Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : E01.370.600.115.100.160 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29183362
[Au] Autor:Mulder C; Maas R
[Ad] Endereço:National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. christian.mulder@rivm.nl.
[Ti] Título:Unifying the functional diversity in natural and cultivated soils using the overall body-mass distribution of nematodes.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):36, 2017 Nov 28.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Sustainable use of our soils is a key goal for environmental protection. As many ecosystem services are supported belowground at different trophic levels by nematodes, soil nematodes are expected to provide objective metrics for biological quality to integrate physical and chemical soil variables. Trait measurements of body mass carried out at the individual level can in this way be correlated with environmental properties that influence the performance of soil biota. RESULTS: Soil samples were collected across 200 sites (4 soil types and 5 land-use types resulting in 9 combinations) during a long-term monitoring programme in the Netherlands and the functional diversity of nematode communities was investigated. Using three commonly used functional diversity indices applicable to single traits (Divergence, Evenness and Richness), a unified index of overall body-mass distribution is proposed to better illustrate the application of functional metrics as a descriptor of land use. Effects of land use and soil chemistry on the functional diversity of nematodes were demonstrated and a combination of environmental factors accounts for the low functional value of Scots Pine forest soils in comparison to the high functional value of heathland soils, whereas human factors account for the low functional and chemical values of arable fields. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show an unexpected high functional vulnerability of nematodes inhabiting clay-rich soils in comparison to sandy soils and support the notion that soil C:N ratio is a major driver of biodiversity. The higher the C:N ratio, the higher the overall diversity, as soil nematodes cope better with nutrient-poor agroecosystems under less intense fertilization. A trait-based way focusing on size distribution of nematodes is proposed to maintain environmental health by monitoring the overall diversity in soil biota, keeping agriculture and forestry sustainable.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodiversidade
Nematoides/fisiologia
Solo/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
Meio Ambiente
Análise Multivariada
Países Baixos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0145-9


  2 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29295998
[Au] Autor:Woodson CB; Schramski JR; Joye SB
[Ad] Endereço:School of Environmental, Civil, and Environmental Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. bwoodson@uga.edu.
[Ti] Título:A unifying theory for top-heavy ecosystem structure in the ocean.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):23, 2018 01 02.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Size generally dictates metabolic requirements, trophic level, and consequently, ecosystem structure, where inefficient energy transfer leads to bottom-heavy ecosystem structure and biomass decreases as individual size (or trophic level) increases. However, many animals deviate from simple size-based predictions by either adopting generalist predatory behavior, or feeding lower in the trophic web than predicted from their size. Here we show that generalist predatory behavior and lower trophic feeding at large body size increase overall biomass and shift ecosystems from a bottom-heavy pyramid to a top-heavy hourglass shape, with the most biomass accounted for by the largest animals. These effects could be especially dramatic in the ocean, where primary producers are the smallest components of the ecosystem. This approach makes it possible to explore and predict, in the past and in the future, the structure of ocean ecosystems without biomass extraction and other impacts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecossistema
Peixes/fisiologia
Cadeia Alimentar
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antozoários/classificação
Antozoários/fisiologia
Biomassa
Tamanho Corporal
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos
Pesqueiros/tendências
Peixes/classificação
Oceanos e Mares
Plâncton/classificação
Plâncton/fisiologia
Dinâmica Populacional
Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02450-y


  3 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29178597
[Au] Autor:Larson JR; Manyama MF; Cole JB; Gonzalez PN; Percival CJ; Liberton DK; Ferrara TM; Riccardi SL; Kimwaga EA; Mathayo J; Spitzmacher JA; Rolian C; Jamniczky HA; Weinberg SM; Roseman CC; Klein O; Lukowiak K; Spritz RA; Hallgrimsson B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Body size and allometric variation in facial shape in children.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165(2):327-342, 2018 02.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Morphological integration, or the tendency for covariation, is commonly seen in complex traits such as the human face. The effects of growth on shape, or allometry, represent a ubiquitous but poorly understood axis of integration. We address the question of to what extent age and measures of size converge on a single pattern of allometry for human facial shape. METHODS: Our study is based on two large cross-sectional cohorts of children, one from Tanzania and the other from the United States (N = 7,173). We employ 3D facial imaging and geometric morphometrics to relate facial shape to age and anthropometric measures. RESULTS: The two populations differ significantly in facial shape, but the magnitude of this difference is small relative to the variation within each group. Allometric variation for facial shape is similar in both populations, representing a small but significant proportion of total variation in facial shape. Different measures of size are associated with overlapping but statistically distinct aspects of shape variation. Only half of the size-related variation in facial shape can be explained by the first principal component of four size measures and age while the remainder associates distinctly with individual measures. CONCLUSIONS: Allometric variation in the human face is complex and should not be regarded as a singular effect. This finding has important implications for how size is treated in studies of human facial shape and for the developmental basis for allometric variation more generally.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia
Face/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Antropologia Física
Evolução Biológica
Biometria
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Imagem Tridimensional
Masculino
Tanzânia
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23356


