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  1 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28457506
[Au] Autor:Muggenthaler H; Hubig M; Schenkl S; Niederegger S; Mall G
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Forensic Medicine, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany. Electronic address: holger.muggenthaler@med.uni-jena.de.
[Ti] Título:Calibration and parameter variation using a finite element model for death time estimation: The influence of the substrate.
[So] Source:Leg Med (Tokyo);25:23-28, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4162
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The most established method for temperature based death time estimation is based on an empirical double exponential model. New physically based approaches using numerical simulation techniques are subject of current research. A major advantage of such models is the possibility to incorporate non-standard boundary conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the substrate on the cooling rate of a body in the early postmortem phase. A finite element model was used for parameter variation in terms of different substrate materials. Simulation results showed a considerable influence of substrate material on the postmortem cooling rate of a body. From a thermodynamical point of view, comparability between measurements on a steel trolley and real cooling scenarios with common substrates like normal floors, asphalt or soil remains questionable. It could be shown that not only the type of substrate but also its composition can have a considerable influence on the postmortem body cooling rate.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Autopsia/métodos
Calibragem
Morte
Análise de Elementos Finitos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29302035
[Au] Autor:Rijo-Ferreira F; Carvalho T; Afonso C; Sanches-Vaz M; Costa RM; Figueiredo LM; Takahashi JS
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate Program in Areas of Basic and Applied Biology, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, 4099-002, Porto, Portugal.
[Ti] Título:Sleeping sickness is a circadian disorder.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):62, 2018 01 04.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sleeping sickness is a fatal disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei, a unicellular parasite that lives in the bloodstream and interstitial spaces of peripheral tissues and the brain. Patients have altered sleep/wake cycles, body temperature, and endocrine profiles, but the underlying causes are unknown. Here, we show that the robust circadian rhythms of mice become phase advanced upon infection, with abnormal activity occurring during the rest phase. This advanced phase is caused by shortening of the circadian period both at the behavioral level as well as at the tissue and cell level. Period shortening is T. brucei specific and independent of the host immune response, as co-culturing parasites with explants or fibroblasts also shortens the clock period, whereas malaria infection does not. We propose that T. brucei causes an advanced circadian rhythm disorder, previously associated only with mutations in clock genes, which leads to changes in the timing of sleep.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/fisiopatologia
Sono/fisiologia
Trypanosoma brucei brucei/fisiologia
Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia
Fibroblastos/metabolismo
Fibroblastos/parasitologia
Expressão Gênica
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética
Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/complicações
Fatores de Tempo
Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Period Circadian Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02484-2


  3 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28463109
[Au] Autor:Tang X; Roessingh S; Hayley SE; Chu ML; Tanaka NK; Wolfgang W; Song S; Stanewsky R; Hamada FN
[Ad] Endereço:Visual Systems Group, Abrahamson Pediatric Eye Institute, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, United States.
[Ti] Título:The role of PDF neurons in setting the preferred temperature before dawn in .
[So] Source:Elife;6, 2017 05 02.
[Is] ISSN:2050-084X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Animals have sophisticated homeostatic controls. While mammalian body temperature fluctuates throughout the day, small ectotherms, such as achieve a body temperature rhythm (BTR) through their preference of environmental temperature. Here, we demonstrate that pigment dispersing factor (PDF) neurons play an important role in setting preferred temperature before dawn. We show that small lateral ventral neurons (sLNvs), a subset of PDF neurons, activate the dorsal neurons 2 (DN2s), the main circadian clock cells that regulate temperature preference rhythm (TPR). The number of temporal contacts between sLNvs and DN2s peak before dawn. Our data suggest that the thermosensory anterior cells (ACs) likely contact sLNvs via serotonin signaling. Together, the ACs-sLNs-DN2s neural circuit regulates the proper setting of temperature preference before dawn. Given that sLNvs are important for sleep and that BTR and sleep have a close temporal relationship, our data highlight a possible neuronal interaction between body temperature and sleep regulation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Temperatura Corporal
Drosophila/fisiologia
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Neurônios/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Relógios Circadianos
Drosophila/efeitos da radiação
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo
Homeostase
Neurônios/química
Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo
Serotonina/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drosophila Proteins); 0 (Neuropeptides); 0 (pdf protein, Drosophila); 333DO1RDJY (Serotonin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29335818
[Au] Autor:Ohrnberger SA; Brinkmann K; Palme R; Valencak TG
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria. sarah.ohrnberger@vetmeduni.ac.at.
[Ti] Título:Dorsal shaving affects concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites in lactating golden hamsters.
[So] Source:Naturwissenschaften;105(1-2):13, 2018 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1904
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Breeding of golden hamsters is classically performed at thermal conditions ranging from 20 to 24 °C. However, growing evidence suggests that lactating females suffer from heat stress. We hypothesised that shaving females dorsally to maximise heat dissipation may reduce stress during reproduction. We thus compared faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) from shaved golden hamster mothers with those from unshaved controls. We observed significantly lower FCM levels in the shaved mothers (F = 8.69, p = 0.0075) pointing to lower stress due to ameliorated heat dissipation over the body surface. In addition, we observed 0.4 °C lower mean subcutaneous body temperatures in the shaved females, although this effect did not reach significance (F = 1.86, p = 0.18). Our results suggest that golden hamsters having body masses being more than four times that of laboratory mice provide a very interesting model to study aspects of lactation and heat production at the same time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Regulação da Temperatura Corporal
Cricetinae/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Domésticos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia
Fezes/química
Feminino
Remoção de Cabelo/veterinária
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo
Lactação
Reprodução/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00114-017-1536-7


