while in wild-type mice no effect was visible. However, at the same time, levels of cFos remain unchanged in both genotypes. These results provide experimental confirmation of SNCA as a candidate gene for alcoholism in addition to its known link to PD.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Etanol/farmacologia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos
Motivação/genética
alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue
Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos
Sinais (Psicologia)
Comportamento de Procura de Droga/efeitos dos fármacos
Etanol/sangue
Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos
Preferências Alimentares/efeitos dos fármacos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética
Seres Humanos
Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos
Locomoção/genética
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Mutação/genética
Autoadministração
Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos
Paladar/genética
alfa-Sinucleína/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 0 (alpha-Synuclein); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171102
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171102
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170824
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jnc.14151


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[PMID]:28774194
[Au] Autor:Gowin JL; Sloan ME; Stangl BL; Vatsalya V; Ramchandani VA
[Ad] Endereço:From the Section on Human Psychopharmacology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Md., and the University of Louisville and Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, Ky.
[Ti] Título:Vulnerability for Alcohol Use Disorder and Rate of Alcohol Consumption.
[So] Source:Am J Psychiatry;174(11):1094-1101, 2017 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1535-7228
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Although several risk factors have been identified for alcohol use disorder, many individuals with these factors do not go on to develop the disorder. Identifying early phenotypic differences between vulnerable individuals and healthy control subjects could help identify those at higher risk. Binge drinking, defined as reaching a blood alcohol level of 80 mg%, carries a risk of negative legal and health outcomes and may be an early marker of vulnerability. Using a carefully controlled experimental paradigm, the authors tested the hypothesis that risk factors for alcohol use disorder, including family history of alcoholism, male sex, impulsivity, and low level of response to alcohol, would predict rate of binging during an individual alcohol consumption session. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 159 young social drinkers who completed a laboratory session in which they self-administered alcohol intravenously. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine whether risk factors for alcohol use disorder were associated with the rate of achieving a binge-level exposure. RESULTS: A greater percentage of relatives with alcoholism (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% CI=1.02-1.07), male sex (hazard ratio: 1.74, 95% CI=1.03-2.93), and higher impulsivity (hazard ratio: 1.17, 95% CI=1.00 to 1.37) were associated with a higher rate of binging throughout the session. Participants with all three risk factors had the highest rate of binging throughout the session compared with the lowest risk group (hazard ratio: 5.27, 95% CI=1.81-15.30). CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking may be an early indicator of vulnerability to alcohol use disorder and should be carefully assessed as part of a thorough clinical evaluation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia
Bebedeira/epidemiologia
Comportamento Impulsivo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Intravenosa
Adulto
Alcoolismo
Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem
Estudos Transversais
Etanol/administração & dosagem
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Anamnese
Meia-Idade
Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
Risco
Fatores de Risco
Autoadministração
Fatores Sexuais
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Alcohol Content); 0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16101180


