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[PMID]:29224994
[Au] Autor:Kuang Y; Li B; Fan J; Qiao X; Ye M
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191, China.
[Ti] Título:Antitussive and expectorant activities of licorice and its major compounds.
[So] Source:Bioorg Med Chem;26(1):278-284, 2018 01 01.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3391
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Licorice has been used as an antitussive and expectorant herbal medicine for a long history. This work evaluated the activities of 14 major compounds and crude extracts of licorice, using the classical ammonia-induced cough model and phenol red secretion model in mice. Liquiritin apioside (1), liquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) at 50 mg/kg (i.g.) could significantly decrease cough frequency by 30-78% (p < .01). The antitussive effects could be partially antagonized by the pretreatment of methysergide or glibenclamide, but not naloxone. Moreover, compounds 1-3 showed potent expectorant activities after 3 days treatment (p < .05). The water and ethanol extracts of licorice, which contain abundant 1 and 2, could decrease cough frequency at 200 mg/kg by 25-59% (p < .05), and enhance the phenol red secretion (p < .05), while the ethyl acetate extract showed little effect. These results indicate liquiritin apioside and liquiritin are the major antitussive and expectorant compounds of licorice. Their antitussive effects depend on both peripheral and central mechanisms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antitussígenos/farmacologia
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Expectorantes/farmacologia
Glycyrrhiza/química
Fenolsulfonaftaleína/metabolismo
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Oral
Amônia
Animais
Antitussígenos/antagonistas & inibidores
Antitussígenos/química
Tosse/induzido quimicamente
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Expectorantes/química
Expectorantes/isolamento & purificação
Glibureto/farmacologia
Masculino
Metisergida/farmacologia
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
Estrutura Molecular
Extratos Vegetais/química
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Relação Estrutura-Atividade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Expectorants); 0 (Plant Extracts); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia); I6G9Y0J1OJ (Phenolsulfonphthalein); SX6K58TVWC (Glyburide); XZA9HY6Z98 (Methysergide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28916251
[Au] Autor:Tran HQ; Chung YH; Shin EJ; Tran TV; Jeong JH; Jang CG; Nah SY; Yamada K; Nabeshima T; Kim HC
[Ad] Endereço:Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 24341, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Título:MK-801, but not naloxone, attenuates high-dose dextromethorphan-induced convulsive behavior: Possible involvement of the GluN2B receptor.
[So] Source:Toxicol Appl Pharmacol;334:158-166, 2017 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0333
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextrorotatory isomer of levorphanol, a typical morphine-like opioid. When administered at supra-antitussive doses, DM produces psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. Although DM abuse has been well-documented, few studies have examined the effects of high-dose DM. The present study aimed to explore the effects of a single high dose of DM on mortality and seizure occurrence. After intraperitoneal administration with a high dose of DM (80mg/kg), Sprague-Dawley rats showed increased seizure occurrence and intensity. Hippocampal expression levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits (GluN1
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dextrometorfano/toxicidade
Maleato de Dizocilpina/farmacologia
Naloxona/farmacologia
Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
Convulsões/induzido quimicamente
Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antitussígenos/farmacologia
Dextrometorfano/administração & dosagem
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists); 0 (NR2B NMDA receptor); 0 (Narcotic Antagonists); 0 (Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate); 36B82AMQ7N (Naloxone); 6LR8C1B66Q (Dizocilpine Maleate); 7355X3ROTS (Dextromethorphan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170917
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28875973
[Au] Autor:Plusa T
[Ad] Endereço:EMC Medical Institute SA - Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Disease, Hospital st. Anna in Piaseczno, Poland.
[Ti] Título:[Butamirate citrate in control of cough in respiratory tract inflammation].
[Ti] Título:Miejsce cytrynianu butamiratu w kontrolowaniu kaszlu w zapaleniu dróg oddechowych..
[So] Source:Pol Merkur Lekarski;43(254):69-74, 2017 Aug 21.
