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[PMID]:27770478
[Au] Autor:Nugent AC; Luber B; Carver FW; Robinson SE; Coppola R; Zarate CA
[Ad] Endereço:Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
[Ti] Título:Deriving frequency-dependent spatial patterns in MEG-derived resting state sensorimotor network: A novel multiband ICA technique.
[So] Source:Hum Brain Mapp;38(2):779-791, 2017 02.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0193
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recently, independent components analysis (ICA) of resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has revealed resting state networks (RSNs) that exhibit fluctuations of band-limited power envelopes. Most of the work in this area has concentrated on networks derived from the power envelope of beta bandpass-filtered data. Although research has demonstrated that most networks show maximal correlation in the beta band, little is known about how spatial patterns of correlations may differ across frequencies. This study analyzed MEG data from 18 healthy subjects to determine if the spatial patterns of RSNs differed between delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma, and high gamma frequency bands. To validate our method, we focused on the sensorimotor network, which is well-characterized and robust in both MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state data. Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was used to project signals into anatomical source space separately in each band before a group temporal ICA was performed over all subjects and bands. This method preserved the inherent correlation structure of the data and reflected connectivity derived from single-band ICA, but also allowed identification of spatial spectral modes that are consistent across subjects. The implications of these results on our understanding of sensorimotor function are discussed, as are the potential applications of this technique. Hum Brain Mapp 38:779-791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mapeamento Encefálico
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Magnetoencefalografia
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Descanso
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem
Oxigênio/sangue
Análise de Componente Principal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
S88TT14065 (Oxygen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180217
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180217
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/hbm.23417


  2 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29028805
[Au] Autor:Li Z; Sheth AB; Sheth BR
[Ad] Endereço:University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:What drives slow wave activity during early non-REM sleep: Learning during prior wake or effort?
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185681, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:What is the function of sleep in humans? One claim is that sleep consolidates learning. Slow wave activity (SWA), i.e. slow oscillations of frequency < 4 Hz, has been observed in electroencephalograms (EEG) during sleep; it increases with prior wakefulness and decreases with sleep. Studies have claimed that increase in SWA in specific regions of the sleeping brain is correlated with overnight improved performance, i.e. overnight consolidation, on a demanding motor learning task. We wondered if SWA change during sleep is attributable to overnight consolidation or to metabolic demand. Participants executed out-and-back movements to a target using a pen-like cursor with their dominant hand while the target and cursor position were displayed on a screen. They trained on three different conditions on separate nights, differing in the amount and degree of rotation between the actual hand movement direction and displayed cursor movement direction. In the no-rotation (NR) condition, there was no rotation. In the single rotation (SR) condition, the amount of rotation remained the same throughout, and performance improved both across pre-sleep training and after sleep, i.e. overnight consolidation occurred; in the random rotation (RR) condition, the amount of rotation varied randomly from trial to trial, and no overnight consolidation occurred; SR and RR were cognitively demanding. The average EEG power density of SWA for the first 30 min. of non-rapid eye movement sleep after training was computed. Both SR and RR elicited increase in SWA in the parietal region; furthermore, the topographic distribution of SWA in each was remarkably similar. No correlation was found between the overnight performance improvement on SR and the SWA change in the parietal region on measures of learning. Our results argue that regulation of SWA in early sleep is associated with high levels of cognitive effort during prior wakefulness, and not just overnight consolidation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Aprendizagem/fisiologia
Sono/fisiologia
Vigília/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Atividade Motora/fisiologia
Rotação
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171014
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185681


