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[PMID]:29017960
[Au] Autor:Pauluhn J
[Ad] Endereço:Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Germany; 4th Military Medical University, Xi'an, China; Bayer Pharma AG, Department of Toxicology, Wuppertal, Germany1. Electronic address: juergen.pauluhn@iCLOUD.com.
[Ti] Título:Upper respiratory tract nociceptor stimulation and stress response following acute and repeated Cyfluthrin inhalation in normal and pregnant rats: Physiological rat-specific adaptions can easily be misunderstood as adversities.
[So] Source:Toxicol Lett;282:8-24, 2018 Jan 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3169
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroexcitatory afferent sensory stimulus from peripheral nociceptors in the upper respiratory tract is likely to be perceived as a transient stimulus triggering annoyance and/or avoidance by both rats and humans. However, while thermolabile rats respond to such stresses reflexively, homeothermic humans appear to respond psychologically. With this focus in mind, past inhalation studies in rats and human volunteers were reevaluated and assessed to identify common denominators to such neuroexcitatory stimuli upon inhalation exposure. This analysis supports the conclusion that the adaptive physiological response occurring in rats secondary to such chemosensory stimuli requires inhalation exposures above the chemosensory threshold. Rats, a species known to undergo adaptively a hibernation-like physiological state upon environmental stresses, experienced reflexively-induced bradypnea, bradycardia, hypothermia, and changes in acid-base status during inhalation exposure. After cessation of the sensory stimulus, rapid recovery occurred. Physiological data of male and female rats from a 4-week repeated inhalation study (exposure 6-h/day, 5-times/week) were used to select concentration for a 10-day developmental inhalation toxicity study in pregnant rats. Maternal hypothermia and hypoventilation were identified as likely cause of fetal and placental growth retardations because of a maternal adaptation-driven reduced feto-placental transfer of oxygen. In summary, maternal reflex-hypothermia, reduced cardiac output and placental perfusion, and disruption of the gestation-related hyperventilation are believed to be the maternally mediated causes for developmental impairments. Thus, inhaled chemosensory substances may appear to be more toxic in rats than they will be in humans because the thermoregulatory response of rats to such stimuli can cause profound physiological adaptions that can easily be misunderstood as adversities in conventional inhalation studies in small rodents. The afferent threshold triggering such outcomes in rodents translate to perceptions of annoyance in humans. Consequently, hazard characterization and human risk assessment need to be focused on the chemosensory threshold rather than endpoints occurring downstream to rodent-specific homeostasis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos
Irritantes/toxicidade
Nitrilos/toxicidade
Gravidez/fisiologia
Piretrinas/toxicidade
Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração por Inalação
Animais
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos
Ratos
Medição de Risco
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Irritants); 0 (Nitriles); 0 (Pyrethrins); SCM2QLZ6S0 (cyfluthrin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171012
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28934097
[Au] Autor:McGowan CJ; Kwok RK; Engel LS; Stenzel MR; Stewart PA; Sandler DP
[Ad] Endereço:Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) , Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
[Ti] Título:Respiratory, Dermal, and Eye Irritation Symptoms Associated with Corexit™ EC9527A/EC9500A following the Oil Spill: Findings from the GuLF STUDY.
[So] Source:Environ Health Perspect;125(9):097015, 2017 Sep 15.