  9 / 7099 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28731329
[Au] Autor:Schenck S; Kunz L; Sahlender D; Pardon E; Geertsma ER; Savtchouk I; Suzuki T; Neldner Y; Stefanic S; Steyaert J; Volterra A; Dutzler R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich , Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Generation and Characterization of Anti-VGLUT Nanobodies Acting as Inhibitors of Transport.
[So] Source:Biochemistry;56(30):3962-3971, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1520-4995
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The uptake of glutamate by synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The central role of these transporters in excitatory neurotransmission underpins their importance as pharmacological targets. Although several compounds inhibit VGLUTs, highly specific inhibitors were so far unavailable, thus limiting applications to in vitro experiments. Besides their potential in pharmacology, specific inhibitors would also be beneficial for the elucidation of transport mechanisms. To overcome this shortage, we generated nanobodies (Nbs) by immunization of a llama with purified rat VGLUT1 and subsequent selection of binders from a phage display library. All identified Nbs recognize cytosolic epitopes, and two of the binders greatly reduced the rate of uptake of glutamate by reconstituted liposomes and subcellular fractions enriched with synaptic vesicles. These Nbs can be expressed as functional green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in the cytosol of HEK cells for intracellular applications as immunocytochemical and biochemical agents. The selected binders thus provide valuable tools for cell biology and neuroscience.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos
Moduladores de Transporte de Membrana/farmacologia
Modelos Moleculares
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia
Proteína Vesicular 1 de Transporte de Glutamato/antagonistas & inibidores
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos
Camelídeos Americanos
Células Cultivadas
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/química
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo
Córtex Cerebral/citologia
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo
Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia
Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo
Células HEK293
Seres Humanos
Moduladores de Transporte de Membrana/química
Moduladores de Transporte de Membrana/metabolismo
Camundongos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo
Neurônios/citologia
Neurônios/metabolismo
Biblioteca de Peptídeos
Ratos
Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química
Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química
Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética
Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo
Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
Vesículas Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos
Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo
Proteína Vesicular 1 de Transporte de Glutamato/química
Proteína Vesicular 1 de Transporte de Glutamato/genética
Proteína Vesicular 1 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 0 (Membrane Transport Modulators); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (Peptide Library); 0 (Recombinant Fusion Proteins); 0 (Single-Domain Antibodies); 0 (Slc17a7 protein, rat); 0 (Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1); 147336-22-9 (Green Fluorescent Proteins); 3KX376GY7L (Glutamic Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170722
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00436


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[PMID]:28700715
[Au] Autor:Catalá-López F; Hutton B; Núñez-Beltrán A; Page MJ; Ridao M; Macías Saint-Gerons D; Catalá MA; Tabarés-Seisdedos R; Moher D
[Ad] Endereço:Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0180355, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (≥ 3 weeks follow-up) were identified from published and unpublished sources through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (up to April 7, 2016). Interventions of interest were pharmacological (stimulants, non-stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other unlicensed drugs), psychological (behavioural, cognitive training and neurofeedback) and complementary and alternative medicine (dietary therapy, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, herbal therapy, homeopathy, and physical activity). The primary outcomes were efficacy (treatment response) and acceptability (all-cause discontinuation). Secondary outcomes included discontinuation due to adverse events (tolerability), as well as serious adverse events and specific adverse events. Random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to obtain estimates as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% credibility intervals. We analysed interventions by class and individually. 190 randomised trials (52 different interventions grouped in 32 therapeutic classes) that enrolled 26114 participants with ADHD were included in complex networks. At the class level, behavioural therapy (alone or in combination with stimulants), stimulants, and non-stimulant seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Behavioural therapy in combination with stimulants seemed superior to stimulants or non-stimulants. Stimulants seemed superior to behavioural therapy, cognitive training and non-stimulants. Behavioural therapy, stimulants and their combination showed the best profile of acceptability. Stimulants and non-stimulants seemed well tolerated. Among medications, methylphenidate, amphetamine, atomoxetine, guanfacine and clonidine seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Methylphenidate and amphetamine seemed more efficacious than atomoxetine and guanfacine. Methylphenidate and clonidine seemed better accepted than placebo and atomoxetine. Most of the efficacious pharmacological treatments were associated with harms (anorexia, weight loss and insomnia), but an increased risk of serious adverse events was not observed. There is lack of evidence for cognitive training, neurofeedback, antidepressants, antipsychotics, dietary therapy, fatty acids, and other complementary and alternative medicine. Overall findings were limited by the clinical and methodological heterogeneity, small sample sizes of trials, short-term follow-up, and the absence of high-quality evidence; consequently, results should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical differences may exist between the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment used for the management of ADHD. Uncertainties about therapies and the balance between benefits, costs and potential harms should be considered before starting treatment. There is an urgent need for high-quality randomised trials of the multiple treatments for ADHD in children and adolescents. PROSPERO, number CRD42014015008.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/dietoterapia
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia
Terapia Comportamental
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
Criança
Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170713
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180355



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