  3 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29024670
[Au] Autor:Loonis RF; Brincat SL; Antzoulatos EG; Miller EK
[Ad] Endereço:The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University, Boston MA, 02118, USA.
[Ti] Título:A Meta-Analysis Suggests Different Neural Correlates for Implicit and Explicit Learning.
[So] Source:Neuron;96(2):521-534.e7, 2017 Oct 11.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4199
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A meta-analysis of non-human primates performing three different tasks (Object-Match, Category-Match, and Category-Saccade associations) revealed signatures of explicit and implicit learning. Performance improved equally following correct and error trials in the Match (explicit) tasks, but it improved more after correct trials in the Saccade (implicit) task, a signature of explicit versus implicit learning. Likewise, error-related negativity, a marker for error processing, was greater in the Match (explicit) tasks. All tasks showed an increase in alpha/beta (10-30 Hz) synchrony after correct choices. However, only the implicit task showed an increase in theta (3-7 Hz) synchrony after correct choices that decreased with learning. In contrast, in the explicit tasks, alpha/beta synchrony increased with learning and decreased thereafter. Our results suggest that explicit versus implicit learning engages different neural mechanisms that rely on different patterns of oscillatory synchrony.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Aprendizagem/fisiologia
Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Macaca mulatta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171013
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28969381
[Au] Autor:Ranasinghe KG; Hinkley LB; Beagle AJ; Mizuiri D; Honma SM; Welch AE; Hubbard I; Mandelli ML; Miller ZA; Garrett C; La A; Boxer AL; Houde JF; Miller BL; Vossel KA; Gorno-Tempini ML; Nagarajan SS
[Ad] Endereço:Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
[Ti] Título:Distinct spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal functional connectivity in primary progressive aphasia variants.
[So] Source:Brain;140(10):2737-2751, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome characterized by progressive loss of language abilities with three main phenotypic clinical presentations, including logopenic, non-fluent/agrammatic, and semantic variants. Previous imaging studies have shown unique anatomic impacts within language networks in each variant. However, direct measures of spontaneous neuronal activity and functional integrity of these impacted neural networks in primary progressive aphasia are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of resting state neuronal synchronizations in primary progressive aphasia syndromes. We hypothesized that resting state brain oscillations will show unique deficits within language network in each variant of primary progressive aphasia. We examined 39 patients with primary progressive aphasia including logopenic variant (n = 14, age = 61 ± 9 years), non-fluent/agrammatic variant (n = 12, age = 71 ± 8 years) and semantic variant (n = 13, age = 65 ± 7 years) using magnetoencephalographic imaging, compared to a control group that was matched in age and gender to each primary progressive aphasia subgroup (n = 20, age = 65 ± 5 years). Each patient underwent a complete clinical evaluation including a comprehensive battery of language tests. We examined the whole-brain resting state functional connectivity as measured by imaginary coherence in each patient group compared to the control cohort, in three frequency oscillation bands-delta-theta (2-8 Hz); alpha (8-12 Hz); beta (12-30 Hz). Each variant showed a distinct spatiotemporal pattern of altered functional connectivity compared to age-matched controls. Specifically, we found significant hyposynchrony of alpha and beta frequency within the left posterior temporal and occipital cortices in patients with the logopenic variant, within the left inferior frontal cortex in patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and within the left temporo-parietal junction in patients with the semantic variant. Patients with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia also showed significant hypersynchrony of delta-theta frequency within bilateral medial frontal and posterior parietal cortices. Furthermore, region of interest-based analyses comparing the spatiotemporal patterns of variant-specific regions of interest identified in comparison to age-matched controls showed significant differences between primary progressive aphasia variants themselves. We also found distinct patterns of regional spectral power changes in each primary progressive aphasia variant, compared to age-matched controls. Our results demonstrate neurophysiological signatures of network-specific neuronal dysfunction in primary progressive aphasia variants. The unique spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal synchrony signify diverse neurophysiological disruptions and pathological underpinnings of the language network in each variant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Afasia Primária Progressiva/patologia
Mapeamento Encefálico
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Afasia Primária Progressiva/classificação
Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem
Atrofia/etiologia
Atrofia/patologia
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
Encéfalo/patologia
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia
Feminino
Lateralidade Funcional
Substância Cinzenta/patologia
Seres Humanos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Magnetoencefalografia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Testes Neuropsicológicos
Curva ROC
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171006
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171006
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171004
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx217


  5 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28948998
[Au] Autor:Song I; Orosz I; Chervoneva I; Waldman ZJ; Fried I; Wu C; Sharan A; Salamon N; Gorniak R; Dewar S; Bragin A; Engel J; Sperling MR; Staba R; Weiss SA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
[Ti] Título:Bimodal coupling of ripples and slower oscillations during sleep in patients with focal epilepsy.
[So] Source:Epilepsia;58(11):1972-1984, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1528-1167
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Differentiating pathologic and physiologic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) is challenging. In patients with focal epilepsy, HFOs occur during the transitional periods between the up and down state of slow waves. The preferred phase angles of this form of phase-event amplitude coupling are bimodally distributed, and the ripples (80-150 Hz) that occur during the up-down transition more often occur in the seizure-onset zone (SOZ). We investigated if bimodal ripple coupling was also evident for faster sleep oscillations, and could identify the SOZ. METHODS: Using an automated ripple detector, we identified ripple events in 40-60 min intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings from 23 patients with medically refractory mesial temporal lobe or neocortical epilepsy. The detector quantified epochs of sleep oscillations and computed instantaneous phase. We utilized a ripple phasor transform, ripple-triggered averaging, and circular statistics to investigate phase event-amplitude coupling. RESULTS: We found that at some individual recording sites, ripple event amplitude was coupled with the sleep oscillatory phase and the preferred phase angles exhibited two distinct clusters (p < 0.05). The distribution of the pooled mean preferred phase angle, defined by combining the means from each cluster at each individual recording site, also exhibited two distinct clusters (p < 0.05). Based on the range of preferred phase angles defined by these two clusters, we partitioned each ripple event at each recording site into two groups: depth iEEG peak-trough and trough-peak. The mean ripple rates of the two groups in the SOZ and non-SOZ (NSOZ) were compared. We found that in the frontal (spindle, p = 0.009; theta, p = 0.006, slow, p = 0.004) and parietal lobe (theta, p = 0.007, delta, p = 0.002, slow, p = 0.001) the SOZ incidence rate for the ripples occurring during the trough-peak transition was significantly increased. SIGNIFICANCE: Phase-event amplitude coupling between ripples and sleep oscillations may be useful to distinguish pathologic and physiologic events in patients with frontal and parietal SOZ.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia
Fases do Sono/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Eletrocorticografia/métodos
Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Sono/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170927
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/epi.13912