[Is] ISSN:1552-9924
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The large quantities of chemical oil dispersants used in the oil spill response and cleanup (OSRC) work following the disaster provide an opportunity to study associations between dispersant exposure (Corexit™ EC9500A or EC9527A) and human health. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine associations between potential exposure to the dispersants and adverse respiratory, dermal, and eye irritation symptoms. METHODS: Using data from detailed Gulf Long-term Follow-up ( GuLF) Study enrollment interviews, we determined potential exposure to either dispersant from participant-reported tasks during the OSRC work. Between 27,659 and 29,468 participants provided information on respiratory, dermal, and eye irritation health. We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) to measure associations with symptoms reported during the OSRC work and at study enrollment, adjusting for potential confounders including airborne total hydrocarbons exposure, use of cleaning chemicals, and participant demographics. RESULTS: Potential exposure to either of the dispersants was significantly associated with all health outcomes at the time of the OSRC, with the strongest association for burning in the nose, throat, or lungs [adjusted PR (aPR)=1.61 (95% CI: 1.42, 1.82)], tightness in chest [aPR=1.58 (95% CI: 1.37, 1.81)], and burning eyes [aPR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.35, 1.64). Weaker, but still significant, associations were found between dispersant exposure and symptoms present at enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: Potential exposure to Corexit™ EC9527A or EC9500A was associated with a range of health symptoms at the time of the OSRC, as well as at the time of study enrollment, 1-3 y after the spill. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1677.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
Irritantes/toxicidade
Lipídeos/toxicidade
Tensoativos/toxicidade
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Hidrocarbonetos
Poluição por Petróleo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hydrocarbons); 0 (Irritants); 0 (Lipids); 0 (Surface-Active Agents); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (corexit 9500)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1289/EHP1677


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[PMID]:28661191
[Au] Autor:Jani DD; Wilson M; Wickliffe JK; Shaffer J; Middleton T; Rando R; Svendsen ER
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences , Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine , New Orleans , LA , USA.
[Ti] Título:Assessment of an irritant gas plume model for epidemiologic study.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Health Res;27(4):276-292, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1369-1619
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Previously, we reported the development of a Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability plume dispersion model of the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, USA accidental release of chlorine. Here, we assess this model by spatial and statistical comparison with post-incident observed environmental indicators of exposure and other types of observations. Spatial agreement was found when the model was compared to phytotoxic bleaching and corrosion events observed in 2 km radius around the release site. When spatially compared to locations of injured or killed animals, model predictions of the plume footprint were in relatively good agreement. Model-predicted human casualties differed from observed casualty counts primarily due to the shielding effect of buildings. A statistical comparison of observed dog health outcome-derived exposure vs. model predicted exposure showed relatively good agreement, particularly when a subcohort of indoor dogs was excluded. Evaluation and assessment of the building infiltration effect would further improve the model prior to application in epidemiologic study.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Cloro/análise
Exposição Ambiental
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Irritantes/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estudos Epidemiológicos
Seres Humanos
Modelos Teóricos
South Carolina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Irritants); 4R7X1O2820 (Chlorine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170630
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09603123.2017.1342226


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[PMID]:28343035
[Au] Autor:Johnson VJ; Auerbach SS; Luster MI; Waidyanatha S; Masten SA; Wolfe MS; Burleson FG; Burleson GR; Germolec DR
[Ad] Endereço:Burleson Research Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA. Electronic address: vjohnson@brt-labs.com.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) in a combined irritancy and Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) in mice.
[So] Source:Food Chem Toxicol;105:99-105, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6351
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) is a flotation reagent used in fine coal beneficiation. On January 9, 2014, crude MCHM, a mixture containing predominantly MCHM, was inadvertently released into the Elk River, a municipal water source that serves about 300,000 people in the Charleston, WV area, resulting in temporary contamination of 15 percent of the state's tap water and causing significant dermal exposure. The current studies were undertaken to determine whether crude MCHM or MCHM has the potential to produce dermal irritancy and/or sensitization. BALB/c female mice were treated daily for 3 consecutive days by direct epicutaneous application of 25 µL of various concentrations of crude MCHM or MCHM to the dorsum of each ear. A mouse ear-swelling test was used to determine irritancy potential and was undertaken in combination with the standardized Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) to determine skin sensitizing potential. MCHM was found to produce skin irritation at concentrations above 20% and did not produce sensitization. Crude MCHM also produced irritation, although weaker, and in addition was found to be a weak to moderate skin sensitizer. The results are discussed in terms of potential human health hazard.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cicloexanos/toxicidade
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia
Irritantes/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cicloexanos/análise
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Irritantes/análise
Ensaio Local de Linfonodo
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Testes de Irritação da Pele
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (4-methylcyclohexanemethanol); 0 (Cyclohexanes); 0 (Irritants); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170913
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170913
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170327
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28315674
[Au] Autor:Wu J; Mulatibieke T; Ni J; Han X; Li B; Zeng Y; Wan R; Wang X; Hu G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Gastroenterology and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pancreatic Disease, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
[Ti] Título:Dichotomy between Receptor-Interacting Protein 1- and Receptor-Interacting Protein 3-Mediated Necroptosis in Experimental Pancreatitis.
