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[PMID]:27778643
[Au] Autor:Sparks LM; Redman LM; Conley KE; Harper ME; Yi F; Hodges A; Eroshkin A; Costford SR; Gabriel ME; Shook C; Cornnell HH; Ravussin E; Smith SR
[Ad] Endereço:Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Florida Hospital, Orlando, Florida 32804.
[Ti] Título:Effects of 12 Months of Caloric Restriction on Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Healthy Individuals.
[So] Source:J Clin Endocrinol Metab;102(1):111-121, 2017 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-7197
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Context: The effects of caloric restriction (CR) on in vivo muscle mitochondrial function in humans are controversial. Objective: We evaluated muscle mitochondrial function and associated transcriptional profiles in nonobese humans after 12 months of CR. Design: Individuals from an ancillary study of the CALERIE 2 randomized controlled trial were assessed at baseline and 12 months after a 25% CR or ad libitum (control) diet. Setting: The study was performed at Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, LA. Participants: Study participants included 51 (34 female subjects, 25 to 50 years of age) healthy nonobese individuals randomized to 1 of 2 groups (CR or control). Intervention: This study included 12 months of a 25% CR or ad libitum (control) diet. Main Outcomes: In vivo mitochondrial function [maximal ATP synthesis rate (ATPmax), ATPflux/O2 (P/O)] was determined by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy, and body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In a subset of individuals, a muscle biopsy was performed for transcriptional profiling via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and microarrays. Results: Weight, body mass index (BMI), fat, and fat-free mass (P < 0.001 for all) significantly decreased at month 12 after CR vs control. In vivo ATPmax and P/O were unaffected by 12 months of CR. Targeted transcriptional profiling showed no effects on pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, function, or oxidative stress. A subgroup analysis according to baseline P/O demonstrated that a higher (vs lower) P/O was associated with notable improvements in ATPmax and P/O after CR. Conclusions: In healthy nonobese humans, CR has no effect on muscle mitochondrial function; however, having a "more coupled" (versus "less coupled") phenotype enables CR-induced improvements in muscle mitochondrial function.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomarcadores/análise
Restrição Calórica
Metabolismo Energético
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Composição Corporal
Índice de Massa Corporal
Peso Corporal
Exercício/fisiologia
Feminino
Voluntários Saudáveis
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estresse Oxidativo
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1210/jc.2016-3211


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[PMID]:28459931
[Au] Autor:Trepanowski JF; Kroeger CM; Barnosky A; Klempel MC; Bhutani S; Hoddy KK; Gabel K; Freels S; Rigdon J; Rood J; Ravussin E; Varady KA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago.
[Ti] Título:Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
[So] Source:JAMA Intern Med;177(7):930-938, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6114
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Importance: Alternate-day fasting has become increasingly popular, yet, to date, no long-term randomized clinical trials have evaluated its efficacy. Objective: To compare the effects of alternate-day fasting vs daily calorie restriction on weight loss, weight maintenance, and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center randomized clinical trial of obese adults (18 to 64 years of age; mean body mass index, 34) was conducted between October 1, 2011, and January 15, 2015, at an academic institution in Chicago, Illinois. Interventions: Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 1 year: alternate-day fasting (25% of energy needs on fast days; 125% of energy needs on alternating "feast days"), calorie restriction (75% of energy needs every day), or a no-intervention control. The trial involved a 6-month weight-loss phase followed by a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in body weight. Secondary outcomes were adherence to the dietary intervention and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. Results: Among the 100 participants (86 women and 14 men; mean [SD] age, 44 [11] years), the dropout rate was highest in the alternate-day fasting group (13 of 34 [38%]), vs the daily calorie restriction group (10 of 35 [29%]) and control group (8 of 31 [26%]). Mean weight loss was similar for participants in the alternate-day fasting group and those in the daily calorie restriction group at month 6 (-6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.5%] vs -6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.6%]) and month 12 (-6.0% [95% CI, -8.5% to -3.6%] vs -5.3% [95% CI, -7.6% to -3.0%]) relative to those in the control group. Participants in the alternate-day fasting group ate more than prescribed on fast days, and less than prescribed on feast days, while those in the daily calorie restriction group generally met their prescribed energy goals. There were no significant differences between the intervention groups in blood pressure, heart rate, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, or homocysteine concentrations at month 6 or 12. Mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at month 6 significantly increased among the participants in the alternate-day fasting group (6.2 mg/dL [95% CI, 0.1-12.4 mg/dL]), but not at month 12 (1.0 mg/dL [95% CI, -5.9 to 7.8 mg/dL]), relative to those in the daily calorie restriction group. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly elevated by month 12 among the participants in the alternate-day fasting group (11.5 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.9-21.1 mg/dL]) compared with those in the daily calorie restriction group. Conclusions and Relevance: Alternate-day fasting did not produce superior adherence, weight loss, weight maintenance, or cardioprotection vs daily calorie restriction. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00960505.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Restrição Calórica/métodos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle
Jejum
Obesidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Glicemia/análise
Glicemia/metabolismo
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo
Dietoterapia/métodos
Jejum/fisiologia
Jejum/psicologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Insulina/análise
Insulina/sangue
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Obesidade/diagnóstico
Obesidade/dietoterapia
Obesidade/metabolismo
Obesidade/psicologia
Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
Cooperação do Paciente
Fatores de Risco
Perda de Peso
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Insulin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.0936


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[PMID]:29480874
[Au] Autor:Recio-Rodriguez JI; Gómez-Marcos MA; Agudo-Conde C; Ramirez I; Gonzalez-Viejo N; Gomez-Arranz A; Salcedo-Aguilar F; Rodriguez-Sanchez E; Alonso-Domínguez R; Sánchez-Aguadero N; Gonzalez-Sanchez J; Garcia-Ortiz L; EVIDENT 3 investigators
[Ad] Endereço:Primary Health Care Research Unit, La Alamedilla Health Center, Health Service of Castilla y León (SACYL), Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca (IBSAL), Spanish Network for Preventive Activities and Health Promotion (REDIAPP).
[Ti] Título:EVIDENT 3 Study: A randomized, controlled clinical trial to reduce inactivity and caloric intake in sedentary and overweight or obese people using a smartphone application: Study protocol.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(2):e9633, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Mobile technology, when included within multicomponent interventions, could contribute to more effective weight loss. The objective of this project is to assess the impact of adding the use of the EVIDENT 3 application, designed to promote healthy living habits, to traditional modification strategies employed for weight loss. Other targeted behaviors (walking, caloric-intake, sitting time) and outcomes (quality of life, inflammatory markers, measurements of arterial aging) will also be evaluated. METHODS: Randomized, multicentre clinical trial with 2 parallel groups. The study will be conducted in the primary care setting and will include 700 subjects 20 to 65 years, with a body mass index (27.5-40 kg/m), who are clinically classified as sedentary. The primary outcome will be weight loss. Secondary outcomes will include change in walking (steps/d), sitting time (min/wk), caloric intake (kcal/d), quality of life, arterial aging (augmentation index), and pro-inflammatory marker levels. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 3 months, and after 1 year. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG). Both groups will receive the traditional primary care lifestyle counseling prior to randomization. The subjects in the IG will be lent a smartphone and a smartband for a 3-month period, corresponding to the length of the intervention. The EVIDENT 3 application integrates the information collected by the smartband on physical activity and the self-reported information by participants on daily food intake. Using this information, the application generates recommendations and personalized goals for weight loss. DISCUSSION: There is a great diversity in the applications used obtaining different results on lifestyle improvement and weight loss. The populations studied are not homogeneous and generate different results. The results of this study will help our understanding of the efficacy of new technologies, combined with traditional counseling, towards reducing obesity and enabling healthier lifestyles. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Health Area of Salamanca ("CREC of Health Area of Salamanca") on April 2016. A SPIRIT checklist is available for this protocol. The trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov provided by the US National Library of Medicine-number NCT03175614.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Restrição Calórica
Exercício
Aplicativos Móveis
Sobrepeso/terapia
Smartphone
Perda de Peso
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Restrição Calórica/métodos
Aconselhamento
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
Seres Humanos
Estilo de Vida
Meia-Idade
Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia
Qualidade de Vida
Resultado do Tratamento
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180227
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009633


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[PMID]:29364913
[Au] Autor:Mellouk N; Ramé C; Marchand M; Staub C; Touzé JL; Venturi É; Mercerand F; Travel A; Chartrin P; Lecompte F; Ma L; Froment P; Dupont J
[Ad] Endereço:INRA UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, Nouzilly, France.