  5 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28452286
[Au] Autor:Ikeno T; Williams CT; Buck CL; Barnes BM; Yan L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
[Ti] Título:Clock Gene Expression in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus of Hibernating Arctic Ground Squirrels.
[So] Source:J Biol Rhythms;32(3):246-256, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1552-4531
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Most organisms have a circadian system, entrained to daily light-dark cycles, that regulates 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. It is unclear, however, how circadian systems function in animals that exhibit seasonal metabolic suppression, particularly when this coincides with the long-term absence of a day-night cycle. The arctic ground squirrel, Urocytellus parryii, is a medium-sized, semi-fossorial rodent that appears above-ground daily during its short active season in spring and summer before re-entering a constantly dark burrow for 6 to 9 months of hibernation. This hibernation consists of multiple week-long torpor bouts interrupted by short (< 20 h) arousal intervals when metabolism and body temperature (Tb) return to normal levels. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to measure the expression of daily or circadian rhythms of the protein products of 3 circadian clock genes, PER1, PER2, BMAL1, and the neural activity marker c-FOS in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of arctic ground squirrels before, during, and after the first torpor bout of hibernation. Before torpor, while under 12:12-h light:dark conditions, animals showed significant daily rhythms in their Tb, as well as in protein expression levels of PER1 and PER2, but not BMAL1. Upon entering first torpor (Tb < 30°C), animals were moved into constant darkness. When sampled at 6-h intervals-beginning 24 h after the last light out, with Tb 3°C to 4°C-there were no circadian oscillations in PER1, PER2, or c-FOS expression. Sampling across 24 h during the first spontaneous arousal interval, c-FOS expression was elevated only when Tb reached 20°C and PER1 and PER2 expression did not show any Tb- or time-dependent changes. These results suggest that the central circadian clock might have stopped functioning during hibernation in this species, and the timing of arousal from torpor in arctic ground squirrels is unlikely to be controlled by the circadian clock within the SCN.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Relógios Circadianos/genética
Hibernação
Sciuridae/genética
Sciuridae/fisiologia
Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética
Animais
Regiões Árticas
Temperatura Corporal
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia
Hibernação/genética
Luz
Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética
Fotoperíodo
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética
Estações do Ano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (ARNTL Transcription Factors); 0 (Period Circadian Proteins); 0 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0748730417702246