[So] Source:Am J Pathol;187(5):1035-1048, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1525-2191
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pancreatic acinar cell necrosis and inflammatory responses are two key pathologic processes in acute pancreatitis (AP), which determines the severity and outcome of the disease. Recent studies suggest that necroptosis, a programed form of necrosis, is involved in the pathogenesis of AP, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the expression of necrosome components, including receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1, RIP3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), and the molecular mechanisms in pancreatitis-associated necroptosis. We found that RIP3 and phosphorylated MLKL expression was positively related to the degree of necrosis, whereas RIP1 expression was negatively related to the degree of necrosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of RIP1 kinase activity exerted no protection against caerulein/cholecystokinin-8-induced AP, but knockdown of RIP1 with siRNA increased acinar cell necrosis and inhibition of NF-κB activation. RIP1 inhibition led to enhanced RIP3 expression. RIP3 and MLKL inhibition decreased acinar cell necrosis, in which the inhibition of RIP3 reduced the phosphorylation level of MLKL. RIP3 inhibition had no effect on trypsinogen activation but partly inhibited inflammasome activation. Our study strongly suggests that the imbalance between RIP1 and RIP3 shifts the cell death to necrosis, which unravels a new molecular pathogenesis of mechanism of AP and may provide insight into the development of novel therapeutic agent for other necrosis-related diseases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pancreatite/patologia
Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Células Acinares/fisiologia
Doença Aguda
Animais
Apoptose/fisiologia
Ceruletídeo/toxicidade
Colecistocinina/toxicidade
Irritantes/toxicidade
Masculino
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Necrose/fisiopatologia
Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade
Fosforilação/fisiologia
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/antagonistas & inibidores
Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Irritants); 0 (Peptide Fragments); 0 (Protein Kinase Inhibitors); 0 (cholecystokinin 8); 888Y08971B (Ceruletide); 9011-97-6 (Cholecystokinin); EC 2.7.11.1 (RIPK1 protein, human); EC 2.7.11.1 (RIPK3 protein, human); EC 2.7.11.1 (Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170320
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28295421
[Au] Autor:Koppes SA; Ljubojevic Hadzavdic S; Jakasa I; Franceschi N; Riethmüller C; Jurakic Toncic R; Marinovic B; Raj N; Rawlings AV; Voegeli R; Lane ME; Haftek M; Frings-Dresen MH; Rustemeyer T; Kezic S
[Ad] Endereço:Academic Medical Center, Department: Coronel institute of Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology.
[So] Source:Contact Dermatitis;76(5):287-295, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0536
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography. OBJECTIVE: To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: Patch testing was performed on patients with previously positive patch test reactions to potassium dichromate (Cr), nickel sulfate (Ni), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), or p-phenylenediamine. Moreover, a control (pet.) patch and an irritant (SLS) patch were applied. After 3 days, the stratum corneum from tested sites was collected, and NMF levels and corneocyte morphology, expressed as the amount of circular nanosize objects, quantified according to the Dermal Texture Index (DTI), were determined. RESULTS: Among allergens, only MCI/MI reduced NMF levels significantly, as did SLS. Furthermore, only MCI/MI caused remarkable changes at the microscopic level; the corneocytes were hexagonal-shaped with pronounced cell borders and a smoother surface. The DTI was increased after SLS exposure but not after allergen exposure. CONCLUSIONS: MCI/MI significantly decreased NMF levels, similarly to SLS. The altered corneocyte morphology suggests that skin barrier damage plays a role in the pathogenesis of MCI/MI contact allergy. The DTI seems to differentiate reactions to SLS from those to the allergens tested, as SLS was the only agent that caused a DTI increase.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alérgenos/efeitos adversos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico
Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos
Irritantes/efeitos adversos
Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alérgenos/imunologia
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia
Seres Humanos
Irritantes/farmacologia
Testes do Emplastro
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Allergens); 0 (Irritants); 368GB5141J (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170316
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cod.12770


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[PMID]:28274658
[Au] Autor:Horita K; Horita D; Tomita H; Yasoshima M; Yagami A; Matsunaga K
[Ad] Endereço:Research Laboratory, Ikedamohando Co., Ltd., Jinden, Kamiichi-machi, Nakaniikawa, Toyama 930-0394, Japan. Electronic address: horita.kt@ikedamohando.co.jp.
