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[PMID]:28471062
[Au] Autor:Rao AN; Patil A; Brodnik ZD; Qiang L; España RA; Sullivan KA; Black MM; Baas PW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Título:Pharmacologically increasing microtubule acetylation corrects stress-exacerbated effects of organophosphates on neurons.
[So] Source:Traffic;18(7):433-441, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0854
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Many veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War contracted Gulf War Illness (GWI), a multisymptom disease that primarily affects the nervous system. Here, we treated cultures of human or rat neurons with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), an analog of sarin, one of the organophosphate (OP) toxicants to which the military veterans were exposed. All observed cellular defects produced by DFP were exacerbated by pretreatment with corticosterone or cortisol, which, in rat and human neurons, respectively, serves in our experiments to mimic the physical stress endured by soldiers during the war. To best mimic the disease, DFP was used below the level needed to inhibit acetylcholinesterase. We observed a diminution in the ratio of acetylated to total tubulin that was correctable by treatment with tubacin, a drug that inhibits HDAC6, the tubulin deacetylase. The reduction in microtubule acetylation was coupled with deficits in microtubule dynamics, which were correctable by HDAC6 inhibition. Deficits in mitochondrial transport and dopamine release were also improved by tubacin. Thus, various negative effects of the toxicant/stress exposures were at least partially correctable by restoring microtubule acetylation to a more normal status. Such an approach may have therapeutic benefit for individuals suffering from GWI or other neurological disorders linked to OP exposure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anilidas/farmacologia
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia
Isoflurofato/toxicidade
Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Estresse Fisiológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetilação
Animais
Transporte Biológico
Células Cultivadas
Corticosterona/farmacologia
Dopamina/secreção
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Seres Humanos
Hidrocortisona/farmacologia
Microtúbulos/metabolismo
Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico
Ratos
Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anilides); 0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Hydroxamic Acids); 0 (Tubulin); 02C2G1D30D (tubacin); 12UHW9R67N (Isoflurophate); VTD58H1Z2X (Dopamine); W980KJ009P (Corticosterone); WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tra.12489


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[PMID]:29286857
[Au] Autor:Svendsen ER
[Ad] Endereço:1 Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina.
[Ti] Título:Chlorine Countermeasures: Supplemental Oxygen Equals Supplemental Lung Injury?
[So] Source:Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol;58(1):10-11, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1535-4989
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Guerra Química
Cloro/toxicidade
Lesão Pulmonar
Oxigênio/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente
Lesão Pulmonar/terapia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 4R7X1O2820 (Chlorine); S88TT14065 (Oxygen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171230
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2017-0320ED


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[PMID]:27773723
[Au] Autor:Langston JL; Myers TM
[Ad] Endereço:Analytical Toxicology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA.
[Ti] Título:VX toxicity in the Göttingen minipig.
[So] Source:Toxicol Lett;264:12-19, 2016 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3169
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The present experiments determined the intramuscular LD of VX in male Göttingen minipigs at two stages of development. In pubertal animals (115 days old), the LD of VX was indeterminate, but approximated 33.3µg/kg. However, in sexually mature animals (152 days old), the LD was estimated to be only 17.4µg/kg. Signs of nerve agent toxicity in the Göttingen minipig were similar to those described for other species, with some notable exceptions (such as urticaria and ejaculation). Latencies to the onset of sustained convulsions were inversely related to the administered dose of VX in both ages of minipigs. Additionally, actigraphy was used to quantify the presence of tremor and convulsions and, in some cases, was useful for precisely estimating time of death. The main finding indicates that in minipigs, as in other species, even relatively small differences in age can substantially alter the toxicity of nerve agents. Additionally, actigraphy can serve as a non-invasive method of characterizing the tremors and convulsions that often accompany nerve agent intoxication.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Envelhecimento
Animais
Injeções Intramusculares
Dose Letal Mediana
Masculino
Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos
Compostos Organotiofosforados/administração & dosagem
Convulsões/induzido quimicamente
Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
Suínos
Porco Miniatura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Organothiophosphorus Compounds); 9A4381183B (VX)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29016608