[Ti] Título:Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191121, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. METHODS: We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet) unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition. RESULTS: Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P < 0.0001) lower growth than Ad hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue). In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and ADIPOQ, and fish oil supplementation decreased plasma levels of RARRES2. We also showed a positive correlation between insulin values and ADIPOQ or NAMPT or RARRES2 values, and a negative correlation of fat percentage to RARRES2 values. Moreover, the effects of the Rt diet and fish oil supplementation on the mRNA expression depended on the factors tested and the hen age. CONCLUSIONS: Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adipocinas/sangue
Ração Animal
Restrição Calórica
Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem
Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem
RNA Mensageiro/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adipocinas/genética
Animais
Galinhas
Gema de Ovo/metabolismo
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
Feminino
Fígado/metabolismo
Músculos/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Adipokines); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Fish Oils); 0 (RNA, Messenger)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191121


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[PMID]:28467922
[Au] Autor:Goodpaster BH; Sparks LM
[Ad] Endereço:Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Florida Hospital, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 301 East Princeton Street, Orlando, FL 32804, USA. Electronic address: bret.goodpaster@flhosp.org.
[Ti] Título:Metabolic Flexibility in Health and Disease.
[So] Source:Cell Metab;25(5):1027-1036, 2017 May 02.
[Is] ISSN:1932-7420
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Metabolic flexibility is the ability to respond or adapt to conditional changes in metabolic demand. This broad concept has been propagated to explain insulin resistance and mechanisms governing fuel selection between glucose and fatty acids, highlighting the metabolic inflexibility of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In parallel, contemporary exercise physiology research has helped to identify potential mechanisms underlying altered fuel metabolism in obesity and diabetes. Advances in "omics" technologies have further stimulated additional basic and clinical-translational research to further interrogate mechanisms for improved metabolic flexibility in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue with the goal of preventing and treating metabolic disease.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo
Redes e Vias Metabólicas
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
Obesidade/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Restrição Calórica
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia
Metabolismo Energético
Exercício
Terapia por Exercício
Jejum
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
Glucose/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
Resistência à Insulina
Metaboloma
Metabolômica
Obesidade/terapia
Descanso
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29378104
[Au] Autor:Chekhonina YG; Gapparova KM; Sharafetdinov KK; Grigoryan ON
[Ti] Título:[Comparative assessment of efficiency of the low-calorie diets modified by proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails].
[So] Source:Vopr Pitan;84(6):99-106, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:0042-8833
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of the work is comparative assessment of efficiency of a hypocaloric diet with inclusion of proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails at obesity. 90 patients with obesity of the II­III degree at the age of 18­65 years by the principle of casual selection were divided into three groups. Control group (30 patients) received a standard low-calorie diet with an energy value of 1600 kcal/day. The diet of the 1st group (30 patients) was modified by the inclusion of protein-vitamin-mineral cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat) twice a day, diet of the 2nd group (30 patients) ­ the inclusion of a protein cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat), while excluding from the diet equivalent caloric meals. The 1st group of patients had a decrease in fat mass by 4.2±0.7 kg (p<0.02), in active lean mass by 1.1±0.1 kg, in total fluid volume by 2.2±0.3 kg (p<0.02). The 2nd group of patients had a decrease in fat mass by 3.8±0.9 kg (p<0.01), in lean mass by 1.4±0.3 kg and in the total fluid volume by 3.1±0.9 l (p<0.02). In the control group attention should be paid to a decrease in lean mass by 1.9±0.6 kg, while fat mass decreased by 3.0±0.4 kg (p<0.02) and the total fluid volume by 3.1±0.9 l (p<0.02). Evaluation of the changes of serum biochemical parameters after treatment demonstrated that the 1st group of patients had significant favorable dynamics of reduction of serum level of total cholesterol, uric acid and glucose (17.7, 28.2 and 18.3%, respectively), which was more pronounced compared with the dynamics in the control group (the decrease by 15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively). In the 2nd group of patients the decrease rate of the observed parameters was less pronounced (15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively). More appreciable favorable dynamics of biochemical parameters and reduction in body weight in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the control group allow to reasonably apply the protein-vitamin cocktails in a diet therapy at obesity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Restrição Calórica
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem
Obesidade
Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
Iogurte
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Glicemia/metabolismo
Colesterol/sangue
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Obesidade/sangue
Obesidade/dietoterapia
Ácido Úrico/sangue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Dietary Proteins); 0 (Vitamins); 268B43MJ25 (Uric Acid); 97C5T2UQ7J (Cholesterol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28747328
[Au] Autor:Christensen P; Henriksen M; Bartels EM; Leeds AR; Meinert Larsen T; Gudbergsen H; Riecke BF; Astrup A; Heitmann BL; Boesen M; Christensen R; Bliddal H
[Ad] Endereço:The Parker Institute and Departments of.