[Ti] Título:Effects of different base agents on prediction of skin irritation by sodium lauryl sulfate using patch testing and repeated application test.
[So] Source:Toxicology;382:10-15, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3185
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Animal testing for cosmetics was banned in the European Union (EU) in 2013; therefore, human tests to predict and ensure skin safety such as the patch test or usage test are now in demand in Japan as well as in the EU. In order to investigate the effects of different bases on the findings of tests to predict skin irritation, we performed patch testing (PT) and the repeated application test (RAT) using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a well-known irritant, dissolved in 6 different base agents to examine the effects of these bases on skin irritation by SLS. The bases for PT were distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream. The concentrations of SLS were 0.2% and 0.5%. Twelve different base combinations were applied to the normal back skin of 19 individuals for 24h. RAT was performed with distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream containing SLS at concentrations of 0.2%, 2%, and 5%, being applied to the arms of the same PT subjects. The test preparation of each base was applied at the same site, with 0.2% SLS being used in the first week, 2% SLS in the following week, and 5% SLS in the final week. The results of PT revealed that skin irritation scores varied when SLS at the same concentration was dissolved in a different base. The results of RAT showed that although skin irritation appeared with every base at a concentration of 5%, the positive rate was approximately the same. In conclusion, our results suggest that skin irritation elicited in PT depends on the base, while in RAT, it does not depend on the type of base employed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Irritantes
Bases para Pomadas/química
Dodecilsulfato de Sódio
Tensoativos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Etanol/química
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Irritantes/química
Irritantes/toxicidade
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Vaselina/química
Testes Cutâneos
Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química
Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/toxicidade
Solventes/química
Tensoativos/química
Tensoativos/toxicidade
Água/química
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Irritants); 0 (Ointment Bases); 0 (Solvents); 0 (Surface-Active Agents); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 368GB5141J (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); 8009-03-8 (Petrolatum)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170615
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170615
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170310
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28228416
[Au] Autor:Zhang C; Lin RL; Hong J; Khosravi M; Lee LY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
[Ti] Título:Cough and expiration reflexes elicited by inhaled irritant gases are intensified in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol;312(5):R718-R726, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1490
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study was designed to determine the effect of active sensitization with ovalbumin (Ova) on cough responses to inhaled irritant gases in mice. Conscious mice moved freely in a recording chamber, while the pressure change in the chamber and audio and video signals of the mouse movements were recorded simultaneously to measure the frequencies of cough reflex (CR) and expiration reflex (ER). To further verify the accuracy of cough analysis, the intrapleural pressure was also recorded by a telemetry sensor surgically implanted in the intrapleural space in a subgroup of mice. During the irritant gas inhalation challenge, sulfur dioxide (SO ; 200 and 400 ppm) or ammonia (NH ; 0.1% and 0.2%) was drawn into the chamber at a constant flow rate for 8 min. Ova sensitization and sham sensitization with vehicle (Veh) were performed over a 25-day period in separate groups of mice. Our results showed that ) both SO and NH inhalation challenges increased CR and ER frequencies in a concentration-dependent manner before Ova sensitization; ) the baseline CR frequency was significantly elevated after Ova sensitization, accompanied by pronounced airway inflammation; and ) Ova sensitization also markedly augmented the responses of CR and ER to both SO and NH inhalation challenges; in sharp contrast, the cough responses did not change after sham sensitization in the Veh group. In conclusion, Ova sensitization caused distinct and lingering increases in baseline cough frequency, and also intensified both CR and ER responses to inhaled irritant gases, which probably resulted from an allergic inflammation-induced hypersensitivity of airway sensory nerves.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tosse/fisiopatologia
Expiração/efeitos dos fármacos
Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente
Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
Pneumonia/fisiopatologia
Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos
Emissões de Veículos/envenenamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração por Inalação
Amônia/administração & dosagem
Amônia/envenenamento
Animais
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos
Irritantes/administração & dosagem
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Ovalbumina
Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente
Pneumonia/complicações
Reflexo Anormal
Dióxido de Enxofre/administração & dosagem
Dióxido de Enxofre/envenenamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Irritants); 0 (Vehicle Emissions); 0UZA3422Q4 (Sulfur Dioxide); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia); 9006-59-1 (Ovalbumin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170224
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00444.2016


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[PMID]:28213947
[Au] Autor:Hegarty DM; Hermes SM; Yang K; Aicher SA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.