[Is] ISSN:1426-9686
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:pol
[Ab] Resumo:Cough is the reflex defense response of the respiratory tract to the present secretions in the throat, trachea and bronchi, and ongoing inflammation in the mucous membranes of the upper and lower respiratory tract. From a practical point of view, cough is dry (unproductive) and productive cough with expulsion of significant amounts of secretion. Drugs used to treat cough differ in both mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic activity. Butamirate citrate belongs to a new class of cough suppressants acting centrally through the receptors in the brainstem. In addition, it has a very beneficial effect, because it reduces the resistance in the airways by inhibiting bronchospasm and anti-inflammatory effect. It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and its therapeutic plasma concentration is determined after 5-10 minutes of administration, irrespective of the dose. Possible side effects are rarely seen in 0.5-1% of patients, mainly in the form of skin rash, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, which usually resolves during treatment. The cough effect of most cough suppressants is good, but their mechanisms are different and for that reason they should be individually selected. An important asset of this group of drugs is peripheral activity and effects on bronchodilator muscles, such as in the case of butamirate. Inclusion of this feature is particularly beneficial in chronic inflammatory bronchial diseases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Fenilbutiratos/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Oral
Antitussígenos/administração & dosagem
Antitussígenos/efeitos adversos
Antitussígenos/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
Fenilbutiratos/administração & dosagem
Fenilbutiratos/efeitos adversos
Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia
Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Phenylbutyrates); M75MZG2236 (butamirate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170907
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28679467
[Au] Autor:Smith JA; McGarvey LPA; Badri H; Satia I; Warren F; Siederer S; Liefaard L; Murdoch RD; Povey K; Marks-Konczalik J
[Ti] Título:Effects of a novel sodium channel blocker, GSK2339345, in patients with refractory chronic cough
.
[So] Source:Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther;55(9):712-719, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0946-1965
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are important in the initiation and propagation of action potentials in afferent sensory nerve fibers responsible for evoking cough. This study investigated the efficacy of GSK2339345, a VGSC inhibitor, in the treatment of refractory chronic cough (RCC). METHODS: A three-part randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in the UK. In part A, patients with RCC received two inhaled doses of either GSK2339345 or placebo, 4 hours apart during three study periods. Patients were monitored for cough for 8 hours post-first dose using the VitaloJAK, ambulatory cough monitor. In parts B and C, patients underwent full dose-response cough challenges with capsaicin and citric acid respectively following single doses of randomly assigned GSK2339345 or placebo (4 study days). Part A was analyzed using a mixed effects model and parts B and C using population non-linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 16 enrolled patients, 11 completed the study. 8-hour cough counts increased following GSK2339345 treatment compared with placebo (GSK2339345/placebo ratio of adjusted geometric means: 1.26 (90% credible interval 1.10, 1.44), associated with GSK2339345-evoked coughing, recorded during the 2 minutes post-dose. This was not observed with placebo. The effect of GSK2339345 on cough responses during cough challenges was inconclusive. GSK2339345 was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: While these data could not determine if GSK2339345 reached the target VGSC, they strongly suggest that GSK2339345 has no anti-tussive effect despite reaching airway sensory nerves as evidenced by the evoked transient cough.
.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico
Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estudos Cross-Over
Método Duplo-Cego
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Sodium Channel Blockers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171026
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171026
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170707
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5414/CP202804


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[PMID]:28562262
[Au] Autor:Green JL; Wang GS; Reynolds KM; Banner W; Bond GR; Kauffman RE; Palmer RB; Paul IM; Dart RC
[Ad] Endereço:Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado; jody.green@rmpdc.org.
[Ti] Título:Safety Profile of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Pediatrics.
[So] Source:Pediatrics;139(6), 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1098-4275
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children <12 years of age from a multisystem surveillance program. METHODS: Cases with adverse events (AEs) after ingestion of at least 1 index CCM ingredient (brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, guaifenesin, phenylephrine, and pseudoephedrine) in children <12 years of age were collected from 5 data sources. An expert panel determined relatedness, dose, intent, and risk factors. Case characteristics and AEs are described. RESULTS: Of the 4202 cases reviewed, 3251 (77.4%) were determined to be at least potentially related to a CCM, with accidental unsupervised ingestions (67.1%) and medication errors (13.0%) the most common exposure types. Liquid (67.3%), pediatric (75.5%), and single-ingredient (77.5%) formulations were most commonly involved. AEs occurring in >20% of all cases included tachycardia, somnolence, hallucinations, ataxia, mydriasis, and agitation. Twenty cases (0.6%) resulted in death; most were in children <2 years of age (70.0%) and none involved a therapeutic dose. The overall reported AE rate was 0.573 cases per 1 million units (ie, tablets, gelatin capsules, or liquid equivalent) sold (95% confidence interval, 0.553-0.593) or 1 case per 1.75 million units. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of AEs associated with CCMs in children was low. Fatalities occurred even less frequently. No fatality involved a therapeutic dose. Accidental unsupervised ingestions were the most common exposure types and single-ingredient, pediatric liquid formulations were the most commonly reported products. These characteristics present an opportunity for targeted prevention efforts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antitussígenos/efeitos adversos
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia
Medicamentos Compostos contra Resfriado, Influenza e Alergia/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Pediatria
Fatores de Risco
Segurança
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Multi-Ingredient Cold, Flu, and Allergy Medications)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170601
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28552543
[Au] Autor:Keller JA; McGovern AE; Mazzone SB
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Translating Cough Mechanisms Into Better Cough Suppressants.