[Ti] Título:Long-term weight-loss maintenance in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized trial.
[So] Source:Am J Clin Nutr;106(3):755-763, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1938-3207
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A formula low-energy diet (LED) reduces weight effectively in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis, but the role of LED in long-term weight-loss maintenance is unclear. We aimed to determine the effect of intermittent LED compared with daily meal replacements on weight-loss maintenance and number of knee replacements over 3 y. The design was a randomized trial with participants aged >50 y who had knee osteoarthritis and a body mass index [BMI (in kg/m )] ≥30. Participants were recruited from the osteoarthritis outpatient clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital in Frederiksberg, Denmark; they had previously completed a 68-wk lifestyle intervention trial and achieved an average weight loss of 10.5 kg (10% of initial body weight). Participants were randomly assigned to either the intermittent treatment (IN) group with LED for 5 wk every 4 mo for 3 y or to daily meal replacements of 1-2 meals for 3 y [regular (RE) group]. Attention by dietitians and the amount of formula products were similar. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and proportion of participants receiving knee replacements. Outcomes were analyzed on the intention-to-treat-population with the use of baseline-carried-forward imputation for missing data. A total of 153 participants (means ± SDs: BMI: 33.3 ± 4.6; age: 63.8 ± 6.3 y; 83% women) were recruited between June and December 2009 and randomly assigned to the IN ( = 76) or RE ( = 77) group. A total of 53 and 56 participants, respectively, completed the trial. Weight increased by 0.68 and 1.75 kg in the IN and RE groups, respectively (mean difference: -1.06 kg; 95% CI: -2.75, 0.63 kg; = 0.22). Alloplasty rates were low and did not differ (IN group: 8 of 76 participants; RE group: 12 of 77 participants; = 0.35). After a mean 10% weight-loss and 1-y maintenance, additional use of daily meal replacements or intermittent LED resulted in weight-loss maintenance for 3 y. These results challenge the commonly held assumption that weight regain in the long term is inevitable. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00938808.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Índice de Massa Corporal
Manutenção do Peso Corporal
Restrição Calórica
Dieta Redutora/métodos
Ingestão de Energia
Obesidade/dietoterapia
Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Artroplastia do Joelho
Feminino
Alimentos Formulados
Seres Humanos
Estilo de Vida
Masculino
Refeições
Meia-Idade
Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia
Ganho de Peso
Perda de Peso
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180124
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180124
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3945/ajcn.117.158543


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[PMID]:29240368
[Au] Autor:Baiges I; Arola L
[Ti] Título:COCOA (Theobroma cacao) Polyphenol-Rich Extract Increases the Chronological Lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
[So] Source:J Frailty Aging;5(3):186-90, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2260-1341
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism with conserved aging pathways. Yeast chronological lifespan experiments mimic the processes involved in human non-dividing tissues, such as the nervous system or skeletal muscle, and can speed up the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects before proceeding to animal studies. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CPE) in expanding the S. cerevisiae chronological lifespan in two conditions: in the stationary phase reached after glucose depletion and under severe caloric restriction. MEASUREMENTS: Using a high-throughput method, wild-type S. cerevisiae and its mitochondrial manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase null mutant (sod2Δ) were cultured in synthetic complete dextrose medium. After 2 days, 0, 5 and 20 mg/ml of CPE were added, and viability was measured throughout the stationary phase. The effects of the major components of CPE were also evaluated. To determine yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions, cultures were washed with water 24 h after the addition of 0 and 20 mg/ml of CPE, and viability was followed over time. RESULTS : CPE increased the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae during the stationary phase in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase was also observed in (sod2Δ). None of the major CPE components (theobromine, caffeine, maltodextrin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and procyanidin B2) was able to increase the yeast lifespan. CPE further increased the yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction. CONCLUSION: CPE increases the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae through a SOD2-independent mechanism. The extract also extends yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions. The high-throughput assay used makes it possible to simply and rapidly test the efficacy of a large number of compounds on yeast aging, requiring only small amounts, and is thus a convenient screening assay to accelerate the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cacau
Longevidade
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Polifenóis/farmacologia
