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[PMID]:28922784
[Au] Autor:Jiao L; Chen L; White DL; Tinker L; Chlebowski RT; Van Horn LV; Richardson P; Lane D; Sangi-Haghpeykar H; El-Serag HB
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety (IQuESt), Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred
[Ti] Título:Low-fat Dietary Pattern and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial.
[So] Source:J Natl Cancer Inst;110(1), 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2105
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Background: Observational studies suggest that diet may influence pancreatic cancer risk. We investigated the effect of a low-fat dietary intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence. Methods: The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (WHI-DM) trial is a randomized controlled trial conducted in 48 835 postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years in the United States between 1993 and 1998. Women were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 19 541), with the goal of reducing total fat intake and increasing intake of vegetables, fruits, and grains, or to the usual diet comparison group (n = 29 294). The intervention concluded in March 2005. We evaluated the effect of the intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence with the follow-up through 2014 using the log-rank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: In intention-to-treat analyses including 46 200 women, 92 vs 165 pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained in the intervention vs the comparison group (P = .23). The multivariable hazard ratio (HR) of pancreatic cancer was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 1.11). Risk was statistically significantly reduced among women with baseline body mass indexes (BMIs) of 25 kg/m2 or higher (HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.96), but not among women with BMIs of less than 25 kg/m2 (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.97 to 2.71, Pinteraction = .01). Conclusions: A low-fat dietary intervention was associated with reduced pancreatic cancer incidence in women who were overweight or obese in the WHI-DM trial. Caution needs to be taken in interpreting the findings based on subgroup analyses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Índice de Massa Corporal
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Grãos Comestíveis
Feminino
Seguimentos
Frutas
Seres Humanos
Análise de Intenção de Tratamento
Meia-Idade
Obesidade/epidemiologia
Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
Fatores de Proteção
Estados Unidos
Verduras
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170920
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jnci/djx117


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[PMID]:29466592
[Au] Autor:Gardner CD; Trepanowski JF; Del Gobbo LC; Hauser ME; Rigdon J; Ioannidis JPA; Desai M; King AC
[Ad] Endereço:Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, California.
[Ti] Título:Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial.
[So] Source:JAMA;319(7):667-679, 2018 02 20.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Importance: Dietary modification remains key to successful weight loss. Yet, no one dietary strategy is consistently superior to others for the general population. Previous research suggests genotype or insulin-glucose dynamics may modify the effects of diets. Objective: To determine the effect of a healthy low-fat (HLF) diet vs a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet on weight change and if genotype pattern or insulin secretion are related to the dietary effects on weight loss. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) randomized clinical trial included 609 adults aged 18 to 50 years without diabetes with a body mass index between 28 and 40. The trial enrollment was from January 29, 2013, through April 14, 2015; the date of final follow-up was May 16, 2016. Participants were randomized to the 12-month HLF or HLC diet. The study also tested whether 3 single-nucleotide polymorphism multilocus genotype responsiveness patterns or insulin secretion (INS-30; blood concentration of insulin 30 minutes after a glucose challenge) were associated with weight loss. Interventions: Health educators delivered the behavior modification intervention to HLF (n = 305) and HLC (n = 304) participants via 22 diet-specific small group sessions administered over 12 months. The sessions focused on ways to achieve the lowest fat or carbohydrate intake that could be maintained long-term and emphasized diet quality. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was 12-month weight change and determination of whether there were significant interactions among diet type and genotype pattern, diet and insulin secretion, and diet and weight loss. Results: Among 609 participants randomized (mean age, 40 [SD, 7] years; 57% women; mean body mass index, 33 [SD, 3]; 244 [40%] had a low-fat genotype; 180 [30%] had a low-carbohydrate genotype; mean baseline INS-30, 93 µIU/mL), 481 (79%) completed the trial. In the HLF vs HLC diets, respectively, the mean 12-month macronutrient distributions were 48% vs 30% for carbohydrates, 29% vs 45% for fat, and 21% vs 23% for protein. Weight change at 12 months was -5.3 kg for the HLF diet vs -6.0 kg for the HLC diet (mean between-group difference, 0.7 kg [95% CI, -0.2 to 1.6 kg]). There was no significant diet-genotype pattern interaction (P = .20) or diet-insulin secretion (INS-30) interaction (P = .47) with 12-month weight loss. There were 18 adverse events or serious adverse events that were evenly distributed across the 2 diet groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this 12-month weight loss diet study, there was no significant difference in weight change between a healthy low-fat diet vs a healthy low-carbohydrate diet, and neither genotype pattern nor baseline insulin secretion was associated with the dietary effects on weight loss. In the context of these 2 common weight loss diet approaches, neither of the 2 hypothesized predisposing factors was helpful in identifying which diet was better for whom. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01826591.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Dieta Redutora
Insulina/sangue
Obesidade/dietoterapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Ingestão de Energia
Feminino
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Resistência à Insulina
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Obesidade/genética
Sobrepeso/dietoterapia
Sobrepeso/genética
Perda de Peso
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insulin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180222
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2018.0245


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[PMID]:28459071
[Au] Autor:Jakse B; Pinter S; Jakse B; Bucar Pajek M; Pajek J
[Ad] Endereço:Barbara Jakse s.p., SI-1230 Domzale, Slovenia.
[Ti] Título:Effects of an Ad Libitum Consumed Low-Fat Plant-Based Diet Supplemented with Plant-Based Meal Replacements on Body Composition Indices.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2017:9626390, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:. To document the effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition indices. . This was a nonrandomized interventional ( = 241)-control ( = 84) trial with a 10-week, low-fat, plant-based diet supplemented with two daily meal replacements. The meals were allowed to be eaten to full satiety without prespecified calorie restrictions. Control subjects received weekly lectures on the rationale and expected benefits of plant-based nutrition. Body composition indices were measured with bioimpedance analysis. . Relative to controls, in cases, postintervention body fat percentage was reduced by 4.3 (95% CI 4.1-4.6)% points (a relative decrement of -13.4%), visceral fat by 1.6 (95% CI 1.5-1.7) fat cross-sectional surface units, and weight by 5.6 kg (95% CI 5.2-6), while muscle mass was reduced by 0.3 kg (95% CI 0.06-0.5) with a relative increase of muscle mass percentage of 4.2 (3.9-4.4)% points. Analysis of covariance showed significantly larger adjusted fat reductions in cases compared to controls. Late follow-up revealed further weight loss in 60% of cases and no significant change in controls. . Low-fat, plant-based diet in free-living nonresidential conditions eaten ad libitum enables significant and meaningful body fat reductions with relative preservation of muscle mass. This trial is registered with NCT02906072, ClinicalTrials.gov.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Composição Corporal/fisiologia
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Dieta Vegetariana
Perda de Peso/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170502
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2017/9626390


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[PMID]:29240830
[Au] Autor:Warfel JD; Vandanmagsar B; Wicks SE; Zhang J; Noland RC; Mynatt RL