  6 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28452285
[Au] Autor:Woelders T; Beersma DGM; Gordijn MCM; Hut RA; Wams EJ
[Ad] Endereço:Chronobiology Unit, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Daily Light Exposure Patterns Reveal Phase and Period of the Human Circadian Clock.
[So] Source:J Biol Rhythms;32(3):274-286, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1552-4531
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Light is the most potent time cue that synchronizes (entrains) the circadian pacemaker to the 24-h solar cycle. This entrainment process is an interplay between an individual's daily light perception and intrinsic pacemaker period under free-running conditions. Establishing individual estimates of circadian phase and period can be time-consuming. We show that circadian phase can be accurately predicted (SD = 1.1 h for dim light melatonin onset, DLMO) using 9 days of ambulatory light and activity data as an input to Kronauer's limit-cycle model for the human circadian system. This approach also yields an estimated circadian period of 24.2 h (SD = 0.2 h), with longer periods resulting in later DLMOs. A larger amount of daylight exposure resulted in an earlier DLMO. Individuals with a long circadian period also showed shorter intervals between DLMO and sleep timing. When a field-based estimation of tau can be validated under laboratory studies in a wide variety of individuals, the proposed methods may prove to be essential tools for individualized chronotherapy and light treatment for shift work and jetlag applications. These methods may improve our understanding of fundamental properties of human circadian rhythms under daily living conditions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Relógios Circadianos
Luz
Fotoperíodo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Temperatura Corporal
Ritmo Circadiano
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Síndrome do Jet Lag
Masculino
Melatonina
Sono
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
JL5DK93RCL (Melatonin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0748730417696787


  7 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29368795
[Au] Autor:Kop PA; Mochtar MH; O'Brien PA; Van der Veen F; van Wely M
[Ad] Endereço:Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1105 AZ.
[Ti] Título:Intrauterine insemination versus intracervical insemination in donor sperm treatment.
[So] Source:Cochrane Database Syst Rev;1:CD000317, 2018 01 25.
[Is] ISSN:1469-493X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The first-line treatment in donor sperm treatment consists of inseminations that can be done by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or by intracervical insemination (ICI). OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) in women who start donor sperm treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL in October 2016, checked references of relevant studies, and contacted study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, the Grey literature, and five trials registers on 15 December 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on IUI versus ICI in natural cycles or with ovarian stimulation, and RCTs comparing different cointerventions in IUI and ICI. We included cross-over studies if pre-cross-over data were available. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. We collected data on primary outcomes of live birth and multiple pregnancy rates, and on secondary outcomes of clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and cancellation rates. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (708 women analysed) on ICI and IUI in donor sperm treatment. Two studies compared IUI and ICI in natural cycles, two studies compared IUI and ICI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles, and two studies compared timing of IUI and ICI. There was very low-quality evidence; the main limitations were risk of bias due to poor reporting of study methods, and serious imprecision.IUI versus ICI in natural cyclesThere was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any clear difference in live birth rate between IUI and ICI in natural cycles (odds ratio (OR) 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 87.13; 1 RCT, 26 women; very low-quality evidence). There was only one live birth in this study (in the IUI group). IUI resulted in higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR 6.18, 95% CI 1.91 to 20.03; 2 RCTs, 76 women; I² = 48%; very low-quality evidence).No multiple pregnancies or miscarriages occurred in this study.IUI versus ICI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cyclesThere was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any clear difference in live birth rate between IUI and ICI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles (OR 2.55, 95% CI 0.72 to 8.96; 1 RCT, 43 women; very low-quality evidence). This suggested that if the chance of a live birth following ICI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles was assumed to be 30%, the chance following IUI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles would be between 24% and 80%. IUI may result in higher clinical pregnancy rates than ICI (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.78; 2 RCTs, 131 women; I² = 0%; very low-quality evidence). IUI may be associated with higher multiple pregnancy rates than ICI (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.00 to 7.69; 2 RCTs, 131 women; I² = 0%; very low-quality evidence). This suggested that if the risk of multiple pregnancy following ICI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles was assumed to be 10%, the risk following IUI would be between 10% and 46%.We found insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any clear difference between the groups in miscarriage rates in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles (OR 1.97, 95% CI 0.43 to 9.04; 2 RCTs, overall 67 pregnancies; I² = 50%; very low-quality evidence).Timing of IUI and ICIWe found no studies that reported on live birth rates.We found a higher clinical pregnancy rate when IUI was timed one day after a rise in blood levels of luteinising hormone (LH) compared to IUI two days after a rise in blood levels of LH (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.53; 1 RCT, 351 women; low-quality evidence). We found insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any clear difference in clinical pregnancy rates between ICI timed after a rise in urinary levels of LH versus a rise in basal temperature plus cervical mucus scores (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.42 to 4.11; 1 RCT, 56 women; very low-quality evidence).Neither of these studies reported multiple pregnancy or miscarriage rates as outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was a clear difference in live birth rates between IUI and ICI in natural or gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles in women who started with donor sperm treatment. There was insufficient evidence available for the effect of timing of IUI or ICI on live birth rates. Very low-quality data suggested that in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles, ICI may be associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate than IUI, but also with a higher risk of multiple pregnancy rate. We concluded that the current evidence was too limited to choose between IUI or ICI, in natural cycles or with ovarian stimulation, in donor sperm treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temperatura Corporal
Muco do Colo Uterino
Feminino
Gonadotropinas/uso terapêutico
Seres Humanos
Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia
Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue
Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos
Gravidez
Taxa de Gravidez
Gravidez Múltipla
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Gonadotropins); 9002-67-9 (Luteinizing Hormone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD000317.pub4