[So] Source:Chest;152(4):833-841, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1931-3543
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chronic cough is a significant problem, and in many patients cough remains refractive to both disease-specific therapies and current cough-suppressing medicines, creating a need for improved antitussive therapies. Most patients with chronic cough also display heightened sensitivity so that they experience a persistent sense of the need to cough, and often innocuous stimuli can trigger their coughing. This hypersensitivity underpins the newly described concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS), a term that encapsulates the notion of common underlying mechanisms producing neuronal activation, sensitization and/or dysfunction, which are at the core of excessive coughing. Understanding these mechanisms has been a focus of recent research efforts in the field in the hope that new therapies can be developed to selectively target sensitized unproductive cough while maintaining the reflexive cough essential for airway protection. However, efforts to achieve this have been slower than expected, in part because of some significant challenges and limitations translating current cough models. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the sensory circuits innervating the respiratory system that are important for cough, how cough sensory pathways become hypersensitive, and some of the recently described neural targets under development for treating chronic cough. We present the case that better use of current cough models or the development of new models, or both, is ultimately needed to advance our efforts to translate the discovery of basic cough mechanisms into effective medicines for treating patients with chronic cough.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vias Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos
Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico
Sensibilização do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos
Tosse
Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doença Crônica
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Tosse/etiologia
Tosse/fisiopatologia
Seres Humanos
Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170530
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28514367
[Au] Autor:Ovchinnikov AY; Miroshnichenko NA; Mityuk AM; Ryabinin VA; Gorban AG
[Ad] Endereço:A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State Medical Stomatological University, Moscow, Russia, 127473.
[Ti] Título:[The new possibilities for the treatment of chronic cough associated with postnasal drip].
[Ti] Título:Novye vozmozhnosti terapii khronicheskogo kashlia pri postnazal'nom zateke..
[So] Source:Vestn Otorinolaringol;82(2):60-64, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0042-4668
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Cough is considered to be one of the leading clinical symptoms associated with the pathological changes in the respiratory system. Notwithstanding a great variety of therapeutic pharmaceutical products possessed of the antitussive action, physicians tend the give preference to the preparations producing the combined effect. The present article reports the results of the clinical study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the application of rengalin exhibiting the combined antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and broncholytic action in the patients presenting with the postnasal drip syndrome. The comparison of the therapeutic effects of rengalin with those of other therapeutic modalities frequently employed for the management of postnasal drip give evidence of the high efficiency of this product for the optimization of the treatment of this condition and the associated chronic cough.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Inflamatórios
Antitussígenos
Broncodilatadores
Tosse
Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
Infecções Respiratórias/complicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética
Antitussígenos/administração & dosagem
Antitussígenos/farmacocinética
Disponibilidade Biológica
Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem
Broncodilatadores/farmacocinética
Doença Crônica
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Tosse/etiologia
Tosse/fisiopatologia
Combinação de Medicamentos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Drug Combinations)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170518
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17116/otorino201782260-64


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[PMID]:28254575
[Au] Autor:Khawas S; Nosálová G; Majee SK; Ghosh K; Raja W; Sivová V; Ray B
[Ad] Endereço:Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University in Burdwan, West Bengal, India.
[Ti] Título:In vivo cough suppressive activity of pectic polysaccharide with arabinogalactan type II side chains of Piper nigrum fruits and its synergistic effect with piperine.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;99:335-342, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Piper nigrum L. fruits are not only a prized spice, but also highly valued therapeutic agent that heals many ailments including asthma, cold and respiratory problems. Herein, we have investigated structural features and in vivo antitussive activity of three fractions isolated from Piper nigrum fruits. The water extract (PN-WE) upon fractionation with EtOH yielded two fractions: a soluble fraction (PN-eSf) and a precipitated (PN-ePf) one. The existence of a pectic polysaccharide with arabinogalactan type II side chains (147kDa) in PN-ePf and piperine in PN-eSf were revealed. Moreover, oligosaccharides providing fine structural details of side chains were generated from PN-ePf and then characterized. The parental water extract (PN-WE) that contained both pectic polysaccharide and piperine, after oral administration (50mgkg body weight) to guinea pigs, showed antitussive activity comparable to codeine phosphate (10mgkg body weight). The EtOH precipitated fraction (PN-ePf) containing pectic polysaccharide showed comparatively higher antitussive activity than EtOH soluble fraction (PN-eSf) that contained piperine, but their potencies are lower than the parental water extract. Significantly, the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity of all three fractions remained unchanged. Finally, pectic polysaccharide-piperine combination in parental extract synergistically enhances antitussive effect in guinea pigs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Frutas/química
Galactanos/química
Pectinas/química
Pectinas/farmacologia
Piper nigrum/química
Piperidinas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antitussígenos/química
Antitussígenos/isolamento & purificação
Antitussígenos/farmacologia
Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico
Sinergismo Farmacológico
Etanol/química
Cobaias
Masculino
Monossacarídeos/análise
Pectinas/isolamento & purificação
Pectinas/uso terapêutico
Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos
Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia
Solubilidade
Água/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Galactans); 0 (Monosaccharides); 0 (Pectins); 0 (Piperidines); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); SL4SX1O487 (arabinogalactan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170424
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170424
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170304
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28192113
[Au] Autor:Mannini C; Lavorini F; Zanasi A; Saibene F; Lanata L; Fontana G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
[Ti] Título:A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Effects of Antitussive Agents on Respiratory Center Output in Patients With Chronic Cough.