[Ad] Endereço:Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A low fat diet ameliorates pathology but retains beneficial effects associated with CPT1b knockout in skeletal muscle.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188850, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Inhibiting fatty acid oxidation is one approach to lowering glucose levels in diabetes. Skeletal muscle specific Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b knockout mice (Cpt1bm-/-) comprise a model of impaired fat oxidation; and have decreased fat mass and enhanced glucose disposal and muscle oxidative capacity compared to controls. However, unfavorable effects occur relative to controls when Cpt1bm-/- mice are fed a 25% fat diet, including decreased activity and fat free mass and increased intramuscular lipid and serum myoglobin. In this study we explore if a low fat, high carbohydrate diet can ablate the unfavorable effects while maintaining the favorable phenotype in Cpt1bm-/- mice. Mice were fed either 10% fat (low fat) or 25% fat (chow) diet. Body composition was measured biweekly and indirect calorimetry was performed. Low fat diet abolishes the decreased activity, fat, and fat free mass seen in Cpt1bm-/- mice fed chow diet. Low fat diet also reduces serum myoglobin levels in Cpt1bm-/- mice and diminishes differences in IGF-1 seen between Cpt1bm-/- mice and control mice fed chow diet. Glucose tolerance tests reveal that glucose clearance is improved in Cpt1bm-/- mice relative to controls regardless of diet, and serum analysis shows increased levels of muscle derived FGF21. Electron microscopic analyses and measurements of mRNA transcripts show increased intramuscular lipids, FGF21, mitochondrial and oxidative capacity markers regardless of diet. The favorable metabolic phenotype of Cpt1bm-/- mice therefore remains consistent regardless of diet; and a combination of a low fat diet and pharmacological inhibition of CPT1b may offer remedies to reduce blood glucose.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Músculo Esquelético/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ingestão de Energia
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo
Cetonas/metabolismo
Camundongos
Camundongos Knockout
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
Mioglobina/metabolismo
Ganho de Peso
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids, Nonesterified); 0 (Ketones); 0 (Myoglobin); 67763-96-6 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor I); EC 2.3.1.21 (CPT1B protein, mouse); EC 2.3.1.21 (Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188850


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[PMID]:29324859
[Au] Autor:He D; Mustafi D; Fan X; Fernandez S; Markiewicz E; Zamora M; Mueller J; Sachleben JR; Brady MJ; Conzen SD; Karczmar GS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects differential lipid composition in mammary glands on low fat, high animal fat versus high fructose diets.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190929, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9.4 T scanner after 8 weeks on the diet. 1H spectra were acquired using point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) from two 1 mm3 boxes on each side of inguinal mammary gland with no cancers, lymph nodes, or lymph ducts. High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) images were also acquired from nine 1-mm slices. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions was used to fit the spectra. The percentages of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were calculated from each fitted spectrum. Water and fat peak height images (maps) were generated from HiSS data. The results showed that HAFD mice had significantly lower PUFA than both LFD (p < 0.001) and HFruD (p < 0.01) mice. The mammary lipid quantity calculated from 1H spectra was much larger in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.03) but similar to HFruD mice (p = 0.10). The average fat signal intensity over the mammary glands calculated from HiSS fat maps was ~60% higher in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.04) mice. The mean or median of calculated parameters for the HFruD mice were between those for LFD and HAFD mice. Therefore, PRESS spectroscopy and HiSS MRI demonstrated water and fat composition changes in mammary glands due to a Western diet, which was low in potassium, high in sodium, animal fat, and simple carbohydrates. Measurements of PUFA with MRI could be used to evaluate cancer risk, improve cancer detection and diagnosis, and guide preventative therapy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Dieta Hiperlipídica
Açúcares da Dieta
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo
Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Frutose
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/diagnóstico por imagem
Camundongos Transgênicos
Distribuição Aleatória
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dietary Sugars); 0 (Fatty Acids); 30237-26-4 (Fructose)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190929


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[PMID]:29174025
[Au] Autor:Clifton PM; Keogh JB
[Ad] Endereço:School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity, University of South Australia, Sansom Institute for Health Science, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471 Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia. Electronic address: Peter.clifton@unisa.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:A systematic review of the effect of dietary saturated and polyunsaturated fat on heart disease.
