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Pesquisa : D27.720.821 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 53 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28002785
[Au] Autor:Unuvar U; Yilmaz D; Ozyildirim I; Dokudan EY; Korkmaz C; Doganoglu S; Kutlu L; Fincanci SK
[Ad] Endereço:Maltepe University, Medical Faculty, Forensic Medicine Department, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: uunuvar@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Usage of Riot Control Agents and other methods resulting in physical and psychological injuries sustained during civil unrest in Turkey in 2013.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;45:47-52, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Turkey has experienced a wave of demonstrations in the summer of 2013, called Gezi Park Demonstrations. Between 31 May and 30 August, 297 people who had been subjected to trauma by several methods of demonstration control and Riot Control Agents applied to the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey Rehabilitation Centers to receive treatment/rehabilitation and/or documentation. 296 patients except one 5-year-old child were included in the study. Of the 296 patients; 175 were male, 120 were female, and one was a transgender individual. The highest number of applications was received by the Istanbul center with 216 patients. The mean age of applicants was 33.85, and the age range was 15-71 years. While 268 of applicants (91%) stated that they had been exposed to Riot Control Agents, 62 patients suffered only chemical exposure who had no other traumatic injuries whereas 234 patients suffered at least one blunt trauma injury. Blunt trauma injuries are due to being shot by gas canisters in 127 patients (43%), by plastic bullets in 31 patients (10%). 59 patients (20%) were severely beaten, and 30 patients (10%) were injured by pressurized cold water ejected by water cannons. Thirteen patients (4.4%) suffered injuries that caused loss of vision or eye. Psychiatric evaluations were carried out for 117 patients while 43% of them were diagnosed with Acute Stress Disorder. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder followed this diagnosis. This study includes the medical evaluation of injuries allegedly sustained during Gezi Park demonstrations in 2013 as a result of several methods of demonstration control and/or by being exposed to Riot Control Agents. The aim is to discuss different types of injuries due to those methods and health consequences of Riot Control Agents.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aplicação da Lei
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade
Tumultos
Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/diagnóstico
Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/epidemiologia
Turquia/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161222
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26658556
[Au] Autor:Menezes RG; Hussain SA; Rameez MA; Kharoshah MA; Madadin M; Anwar N; Senthilkumaran S
[Ad] Endereço:Forensic Medicine Division, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, King Fahd Hospital of the University, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia mangalore971@yahoo.co.in.
[Ti] Título:Chemical crowd control agents.
[So] Source:Med Leg J;84(1):22-5, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2042-1834
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/envenenamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/história
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0025817215622314


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[PMID]:26554271
[Au] Autor:Yeung MF; Tang WY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong.
[Ti] Título:Clinicopathological effects of pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray.
[So] Source:Hong Kong Med J;21(6):542-52, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1024-2708
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray is one of the most common riot-control measures used today. Although not lethal, exposure of pepper spray can cause injury to different organ systems. This review aimed to summarise the major clinicopathological effects of pepper spray in humans. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE database, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were used to search for terms associated with the clinicopathological effects of pepper spray in humans and those describing the pathophysiology of capsaicin. A phone interview with two individuals recently exposed to pepper spray was also conducted to establish clinical symptoms. STUDY SELECTION: Major key words used for the MEDLINE search were "pepper spray", "OC spray", "oleoresin capsicum"; and other key words as "riot control agents", "capsaicin", and "capsaicinoid". We then combined the key words "capsaicin" and "capsaicinoid" with the major key words to narrow down the number of articles. A search with other databases including EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was also conducted with the above phrases to identify any additional related articles. DATA EXTRACTION: All article searches were confined to human study. The bibliography of articles was screened for additional relevant studies including non-indexed reports, and information from these was also recorded. Non-English articles were included in the search. DATA SYNTHESIS: Fifteen articles were considered relevant. Oleoresin capsicum causes almost instantaneous irritative symptoms to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Dermatological effects include a burning sensation, erythema, and hyperalgesia. Ophthalmic effects involve blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, peri-orbital oedema, and corneal pathology. Following inhalation, a stinging or burning sensation can be felt in the nose with sore throat, chest tightness, or dyspnoea. The major pathophysiology is neurogenic inflammation caused by capsaicinoid in the pepper spray. There is no antidote for oleoresin capsicum. Treatment consists of thorough decontamination, symptom-directed supportive measures, and early detection and treatment of systemic toxicity. Decontamination should be carefully carried out to avoid contamination of the surrounding skin and clothing. CONCLUSION: Pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray is an effective riot-control agent and does not cause life-threatening clinical effects in the majority of exposed individuals. Early decontamination minimises the irritant effects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inflamação Neurogênica/induzido quimicamente
Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aerossóis
Descontaminação
Dispneia/induzido quimicamente
Oftalmopatias/induzido quimicamente
Seres Humanos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos
Nariz/efeitos dos fármacos
Faringite/induzido quimicamente
Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Aerosols); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical); 0 (oleoresins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.12809/hkmj154691


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[PMID]:25633030
[Au] Autor:Dimitroglou Y; Rachiotis G; Hadjichristodoulou C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical Faculty, University of Thessaly, 22 Papakyriazi Str., Larissa 41222, Greece. dimiyann@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Exposure to the riot control agent CS and potential health effects: a systematic review of the evidence.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;12(2):1397-411, 2015 Jan 27.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) is one of the most extensively used riot control agents. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the potential health effects related to CS exposure. We searched for papers in English between 1991 and 2014. Thirty five (35) studies (25 case reports, seven descriptive studies and three analytical studies) were included in the review. In the twenty five case reports/series 90 cases of exposure to CS and their clinical effects are presented. Their mean age was 25.7 years and 62.0% were males. In addition, 61% of the cases described dermal, 40% respiratory, 57% ocular clinical effects. Life threatening situations as well as long-term health effects were found and were related with exposure to confined/enclosed space. Descriptive and analytical studies have shown attack rates ranging from 12% to 40%. Subjects who were sprayed by the police more often needed special treatment and reported adverse health effects. Apart from transient clinical effects, CS could have lasting and serious effects on human health. Better surveillance of the subjects exposed to CS and completion of cohort studies among exposed populations will illuminate the spectrum of the health effects of exposure to CS.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical); 2698-41-1 (o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150319
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150319
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3390/ijerph120201397


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[PMID]:25572084
[Au] Autor:Toprak S; Ersoy G; Hart J; Clevestig P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Forensic Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey. Electronic address: sadik_toprak@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:The pathology of lethal exposure to the Riot Control Agents: towards a forensics-based methodology for determining misuse.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;29:36-42, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this is to review deaths associated with the use of Riot Control Agents (RCAs) and to assess how the presenting pathologies is such cases may better inform cause of death conclusions upon autopsy. We also sought to present which additional steps should be added to the Minnesota protocol and the European harmonization of medico-legal autopsy rules in suspected cases of deaths associated with the use of RCAs. We included 10 lethal cases in our study. In three cases, RCAs were found to be the sole cause of death, in three cases RCAs were ruled a secondary cause of death due asphyxia or asthma subsequent to exposure to RCAs and in four cases RCAs were contributory factors to death. In three cases the responsible agents were identified as Chloroacetophenone (CN), Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) and Oleoresin capsicum (OC) and in the remaining 7 cases, the agent was OC alone. As there are no specific findings in suspected cases of death associated with RCA use, establishing cause of death and whether RCAs are the sole cause or only a contributory factor will be based on the elimination of other possible causes of death. For this reason, a specifically structured autopsy is essential. This specifically structured autopsy should contain basic principles of the Minnesota Protocol and the European harmonization of medico-legal autopsy rules with the following additional steps taken: examination of clothing, eyes, and skin; examination of pharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and eusophegeal mucosas; and a thorough recording of the steps taken by the party conducting the arrest, including other possible causes of in-custody death, as well as a detailed medical history of the deceased.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Patologia Legal/métodos
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/efeitos adversos
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/envenenamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Asfixia/induzido quimicamente
Asma/induzido quimicamente
Toxicologia Forense
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Anamnese
Meia-Idade
Miocárdio/patologia
Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
Extratos Vegetais/envenenamento
Mucosa Respiratória/patologia
Sistema Respiratório/patologia
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/efeitos adversos
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/envenenamento
ômega-Cloroacetofenona/efeitos adversos
ômega-Cloroacetofenona/envenenamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical); 0 (oleoresins); 2698-41-1 (o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile); 88B5039IQG (omega-Chloroacetophenone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1509
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150110
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:24379300
[Au] Autor:Schep LJ; Slaughter RJ; McBride DI
[Ad] Endereço:National Poisons Centre, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
[Ti] Título:Riot control agents: the tear gases CN, CS and OC-a medical review.