  6 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28898244
[Au] Autor:Al-Barrak L; Kanjo E; Younis EMG
[Ad] Endereço:Bristol University, Computing Department, Bristol, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:NeuroPlace: Categorizing urban places according to mental states.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0183890, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Urban spaces have a great impact on how people's emotion and behaviour. There are number of factors that impact our brain responses to a space. This paper presents a novel urban place recommendation approach, that is based on modelling in-situ EEG data. The research investigations leverages on newly affordable Electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, which has the capability to sense mental states such as meditation and attention levels. These emerging devices have been utilized in understanding how human brains are affected by the surrounding built environments and natural spaces. In this paper, mobile EEG headsets have been used to detect mental states at different types of urban places. By analysing and modelling brain activity data, we were able to classify three different places according to the mental state signature of the users, and create an association map to guide and recommend people to therapeutic places that lessen brain fatigue and increase mental rejuvenation. Our mental states classifier has achieved accuracy of (%90.8). NeuroPlace breaks new ground not only as a mobile ubiquitous brain monitoring system for urban computing, but also as a system that can advise urban planners on the impact of specific urban planning policies and structures. We present and discuss the challenges in making our initial prototype more practical, robust, and reliable as part of our on-going research. In addition, we present some enabling applications using the proposed architecture.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/fisiologia
Eletroencefalografia
Processos Mentais
População Urbana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Algoritmos
Análise de Variância
Ondas Encefálicas
Planejamento de Cidades
Eletroencefalografia/métodos
Meio Ambiente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Modelos Estatísticos
Distribuição Espacial da População
Estresse Psicológico
Tecnologia sem Fio
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170913
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183890


  7 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28887385
[Au] Autor:Radiske A; Gonzalez MC; Conde-Ocazionez SA; Feitosa A; Köhler CA; Bevilaqua LR; Cammarota M
[Ad] Endereço:Memory Research Laboratory, Brain Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, RN 59056-450 Natal, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat Hippocampus.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(40):9675-9685, 2017 Oct 04.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological analyses in male Wistar rats, we found that previous learning of relevant nonaversive information is essential to elicit the participation of the hippocampus in avoidance memory reconsolidation, which is associated with an increase in theta- and gamma-oscillation power and cross-frequency coupling in dorsal CA1 during reactivation of the avoidance response. Our results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when reactivation results in contradictory representations regarding the consequences of avoidance and suggest that robust nesting of hippocampal theta-gamma rhythms at the time of retrieval is a specific reconsolidation marker. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive avoidance responses to stimuli or behaviors that represent or bear resemblance to some aspect of a traumatic experience. Disruption of reconsolidation, the process by which reactivated memories become susceptible to modifications, is a promising approach for treating PTSD patients. However, much of what is known about fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation derives from studies based on fear conditioning instead of avoidance-learning paradigms. Using a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats, we found that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when the animals acquired the avoidance response in an environment that they had previously learned as safe and showed that increased theta- and gamma-oscillation coupling during reactivation is an electrophysiological signature of this process.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia
Hipocampo/fisiologia
Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alfa-Amanitina/farmacologia
Animais
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos
Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos
Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia
Masculino
Consolidação da Memória/efeitos dos fármacos
Inibidores da Síntese de Ácido Nucleico/farmacologia
Ratos
Ratos Wistar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alpha-Amanitin); 0 (Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170910
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1372-17.2017