  4 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29368265
[Au] Autor:Yoshimura H; Yamada YY
[Ad] Endereço:Insect Ecology Laboratory, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Caste-fate determination primarily occurs after adult emergence in a primitively eusocial paper wasp: significance of the photoperiod during the adult stage.
[So] Source:Naturwissenschaften;105(1-2):15, 2018 Jan 24.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1904
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Independent-founding paper wasps constitute a major group of primitively eusocial insects, and when caste-fate determination occurs in temperate species of these wasps, particularly regarding whether it occurs before or after emergence, remains unclear. No critical morphological differences occur between potential queens of the next generation (often called gynes) and workers in primitively eusocial insects. The gynes of temperate species are characterized by diapausing, and the nutrients available during the larval stage have often been believed to determine caste fate. Short days usually induce diapause in temperate nonsocial insects, although few investigations of the effects of day length on caste-fate determination in paper wasps have been conducted. By exposing individuals to different combinations of short and long days during the immature and adult stages, we show for the first time that short days during the adult stage (but not during the immature stage) facilitated caste-fate determination toward gynes in a paper wasp. Moreover, the decision to diapause partly depended on changes in the photoperiod during the pupal and adult stages. The size of the adult also affected caste-fate determination, with diapause more likely to occur in large adults, but this size effect did not occur when individuals were exposed to many short days during the pupal stage. In addition, all adults except for a small proportion of smaller individuals prepared for diapause under short days. These findings suggest that the photoperiod is a higher priority cue than adult size.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hierarquia Social
Fotoperíodo
Vespas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
Especificidade da Espécie
Vespas/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00114-018-1541-5


  5 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29357381
[Au] Autor:Sala A
[Ad] Endereço:Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR), Ancona, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Influence of tow duration on catch performance of trawl survey in the Mediterranean Sea.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191662, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tow duration on catch per unit of swept area (CPUE), trawl catch performance, and the proportion of the species caught in a trawl survey. Longer tows are expected to have a greater probability of catching species. An average of 26 species were caught in the first 30 minutes, whereas only about one additional species was caught in the next 30 minutes in longer tows. The shorter tows involved a decrement in catch weight for 11 of the 12 target species sampled, demonstrating that tow duration did affect catch per unit of swept area CPUE. The shorter tows were associated with a significant reduction of the overall CPUE in terms of weight of the main target species and of the total catch (circa 60%). The same strong reduction of around 70% was found in particular for European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and surmullet (Mullus spp) and 50% for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus). The shorter tows were less efficient in catching large-sized hake, surmullet, Nephrops, Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus), even though the difference was significant only for Nephrops. Regardless of the p-value statistic, these findings suggest that the continuity of survey time series would be severely impaired by changing tow duration. Further work is required to explore a way to reduce tow duration without reducing CPUE.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesqueiros
Peixes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
União Europeia
Pesqueiros/legislação & jurisprudência
Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia
Peixes/fisiologia
Mar Mediterrâneo
Recursos Naturais
Densidade Demográfica
Especificidade da Espécie
Inquéritos e Questionários
Natação
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180123
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191662


  6 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28989098
[Au] Autor:Garbino GST; Martins-Junior AMG
[Ad] Endereço:PPG-Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address: antonio_mgmartins@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Phenotypic evolution in marmoset and tamarin monkeys (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) and a revised genus-level classification.
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;118:156-171, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Marmosets and tamarins (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) constitute the most species-rich subfamily of New World monkeys and one of the most diverse phenotypically. Despite the profusion of molecular phylogenies of the group, the evolution of phenotypic characters under the rapidly-emerging consensual phylogeny of the subfamily has been little studied, resulting in taxonomic proposals that have limited support from other datasets. We examined the evolution of 18 phenotypic traits (5 continuous and 13 discrete), including pelage, skull, dentition, postcrania, life-history and vocalization variables in a robust molecular phylogeny of marmoset and tamarin monkeys, quantifying their phylogenetic signal and correlations among some of the traits. At the family level, our resulting topology supports owl monkeys (Aotinae) as sister group of Callitrichinae. The topology of the callitrichine tree was congruent with previous studies except for the position of the midas group of Saguinus tamarins, which placement as sister of the bicolor group did not receive significant statistical support in both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference analyses. Our results showed that the highest value of phylogenetic signal among continuous traits was displayed by the long call character and the lowest was exhibited in the home range, intermediate values were found in characters related to osteology and skull size. Among discrete traits, pelage and osteology had similar phylogenetic signal. Based on genetic, osteological, pelage and vocalization data, we present an updated genus-level taxonomy of Callitrichinae, which recognizes six genera in the subfamily: Callimico, Callithrix, Cebuella, Mico, Leontopithecus and Saguinus. To reflect their phenotypic distinctiveness and to avoid the use of the informal "species group", we subdivided Saguinus in the subgenera Leontocebus, Saguinus and Tamarinus (revalidated here).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Callitrichinae/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Tamanho Corporal
Callithrix/anatomia & histologia
Callithrix/classificação
Callitrichinae/anatomia & histologia
Geografia
Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital
Funções Verossimilhança
Fenótipo
Filogenia
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171010
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29445955
[Au] Autor:Igic B; D'Alba L; Shawkey MD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, 44325, USA. brani.igic@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Fifty shades of white: how white feather brightness differs among species.
[So] Source:Naturwissenschaften;105(3-4):18, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1904
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:White colouration is a common and important component of animal visual signalling and camouflage, but how and why it varies across species is poorly understood. White is produced by wavelength-independent and diffuse scattering of light by the internal structures of materials, where the degree of brightness is related to the amount of light scattered. Here, we investigated the morphological basis of brightness differences among unpigmented pennaceous regions of white body feathers across 61 bird species. Using phylogenetically controlled comparisons of reflectance and morphometric measurements, we show that brighter white feathers had larger and internally more complex barbs than duller white feathers. Higher brightness was also associated with more closely packed barbs and barbules, thicker and longer barbules, and rounder and less hollow barbs. Larger species tended to have brighter white feathers than smaller species because they had thicker and more complex barbs, but aquatic species were not significantly brighter than terrestrial species. As similar light scattering principals affect the brightness of chromatic signals, not just white colours, these findings help broaden our general understanding of the mechanisms that affect plumage brightness. Future studies should examine how feather layering on a bird's body contributes to differences between brightness of white plumage patches within and across species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aves/anatomia & histologia
Aves/classificação
Plumas/anatomia & histologia
Pigmentação/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00114-018-1543-3