[So] Source:J R Army Med Corps;161(2):94-9, 2015 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0035-8665
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: 2-Chloroacetophenone (CN), o-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile (CS) and oleoresin capsicum (OC) are common riot control agents. While serious systemic effects are uncommon, exposure to high concentrations may lead to severe complications and even death. The aim of this narrative review is to summarise all main aspects of the riot control agents CN, CS and OC toxicology, including mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features and management. METHODS: OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched for terms associated with CN, CS and OC toxicity in humans and those describing the mechanism of action, clinical features and treatment protocols. RESULTS: CN, CS and OC are effective lacrimating agents; evidence for toxicity, as measured by the threshold for irritation, is greatest for CN, followed by CS and OC. Typically, ocular and respiratory tract irritation occurs within 20-60 s of exposure. Ocular effects involve blepharospasm, photophobia, conjunctivitis and periorbital oedema. Following inhalation, effects may include a stinging or burning sensation in the nose, tight chest, sore throat, coughing, dyspnoea and difficulty breathing. Dermal outcomes are variable, more severe for CN and include dermal irritation, bulla formation and subcutaneous oedema. Removal from the contaminated area and fresh air is a priority. There is no antidote; treatment consists of thorough decontamination and symptom-directed supportive care. Ocular exposure requires thorough eye decontamination, an eye exam and appropriate pain management. Monitoring and support of respiratory function is important in patients with significant respiratory symptoms. Standard treatment protocols may be required with patients with pre-existing respiratory conditions. Dermal exposures may require systemic steroids for patients who develop delayed contact dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS: CN, CS and OC are effective riot control agents. In the majority of exposures, significant clinical effects are not anticipated. The irritant effects can be minimised both by rapid evacuation from sites of exposure, decontamination and appropriate supportive care.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Extratos Vegetais
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila
ômega-Cloroacetofenona
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Medicina Militar
Militares
Equipamentos de Proteção
Tumultos/prevenção & controle
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical); 0 (oleoresins); 2698-41-1 (o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile); 88B5039IQG (omega-Chloroacetophenone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1508
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150521
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150521
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140101
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/jramc-2013-000165


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[PMID]:25603650
[Au] Autor:Hout JJ; White DW; Stubner A; Stevens M; Knapik JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA. jhout@usuhs.edu
[Ti] Título:O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) exposure in a U.S. Army basic combat training cohort.
[So] Source:J Environ Health;77(3):14-21, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0022-0892
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:All U.S. Army soldiers participate in mask confidence training during initial military training and periodically throughout their careers. Training is conducted by dispersing the riot control agent, o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS), in a relatively air-tight structure where soldiers enter and conduct a series of exercises that culminate with mask removal. The study described here quantified CS concentrations experienced by 6,723 trainees and seven chamber operators during U.S. Army basic combat training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, from August 1 to September 25, 2012. All 6,723 trainees were potentially exposed to CS concentrations exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value-ceiling (TLV-C) (0.39 mg/m3), 6,589 of which were potentially exposed to concentrations exceeding the value deemed immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) (2.0 mg/m3) by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. All chamber operators were exposed to concentrations exceeding both the TLV-C and the IDLH.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Monitoramento Ambiental
Militares
Exposição Ocupacional
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/análise
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
South Carolina
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical); 2698-41-1 (o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1502
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150122
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25003867
[Au] Autor:Hout JJ; White DW; Artino AR; Knapik JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.