[Ti] Título:Select noxious stimuli induce changes on corneal nerve morphology.
[So] Source:J Comp Neurol;525(8):2019-2031, 2017 Jun 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9861
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The surface of the cornea contains the highest density of nociceptive nerves of any tissue in the body. These nerves are responsive to a variety of modalities of noxious stimuli and can signal pain even when activated by low threshold stimulation. Injury of corneal nerves can lead to altered nerve morphology, including neuropathic changes which can be associated with chronic pain. Emerging technologies that allow imaging of corneal nerves in vivo are spawning questions regarding the relationship between corneal nerve density, morphology, and function. We tested whether noxious stimulation of the corneal surface can alter nerve morphology and neurochemistry. We used concentrations of menthol, capsaicin, and hypertonic saline that evoked comparable levels of nocifensive eye wipe behaviors when applied to the ocular surface of an awake rat. Animals were sacrificed and corneal nerves were examined using immunocytochemistry and three-dimensional volumetric analyses. We found that menthol and capsaicin both caused a significant reduction in corneal nerve density as detected with ß-tubulin immunoreactivity 2 hr after stimulation. Hypertonic saline did not reduce nerve density, but did cause qualitative changes in nerves including enlarged varicosities that were also seen following capsaicin and menthol stimulation. All three types of noxious stimuli caused a depletion of CGRP from corneal nerves, indicating that all modalities of noxious stimuli evoked peptide release. Our findings suggest that studies aimed at understanding the relationship between corneal nerve morphology and chronic disease may also need to consider the effects of acute stimulation on corneal nerve morphology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos
Córnea/patologia
Irritantes/toxicidade
Nociceptores/efeitos dos fármacos
Nociceptores/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Capsaicina/toxicidade
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Imagem Tridimensional
Imuno-Histoquímica
Masculino
Mentol/toxicidade
Microscopia Confocal
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Solução Salina Hipertônica/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Irritants); 0 (Saline Solution, Hypertonic); 1490-04-6 (Menthol); S07O44R1ZM (Capsaicin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cne.24191


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[PMID]:28192172
[Au] Autor:Prinsen MK; Hendriksen CFM; Krul CAM; Woutersen RA
[Ad] Endereço:Triskelion B.V., P.O. Box 844, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands. Electronic address: menk.prinsen@triskelion.nl.
[Ti] Título:The Isolated Chicken Eye test to replace the Draize test in rabbits.
[So] Source:Regul Toxicol Pharmacol;85:132-149, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0295
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In 1944, Draize et al., published a paper entitled "Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes". The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development published their first guideline on eye irritation in 1981, using rabbits. In the early eighties the development of alternative non-animal tests to replace the Draize eye test started. The first attempts to validate alternative tests for eye irritation were considered to be relatively simple by comparing in vitro and in vivo irritation index scores. In the early nineteen-eighties, we introduced the use of isolated eyes as an alternative test for the Draize eye irritation test. What was expected to be a process of several years, however, turned out to be a decades spanning process still not fully completed. For a large part, this can be attributed to the nature of the in vivo test in rabbits, which is more complicated and compromised than originally believed. This paper describes, most chronologically, the development, performance, validation and application of the Isolated Eye Test and, in broader perspective, the international validation and acceptance of this alternative test by regulatory authorities and agencies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alternativas aos Testes com Animais
Galinhas
Olho/efeitos dos fármacos
Irritantes/toxicidade
Testes de Toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Técnicas In Vitro
Coelhos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Irritants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170805
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170805
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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