  8 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29425000
[Au] Autor:Zubaydullina OR; Povargo EA; Zulkarnaev TR
[Ti] Título:[Dynamics of indices of physical development of preschool children of the city of Ufa].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(7):658- 60, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:A comparative analysis of indices of physical development of preschool children of Ufa for 1978, 1999 and 2014 showed mixed changes or no statistically reliable changes in the indices in preschool children of different groups from 1978 to 1999. In the period from 1999 to 2014 in some groups of preschool children there were revealed statistically reliable positive changes in the indices, whereas there was no statistically reliable decrease of indices. A favorable fact is also the increment in the percentage of preschool children with harmonious physical development in the comparison with 1999.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropometria/métodos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Índice de Massa Corporal
Tamanho Corporal
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Nível de Saúde
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Federação Russa/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29406042
[Au] Autor:Li P; Lin S; Cui J; Li L; Zhou S; Fan J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
[Ti] Título:First Trimester Neck Circumference as a Predictor for the Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
[So] Source:Am J Med Sci;355(2):149-152, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1538-2990
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUNDS: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the efficacy of NC in predicting GDM by comparing with pregestational body mass index (preBMI) in southern Chinese woman. MARERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 371 pregnant women (97 GDM and 274 normal pregnant women) were recruited from the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. NC was measured at 11-13 gestational weeks. GDM was diagnosed through a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 gestational weeks. Using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we evaluated the association between NC and GDM. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.60-0.70) for NC and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.59-0.69) for preBMI in diagnosing GDM and no difference was found between them (P = 0.66). NC ≥ 33.8cm was determined to be the best cut-off level for identifying subjects with GDM (sensitivity 68.04% and specificity 59.12%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a large NC in the first trimester was an independent risk factor for the development of GDM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.72-7.45). CONCLUSIONS: NC, as well as preBMI, might be a novel anthropometric index for GDM screening. The increase of NC could be an independent risk factor for GDM in first trimester pregnancy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tamanho Corporal
Diabetes Gestacional/patologia
Pescoço/patologia
Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático
China
Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Gravidez
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 14693 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27775382
[Au] Autor:Huang Q; Wang H
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G1, Canada. email: qihua@ualberta.ca.
[Ti] Título:A toxin-mediated size-structured population model: Finite difference approximation and well-posedness.
[So] Source:Math Biosci Eng;13(4):697-722, 2016 08 01.
[Is] ISSN:1551-0018
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The question of the effects of environmental toxins on ecological communities is of great interest from both environmental and conservational points of view. Mathematical models have been applied increasingly to predict the effects of toxins on a variety of ecological processes. Motivated by the fact that individuals with different sizes may have different sensitivities to toxins, we develop a toxin-mediated size-structured model which is given by a system of first order fully nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). It is very possible that this work represents the first derivation of a PDE model in the area of ecotoxicology. To solve the model, an explicit finite difference approximation to this PDE system is developed. Existence-uniqueness of the weak solution to the model is established and convergence of the finite difference approximation to this unique solution is proved. Numerical examples are provided by numerically solving the PDE model using the finite difference scheme.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecotoxicologia/métodos
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
Meio Ambiente
Dinâmica Populacional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3934/mbe.2016015



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