[Ti] Título:O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) associated acute respiratory illnesses in a U.S. Army Basic Combat Training cohort.
[So] Source:Mil Med;179(7):793-8, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are among the leading causes for hospital visits in U.S. military training populations and historically peak during U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT) following mandatory exposure to the riot control agent o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS). This observational prospective cohort studied the association between CS exposures and ARI-related health outcomes in 6,723 U.S. Army recruits attending BCT at Fort Jackson, South Carolina from August 1 to September 25, 2012 by capturing and linking the incidence of ARI before and after the mask confidence chamber to CS exposure data. Recruits had a significantly higher risk (risk ratio = 2.44; 95% confidence interval = 1.74, 3.43) of being diagnosed with ARI following exposure to CS compared to the period of training preceding exposure, and incidence of ARI after CS exposure was dependent on the CS exposure concentration (p = 0.03). There was a significant pre-/postexposure ARI difference across all CS concentration levels (p < 0.01), however, no significant differences were detected among these rate ratios (p = 0.72). As CS exposure is positively associated with ARI health outcomes in this population, interventions designed to reduce respiratory exposures could result in decreased hospital burden and lost training time in the U.S. Army BCT population.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Militares/educação
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doença Aguda
Seguimentos
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Estudos Prospectivos
Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/efeitos adversos
Fatores de Risco
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical); 2698-41-1 (o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1602
[Cu] Atualização por classe:140709
[Lr] Data última revisão:
140709
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140709
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00514


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[PMID]:24902078
[Au] Autor:Pitschmann V
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, nám. Sítná 3105, Kladno 27201, Czech Republic. pitschmann@oritest.cz.
[Ti] Título:Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.
[So] Source:Toxins (Basel);6(6):1761-84, 2014 Jun 04.
[Is] ISSN:2072-6651
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Armas Biológicas/história
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade
Guerra Química/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Guerra Química/tendências
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/história
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
História Medieval
Seres Humanos
Cooperação Internacional
Ciência Militar/história
Nanotecnologia/tendências
Política Pública
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/química
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/história
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade
Testes de Toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biological Warfare Agents); 0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1501
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150805
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150805
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140606
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3390/toxins6061761


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[PMID]:23624235
[Au] Autor:Riches JR; Read RW; Black RM; Harrison JM; Shand DA; Tomsett EV; Newsome CR; Bailey NC; Roughley N; Gravett MR; Stubbs SJ; McColm RR
[Ad] Endereço:Detection Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK. jriches@dstl.gov.uk
[Ti] Título:The development of an analytical method for urinary metabolites of the riot control agent 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS).
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;928:125-30, 2013 Jun 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The analysis of biomedical samples such as urine and blood can provide evidence of exposure to chemicals for a range of applications including occupational exposure monitoring, detection of drugs of abuse, performance enhancement in sport and investigations of poisoning and incapacitation. This paper reports the development of an analytical method for two suspected urinary metabolites of the riot control agent 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS): 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was identified in all 2h post-exposure samples from a set of urine samples taken from army recruits exposed to low levels of thermally dispersed CS during training. 2-Chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine, a metabolite known to be formed in the rat, was not identified in any of the samples. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) for 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine was 1ng/ml and 0.5ng/ml in pooled urine from the pre-exposed subjects. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was rapidly excreted but was detectable in the urine of 17 of the 19 subjects tested 20h after exposure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
Hipuratos/urina
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/metabolismo
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/urina
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/metabolismo
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/urina
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Animais
Seres Humanos
Limite de Detecção
Masculino
Ratos
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/administração & dosagem
Adulto Jovem
o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hippurates); 0 (Riot Control Agents, Chemical); 2698-41-1 (o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile); 92HJ692NVA (4-chlorohippuric acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1308
[Cu] Atualização por classe:130507
[Lr] Data última revisão:
130507
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130430
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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