  8 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29357373
[Au] Autor:Maley MJ; Minett GM; Bach AJE; Zietek SA; Stewart KL; Stewart IB
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191416, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity. METHODS: Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON) (34°C, 58% relative humidity). The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0), phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14), evaporative cooling vest (CVEV), arm immersion in 10°C water (AI), portable water-perfused suit (WPS), heliox inhalation (HE) and ice slushy ingestion (SL). Immediately before and after cooling, participants were assessed for fine (Purdue pegboard task) and gross (grip and pinch strength) manual dexterity. Rectal and skin temperature, as well as thermal sensation and comfort, were monitored throughout. RESULTS: Compared with CON, SL was the only method to reduce rectal temperature (P = 0.012). All externally applied cooling methods reduced skin temperature (P<0.05), though CV0 resulted in the lowest skin temperature versus other cooling methods. Participants felt cooler with CV0, CV14, WPS, AI and SL (P<0.05). AI significantly impaired Purdue pegboard performance (P = 0.001), but did not affect grip or pinch strength (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The present study observed that ice ingestion or ice applied to the skin produced the greatest effect on rectal and skin temperature, respectively. AI should not be utilised if workers require subsequent fine manual dexterity. These results will help inform future studies investigating appropriate pre-cooling methods for the occupational worker.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Temperatura Corporal
Gelo
Sensação Térmica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Temperatura Cutânea
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ice)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180123
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191416


  9 / 41557 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29237616
[Au] Autor:Obermeyer Z; Samra JK; Mullainathan S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA zobermeyer@bwh.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Título:Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.
[So] Source:BMJ;359:j5468, 2017 12 13.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. PARTICIPANTS: 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. RESULTS: In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, P<0.001) and African-American women the hottest (versus white men: 0.052°C, P<0.001). Several comorbidities were linked to lower temperature (eg, hypothyroidism: -0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, P<0.001), as were physiological measurements (eg, body mass index: 0.002 per m/kg , P<0.001). Overall, measured factors collectively explained only 8.2% of individual temperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Variação Biológica da População
Temperatura Corporal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Individualidade
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.j5468


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[PMID]:28742056
[Au] Autor:Sasaki K; Mizuno M; Wake K; Watanabe S
[Ad] Endereço:National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Monte Carlo simulations of skin exposure to electromagnetic field from 10 GHz to 1 THz.
[So] Source:Phys Med Biol;62(17):6993-7010, 2017 Aug 09.
[Is] ISSN:1361-6560
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, we present an assessment of human-body exposure to an electromagnetic field at frequencies ranging from 10 GHz to 1 THz. The energy absorption and temperature elevation were assessed by solving boundary value problems of the one-dimensional Maxwell equations and a bioheat equation for a multilayer plane model. Dielectric properties were measured [Formula: see text] at frequencies of up to 1 THz at body temperature. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to assess variations of the transmittance into a skin surface and temperature elevation inside a body by considering the variation of the tissue thickness due to individual differences among human bodies. Furthermore, the impact of the dielectric properties of adipose tissue on temperature elevation, for which large discrepancies between our present measurement results and those in past works were observed, was also examined. We found that the dielectric properties of adipose tissue do not impact on temperature elevation at frequencies over 30 GHz. The potential risk of skin burn was discussed on the basis of the temperature elevation in millimeter-wave and terahertz-wave exposure. Furthermore, the consistency of the basic restrictions in the international guidelines set by ICNIRP was discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Campos Eletromagnéticos
Modelos Biológicos
Método de Monte Carlo
Pele/efeitos da radiação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temperatura Corporal
Seres Humanos
Dose de Radiação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170726
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1088/1361-6560/aa81fc



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