[Au] Autor:Beard JD; Engel LS; Richardson DB; Gammon MD; Baird C; Umbach DM; Allen KD; Stanwyck CL; Keller J; Sandler DP; Schmidt S; Kamel F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Military service, deployments, and exposures in relation to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis survival.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185751, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Military veterans may have higher rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality than non-veterans. Few studies, with sparse exposure information and mixed results, have studied relationships between military-related factors and ALS survival. We evaluated associations between military-related factors and ALS survival among U.S. military veteran cases. METHODS: We followed 616 medical record-confirmed cases from enrollment (2005-2010) in the Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis study until death or July 25, 2013, whichever came first. We ascertained vital status information from several sources within the Department of Veterans Affairs. We obtained information regarding military service, deployments, and 39 related exposures via standardized telephone interviews. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. We adjusted for potential confounding and missing covariate data biases via inverse probability weights. We also used inverse probability weights to adjust for potential selection bias among a case group that included a disproportionate number of long-term survivors at enrollment. RESULTS: We observed 446 deaths during 24,267 person-months of follow-up (median follow-up: 28 months). Survival was shorter for cases who served before 1950, were deployed to World War II, or mixed and applied burning agents, with HRs between 1.58 and 2.57. Longer survival was associated with exposure to: paint, solvents, or petrochemical substances; local food not provided by the Armed Forces; or burning agents or Agent Orange in the field with HRs between 0.56 and 0.73. CONCLUSIONS: Although most military-related factors were not associated with survival, associations we observed with shorter survival are potentially important because of the large number of military veterans.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia
Militares
Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
Veteranos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ácido 2,4,5-Triclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade
Adulto
Idoso
Agente Laranja
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade
Conflitos Armados/história
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
Feminino
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos
Meia-Idade
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade
Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins); 2577AQ9262 (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid); 39277-47-9 (Agent Orange); 9Q963S4YMX (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185751


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[PMID]:28851585
[Au] Autor:Worek F; Wosar A; Baumann M; Thiermann H; Wille T
[Ad] Endereço:Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich, Germany. Electronic address: franzworek@bundeswehr.org.
[Ti] Título:Development of a sensitive, generic and easy to use organophosphate skin disclosure kit.
[So] Source:Toxicol Lett;280:190-194, 2017 Oct 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3169
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Various organophosphorus compounds (OP), primarily the nerve agent VX and other V-agents, are highly toxic to humans after skin exposure. Percutaneous exposure by such OP results in a delayed onset of toxic signs which enables the initiation of specific countermeasures if contamination is detected rapidly. Presently available mobile detection systems can hardly detect skin exposure by low volatile OP. In order to fill this gap an OP skin disclosure kit was developed which should fulfill different requirements, i.e. a high sensitivity, coverage of human toxic OP, easy handling, rapid results, small dimension and weight. The kit includes a cotton swab to sample skin, human AChE as target and chemicals for a color reaction based on the Ellman assay which is recorded by visual inspection. OP is dissolved from the sampler in a test tube filled with phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 7.4) and incubated with lyophilized human AChE for 1min. The reaction with acetylthiocholine and 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (1min) results in a rich yellow color in the absence of OP and in contrast, in transparent or pale yellow buffer in the presence of OP. At the recommended conditions, the limit of detection is 100ng VX and Russian VX and 50ng Chinese VX on plain surface and 200ng VX on rat skin. With activated pesticides, paraoxon and malaoxon, a concentration of ∼10µg can be detected on plain surface. The ready-to-use kit has a weight of 16g and a size of 10×12×1cm. In the end, this kit has the potential to fill a major gap and to enable timely detection of OP skin exposure and initiation of life-saving countermeasures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compostos Organofosforados/química
Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade
Compostos Organotiofosforados/química
Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade
Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Cutânea
Animais
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química
Colorimetria
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Organophosphorus Compounds); 0 (Organothiophosphorus Compounds); 0 (Reagent Kits, Diagnostic); 9A4381183B (VX)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170831
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28717106
[Au] Autor:Yamaguchi T; Gi M; Fujioka M; Doi K; Okuno T; Kakehashi A; Wanibuchi H
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine.
[Ti] Título:A carcinogenicity study of diphenylarsinic acid in F344 rats in drinking water for 104 weeks.