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Restrição Calórica
Superóxido Dismutase/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Polyphenols); EC 1.15.1.1 (Superoxide Dismutase); EC 1.15.1.1 (superoxide dismutase 2)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29261744
[Au] Autor:Skowronski AA; Ravussin Y; Leibel RL; LeDuc CA
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York City, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Energy homeostasis in leptin deficient Lepob/ob mice.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189784, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Maintenance of reduced body weight is associated both with reduced energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass and increased hunger in mice and humans. Lowered circulating leptin concentration, due to decreased fat mass, provides a primary signal for this response. However, leptin deficient (Lepob/ob) mice (and leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats) reduce energy expenditure following weight reduction by a necessarily non-leptin dependent mechanisms. To identify these mechanisms, Lepob/ob mice were fed ad libitum (AL group; n = 21) or restricted to 3 kilocalories of chow per day (CR group, n = 21). After losing 20% of initial weight (in approximately 2 weeks), the CR mice were stabilized at 80% of initial body weight for two weeks by titrated refeeding, and then released from food restriction. CR mice conserved energy (-17% below predicted based on body mass and composition during the day; -52% at night); and, when released to ad libitum feeding, CR mice regained fat and lean mass (to AL levels) within 5 weeks. CR mice did so while their ad libitum caloric intake was equal to that of the AL animals. While calorically restricted, the CR mice had a significantly lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER = 0.89) compared to AL (0.94); after release to ad libitum feeding, RER was significantly higher (1.03) than in the AL group (0.93), consistent with their anabolic state. These results confirm that, in congenitally leptin deficient animals, leptin is not required for compensatory reduction in energy expenditure accompanying weight loss, but suggest that the hyperphagia of the weight-reduced state is leptin-dependent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Metabolismo Energético
Homeostase
Leptina/deficiência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Glicemia/metabolismo
Composição Corporal
Temperatura Corporal
Peso Corporal
Restrição Calórica
Respiração Celular
Comportamento Alimentar
Insulina/sangue
Leptina/metabolismo
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Obesos
Projetos Piloto
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Leptin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189784


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[PMID]:29175212
[Au] Autor:Wang Z; Yang F; Jiang Y; Wang R; Chen X; Lv J; Li C; Sun X; Li J; Wang S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Role of pyroptosis in normal cardiac response to calorie restriction and starvation.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun;495(1):1122-1128, 2018 01 01.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2104
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIMS: An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for cardiac diseases. Most researches focus on high fat diet, little is known about the detrimental effects of starvation on heart. METHODS: Mice were fed 100%, 40% and 20% of ad libitum to mimic the situation of moderate and severe caloric restriction (CR). To further evaluate the different effect of CR and starvation on cardiomyocyte, AC16 cells were treated with different concentrations of serum or glucose. TUNEL staining was performed to evaluate DNA damage in AC16 cells. HE and Masson staining were performed to detect the morphology and degree of fibrosis in myocardium from mice. Immunohistochemical staining, immunofluorescence staining, western blot and real-time PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression of caspase-1, IL-1ß and IL-18. RESULTS: CR and starvation decrease body weight of mice in a concentration dependent manner. The starvation group showed a remarkable myocardial fibrosis with no significant alteration between control and CR groups. CR inhibited the activation of caspase-1 as well as the expression of IL-1ß and IL-18. On the contrary, starvation plays completely opposite effects, which was in accordance with histological changes. Similarly, different levels of serum and glucose deprivation were used to mimic the effect of CR and starvation in vitro. Moderate level of serum and glucose deprivation exerts protective effect on AC16 cells through the inhibition of pyroptosis, whereas high level of serum and glucose deprivation induces cell injury through the induction of pyroptosis. CONCLUSION: CR alleviates pyroptosis, whereas starvation promotes the progression of pyroptosis in myocardial tissues and cells.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Restrição Calórica/métodos
Coração/fisiopatologia
Miocárdio/patologia
Piroptose
Inanição/patologia
Inanição/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Peso Corporal
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180105
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180105
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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