  8 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28842409
[Au] Autor:Byrne JEM; Hughes ME; Rossell SL; Johnson SL; Murray G
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Mental Health, Faculty Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Time of Day Differences in Neural Reward Functioning in Healthy Young Men.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(37):8895-8900, 2017 Sep 13.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reward function appears to be modulated by the circadian system, but little is known about the neural basis of this interaction. Previous research suggests that the neural reward response may be different in the afternoon; however, the direction of this effect is contentious. Reward response may follow the diurnal rhythm in self-reported positive affect, peaking in the early afternoon. An alternative is that daily reward response represents a type of prediction error, with neural reward activation relatively high at times of day when rewards are unexpected (i.e., early and late in the day). The present study measured neural reward activation in the context of a validated reward task at 10.00 h, 14.00 h, and 19.00 h in healthy human males. A region of interest BOLD fMRI protocol was used to investigate the diurnal waveform of activation in reward-related brain regions. Multilevel modeling found, as expected, a highly significant quadratic time-of-day effect focusing on the left putamen ( < 0.001). Consistent with the "prediction error" hypothesis, activation was significantly higher at 10.00 h and 19.00 h compared with 14.00 h. It is provisionally concluded that the putamen may be particularly important in endogenous priming of reward motivation at different times of day, with the pattern of activation consistent with circadian-modulated reward expectancies in neural pathways (i.e., greater activation to reward stimuli at unexpected times of day). This study encourages further research into circadian modulation of reward and underscores the methodological importance of accounting for time of day in fMRI protocols. This is one of the first studies to use a repeated-measures imaging procedure to explore the diurnal rhythm of reward activation. Although self-reported reward (most often operationalized as positive affect) peaks in the afternoon, the present findings indicate that neural activation is lowest at this time. We conclude that the diurnal neural activation pattern may reflect a prediction error of the brain, where rewards at unexpected times (10.00 h and 19.00 h) elicit higher activation in reward brain regions than at expected (14.00 h) times. These data also have methodological significance, suggesting that there may be a time of day influence, which should be accounted for in neural reward studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Recompensa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mapeamento Encefálico
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Valores de Referência
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170827
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0918-17.2017


  9 / 2645 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28821651
[Au] Autor:Funk CM; Peelman K; Bellesi M; Marshall W; Cirelli C; Tononi G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry.
[Ti] Título:Role of Somatostatin-Positive Cortical Interneurons in the Generation of Sleep Slow Waves.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(38):9132-9148, 2017 Sep 20.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:During non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep, cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods, characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods, characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves, the hallmark of NREM sleep, reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma. In freely moving male mice, we show that SOM+ cells can fire immediately before slow waves and their optogenetic stimulation during ON periods of NREM sleep triggers long OFF periods. Next, we show that chemogenetic activation of SOM+ cells increases slow-wave activity (SWA), slope of individual slow waves, and NREM sleep duration; whereas their chemogenetic inhibition decreases SWA and slow-wave incidence without changing time spent in NREM sleep. By contrast, activation of parvalbumin+ (PV+) cells, the most numerous population of cortical inhibitory neurons, greatly decreases SWA and cortical firing, triggers short OFF periods in NREM sleep, and increases NREM sleep duration. Thus SOM+ cells, but not PV+ cells, are involved in the generation of sleep slow waves. Whether Martinotti cells are solely responsible for this effect, or are complemented by other classes of inhibitory neurons, remains to be investigated. Cortical slow waves are a defining feature of non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep and are thought to be important for many of its restorative benefits. Yet, the mechanism by which cortical neurons abruptly and synchronously cease firing, the neuronal basis of the slow wave, remains unknown. Using chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches, we provide the first evidence that links a specific class of inhibitory interneurons-somatostatin-positive cells-to the generation of slow waves during NREM sleep in freely moving mice.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia
Sincronização Cortical/fisiologia
Interneurônios/fisiologia
Inibição Neural/fisiologia
Sono REM/fisiologia
Somatostatina/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
51110-01-1 (Somatostatin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171008
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171008
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170820
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1303-17.2017


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[PMID]:28797109
[Au] Autor:Ofner P; Schwarz A; Pereira J; Müller-Putz GR
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Neural Engineering, BCI-Lab, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
[Ti] Título:Upper limb movements can be decoded from the time-domain of low-frequency EEG.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182578, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:How neural correlates of movements are represented in the human brain is of ongoing interest and has been researched with invasive and non-invasive methods. In this study, we analyzed the encoding of single upper limb movements in the time-domain of low-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Fifteen healthy subjects executed and imagined six different sustained upper limb movements. We classified these six movements and a rest class and obtained significant average classification accuracies of 55% (movement vs movement) and 87% (movement vs rest) for executed movements, and 27% and 73%, respectively, for imagined movements. Furthermore, we analyzed the classifier patterns in the source space and located the brain areas conveying discriminative movement information. The classifier patterns indicate that mainly premotor areas, primary motor cortex, somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex convey discriminative movement information. The decoding of single upper limb movements is specially interesting in the context of a more natural non-invasive control of e.g., a motor neuroprosthesis or a robotic arm in highly motor disabled persons.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Braço/fisiologia
Córtex Motor/fisiologia
Movimento/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Ondas Encefálicas
Eletroencefalografia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170811
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182578



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