[So] Source:J Toxicol Sci;42(4):475-483, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1880-3989
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a neurotoxic organic arsenical used as a chemical warfare agent, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. We previously demonstrated that DPAA promotes diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term rat liver bioassay. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of DPAA, including investigation of whether the bile duct hyperplasia in the liver that was observed in a previous 52 week rat chronic study develops into a tumor, when administered to rats in their drinking water for 104 weeks. DPAA was administered to groups 1-4 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 ppm in their drinking water for 104 weeks. A significant decrease in survival rate was found for females in the 20 ppm DPAA group. Body weights of males in the 20 ppm and females in the 10 and 20 ppm DPAA groups were significantly decreased compared to the controls. Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in all tissues showed no significant increase of tumor incidence in any organ or tissue of the 5, 10, or 20 ppm DPAA-treated male or female F344 rats. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that DPAA is not a complete carcinogen in male or female F344 rats.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arsenicais/efeitos adversos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/efeitos adversos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente
Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
Água/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Oral
Animais
Arsenicais/administração & dosagem
Peso Corporal
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Feminino
Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade
Masculino
Ratos Endogâmicos F344
Taxa de Sobrevida
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Arsenicals); 0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (diphenylarsinic acid); 059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170719
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2131/jts.42.475


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[PMID]:28712549
[Au] Autor:Weissberg A; Madmon M; Elgarisi M; Dagan S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Analytical Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), P.O.B. 19, Ness Ziona, Israel. Electronic address: aviwe@iibr.gov.il.
[Ti] Título:Determination of trace amounts of G-type nerve agents in aqueous samples utilizing "in vial" instantaneous derivatization and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;1512:71-77, 2017 Aug 25.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A methodology for sensitive determination of sarin (GB), soman (GD) and cyclosarin (GF) chemical warfare agents in aqueous media was developed. The method incorporates direct derivatization with 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenol (2-DMAMP), a commercially available, water-soluble reagent, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis in the positive ion mode. Five derivatization agents were characterized for their MS/MS fragmentation pattern, and their reaction time, temperature and derivatization-reagent amount were optimized. The developed derivatization reaction is simple, fast (1min) and proceeds at ambient temperature. Sample preparation consists of only the addition of the reagent directly into an injection vial prior to LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis. All 2-DMAMP derivatives were stable for at least 48h and had unique tandem mass spectra characterized by common product ions at m/z 230 and 185. Compared with conventional GC-MS or LC-MS methods, simplicity, better sensitivity and informative MS/MS spectra were achieved by this method. Limits of detection (LODs), identification (LOIs), and quantification (LOQs) were determined in tap water and found to be 1pg/ml, 4pg/ml and 4pg/ml respectively. The proposed methodology is appropriate for routine evaluation of contaminated water supplies and has the advantage of a simultaneous analysis of both derivatized G-nerve agents and their intact hydrolysis products within a single LC-MS analysis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
Agentes Neurotóxicos/química
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Hidrólise
Limite de Detecção
Sarina/química
Soman/química
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Nerve Agents); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 96-64-0 (Soman); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170718
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28693885
[Au] Autor:Rosenberg YJ; Mao L; Jiang X; Lees J; Zhang L; Radic Z; Taylor P
[Ad] Endereço:PlantVax Inc, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Electronic address: yjr@plantvax.com.
[Ti] Título:Post-exposure treatment with the oxime RS194B rapidly reverses early and advanced symptoms in macaques exposed to sarin vapor.