[So] Source:Chest;151(6):1288-1294, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1931-3543
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cough is produced by the same neuronal pool implicated in respiratory rhythm generation, and antitussive drugs acting at the central level, such as opioids, may depress ventilation. Levodropropizine is classified as a nonopioid peripherally acting antitussive drug that acts at the level of airway sensory nerves. However, the lack of a central action by levodropropizine remains to be fully established. We set out to compare the effects of levodropropizine and the opioid antitussive agent dihydrocodeine on the respiratory responses to a conventional CO rebreathing test in patients with chronic cough of any origin. METHODS: Twenty-four outpatients (aged 39-70 years) with chronic cough were studied. On separate runs, each patient was randomly administered 60 mg levodropropizine, 15 mg dihydrocodeine, or a matching placebo. Subsequently, patients breathed a mixture of 93% oxygen and 7% CO for 5 min. Fractional end-tidal CO (Fetco ) and inspiratory minute ventilation (VË™i) were continuously monitored. Changes in breathing pattern variables were also assessed. RESULTS: At variance with dihydrocodeine, levodropropizine and placebo did not affect respiratory responses to hypercapnia (P < .01). The ventilatory increases by hypercapnia were mainly accounted for by a rise in the volume components of the breathing pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with a peripheral action by levodropropizine; the assessment of ventilatory responses to CO may represent a useful tool to investigate the central respiratory effects of antitussive agents. TRIAL REGISTRY: European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT No.: 2013-004735-68); URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antitussígenos/farmacologia
Codeína/análogos & derivados
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Propilenoglicóis/farmacologia
Centro Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico
Doença Crônica
Codeína/farmacologia
Codeína/uso terapêutico
Estudos Cross-Over
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Hipercapnia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Propilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico
Insuficiência Respiratória
Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
Método Simples-Cego
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Propylene Glycols); N9I9HDB855 (dihydrocodeine); Q830PW7520 (Codeine); U0K8WHL37U (dipropizine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170821
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170821
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27992707
[Au] Autor:Maina M; Akech S; Mwaniki P; Gachau S; Ogero M; Julius T; Ayieko P; Irimu G; English M
[Ad] Endereço:KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
[Ti] Título:Inappropriate prescription of cough remedies among children hospitalised with respiratory illness over the period 2002-2015 in Kenya.
[So] Source:Trop Med Int Health;22(3):363-369, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3156
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in prescription of cough medicines over the period 2002-2015 in children aged 1 month to 12 years admitted to Kenyan hospitals with cough, difficulty breathing or diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection. METHODS: We reviewed hospitalisation records of children included in four studies providing cross-sectional prevalence estimates from government hospitals for six time periods between 2002 and 2015. Children with an atopic illness were excluded. Amongst eligible children, we determined the proportion prescribed any adjuvant medication for cough. Active ingredients in these medicines were often multiple and were classified into five categories: antihistamines, antitussives, mucolytics/expectorants, decongestants and bronchodilators. From late 2006, guidelines discouraging cough medicine use have been widely disseminated and in 2009 national directives to decrease cough medicine use were issued. RESULTS: Across the studies, 17 963 children were eligible. Their median age and length of hospital stay were comparable. The proportion of children who received cough medicines shrank across the surveys: approximately 6% [95% CI: 5.4, 6.6] of children had a prescription in 2015 vs. 40% [95% CI: 35.5, 45.6] in 2002. The most common active ingredients were antihistamines and bronchodilators. The relative proportion that included antihistamines has increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: There has been an overall decline in the use of cough medicines among hospitalised children over time. This decline has been associated with educational, policy and mass media interventions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico
Hospitalização
Prescrição Inadequada
Padrões de Prática Médica
Fármacos do Sistema Respiratório/uso terapêutico
Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Prescrições de Medicamentos
Expectorantes/uso terapêutico
Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Quênia
Descongestionantes Nasais/uso terapêutico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Expectorants); 0 (Histamine Antagonists); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 0 (Respiratory System Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170705
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170705
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161220
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tmi.12831



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