[So] Source:Chem Biol Interact;274:50-57, 2017 Aug 25.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7786
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides trigger a common mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from critical targeting and inhibition of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Therapeutic countermeasures have thus focused on either administering an oxime post-exposure, that can rapidly reactivate OP-inhibited AChE, or by preventing OP poisoning through administering pre-exposure treatments that scavenge OPs before they inhibit their physiological AChE targets. While several pyridinium aldoxime antidotes are currently approved, their utility is impaired due to their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently. The present study utilized a macaque (Ma) model to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel zwitterionic and centrally acting oxime RS194B to reactivate sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited macaque AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in vitro and to further assess the capacity of RS194B to effect a reversal of clinical symptoms following sarin inhalation in vivo. In vitro, oxime reactivation of MaAChE and MaBChE was shown to be comparable to their human orthologs, while the macaque studies indicated that IM administration of 62.5 mg/kg of RS194B and 0.28 mg/kg atropine after continuous exposure to 49.6 µg/kg sarin vapor, rapidly reactivated the inhibited AChE and BChE in blood and reversed both early and advanced clinical symptoms of sarin-induced toxicity following pulmonary exposure within 1 h. The rapid cessation of autonomic and central symptoms, including convulsions, observed in macaques bodes well for the use of RS194B as an intra- or post-exposure human treatment and validates the macaque model in generating efficacy and toxicology data required for approval under the FDA Animal rule.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acetamidas/farmacologia
Reativadores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Oximas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetamidas/administração & dosagem
Acetamidas/química
Acetilcolinesterase/sangue
Acetilcolinesterase/química
Acetilcolinesterase/genética
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo
Animais
Butirilcolinesterase/sangue
Butirilcolinesterase/química
Butirilcolinesterase/genética
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Reativadores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem
Reativadores da Colinesterase/química
Gases/química
Inalação
Macaca/metabolismo
Modelos Animais
Oximas/administração & dosagem
Oximas/química
Paraoxon/toxicidade
Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
Proteínas Recombinantes/química
Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
Sarina/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Acetamides); 0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Cholinesterase Reactivators); 0 (Gases); 0 (Oximes); 0 (RS194B); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); B4XG72QGFM (Sarin); EC 3.1.1.7 (Acetylcholinesterase); EC 3.1.1.8 (Butyrylcholinesterase); Q9CX8P80JW (Paraoxon)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170712
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 2744 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28622352
[Au] Autor:Amlôt R; Carter H; Riddle L; Larner J; Chilcott RP
[Ad] Endereço:Emergency Response Department Science & Technology, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Volunteer trials of a novel improvised dry decontamination protocol for use during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK'S Initial Operational Response (IOR).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0179309, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Previous studies have demonstrated that rapid evacuation, disrobing and emergency decontamination can enhance the ability of emergency services and acute hospitals to effectively manage chemically-contaminated casualties. The purpose of this human volunteer study was to further optimise such an "Initial Operational Response" by (1) identifying an appropriate method for performing improvised skin decontamination and (2) providing guidance for use by first responders and casualties. The study was performed using two readily available, absorbent materials (paper towels and incontinence pads). The decontamination effectiveness of the test materials was measured by quantifying the amount of a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate) removed from each volunteer's forearm skin. Results from the first study demonstrated that simulant recovery was lower in all of the dry decontamination conditions when compared to matched controls, suggesting that dry decontamination serves to reduce chemical exposure. Blotting in combination with rubbing was the most effective form of decontamination. There was no difference in effectiveness between the two absorbent materials. In the following study, volunteers performed improvised dry decontamination, either with or without draft guidelines. Volunteers who received the guidance were able to carry out improvised dry decontamination more effectively, using more of the absorbent product (blue roll) to ensure that all areas of the body were decontaminated and avoiding cross-contamination of other body areas by working systematically from the head downwards. Collectively, these two studies suggest that absorbent products that are available on ambulances and in acute healthcare settings may have generic applicability for improvised dry decontamination. Wherever possible, emergency responders and healthcare workers should guide casualties through decontamination steps; in the absence of explicit guidance and instructions, improvised dry decontamination may not be performed correctly or safely.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química
Descontaminação
Voluntários Saudáveis/educação
Incidentes com Feridos em Massa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170913
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170913
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170617
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0179309


  10 / 2744 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28601555
[Au] Autor:Thors L; Koch M; Wigenstam E; Koch B; Hägglund L; Bucht A
[Ad] Endereço:Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address: lina.thors@foi.se.
[Ti] Título:Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin.
[So] Source:Chem Biol Interact;273:82-89, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7786
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water). The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX. In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the RSDL-lotion, containing both absorption and degrading properties, allowed to act on skin for 30 min was superior in preventing VX from penetrating human skin. Adding water during decontamination resulted in increased penetration of neat VX, however, water in the decontaminant removal process did not influence the decontamination efficacy. From our study on commercially available decontaminants, it is recommended that future product developments should include both strong absorbents and efficient nerve agent degrading components.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise
Descontaminação/métodos
Compostos Organotiofosforados/administração & dosagem
Compostos Organotiofosforados/análise
Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem
Pele/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Substâncias para a Guerra Química/efeitos adversos
Seres Humanos
Técnicas In Vitro
Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos
Creme para a Pele/farmacologia
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Organothiophosphorus Compounds); 9A4381183B (VX)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171002
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171002
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170612
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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