[So] Source:Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis;27(12):1060-1080, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1590-3729
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIMS: Over the last 7 years there has been intense debate about the advice to reduce saturated fat and increase polyunsaturated fat to reduce CVD risk. The aim of this review was to examine systematic reviews and meta-analyses since 2010 on this topic plus additional cohort studies and interventions not included in these reviews. DATA SYNTHESIS: High saturated and trans fat intake (which elevates LDL like saturated fat) in the Nurses and Health Professional Follow-Up Studies combined is associated with an 8-13% higher mortality and replacement of saturated fat with any carbohydrate, PUFA and MUFA is associated with lower mortality with PUFA being more effective than MUFA (19% reduction versus 11%). With CVD mortality only PUFA and fish oil replacement of saturated fat lowers risk with a 28% reduction in CVD mortality per 5% of energy. Replacing saturated fat with PUFA or MUFA is equally effective at reducing CHD events and replacement with whole grains will lower events while replacement with sugar and starch increases events. Replacement of saturated fat with carbohydrate has no effect on CHD events or death. Only PUFA replacement of saturated fat lowers CHD events and CVD and total mortality. Replacing saturated fat with linoleic acid appears to be beneficial based on the Hooper Cochrane meta-analysis of interventions although other analyses with fewer studies have shown no effect. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing saturated fat and replacing it with carbohydrate will not lower CHD events or CVD mortality although it will reduce total mortality. Replacing saturated fat with PUFA, MUFA or high-quality carbohydrate will lower CHD events.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados
Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos
Cardiopatias/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem
Medicina Baseada em Evidências
Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos
Comportamento Alimentar
Dieta Saudável
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico
Cardiopatias/mortalidade
Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle
Seres Humanos
Metanálise como Assunto
Fatores de Proteção
Medição de Risco
Fatores de Risco
Comportamento de Redução do Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dietary Carbohydrates); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Fatty Acids, Unsaturated)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171218
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171218
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28958691
[Au] Autor:Haufe S; Engeli S; Kaminski J; Witt H; Rein D; Kamlage B; Utz W; Fuhrmann JC; Haas V; Mähler A; Schulz-Menger J; Luft FC; Boschmann M; Jordan J
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Branched-chain amino acid catabolism rather than amino acids plasma concentrations is associated with diet-induced changes in insulin resistance in overweight to obese individuals.
[So] Source:Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis;27(10):858-864, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1590-3729
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND & AIMS: 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB), a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine, which stimulates muscle fatty acid uptake, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that circulating 3-HIB herald insulin resistance and that metabolic improvement with weight loss are related to changes in BCAAs and 3-HIB. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed plasma and urine in 109 overweight to obese individuals before and after six months on hypocaloric diets reduced in either carbohydrates or fat. We calculated the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) and whole body insulin sensitivity from oral glucose tolerance tests and measured intramyocellular fat by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. BCAAs and 3-HIB plasma concentrations were inversely related to insulin sensitivity but not to intramyocellular fat content at baseline. With 7.4 ± 4.5% weight loss mean BCAA and 3-HIB plasma concentrations did not change, irrespective of dietary macronutrient content. Individual changes in 3-HIB with 6-month diet but not BCAAs were correlated to the change in whole body insulin sensitivity and HOMA-IR independently of BMI changes. CONCLUSIONS: 3-HIB relates to insulin sensitivity but is not associated with intramyocellular fat content in overweight to obese individuals. Moreover, changes in 3-HIB rather than changes in BCAAs are associated with metabolic improvements with weight loss. Registration number for clinical trials: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00956566.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue
Restrição Calórica
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Hidroxibutiratos/sangue
Resistência à Insulina
Obesidade/dietoterapia
Perda de Peso
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo
Adulto
Biomarcadores/sangue
Glicemia/metabolismo
Feminino
Teste de Tolerância a Glucose
Seres Humanos
Insulina/sangue
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Metabolômica/métodos
Meia-Idade
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
Obesidade/sangue
Obesidade/diagnóstico
Estudos Prospectivos
Fatores de Tempo
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amino Acids, Branched-Chain); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Hydroxybutyrates); 0 (Insulin); K75C8JDF5W (3-hydroxyisobutyric acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170930
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28855223
[Au] Autor:Derkach A; Sampson J; Joseph J; Playdon MC; Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Rockville, MD; and.
[Ti] Título:Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study.
[So] Source:Am J Clin Nutr;106(4):1131-1141, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1938-3207
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies. We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure. The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions ( = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups. Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold ( < 10 ). Adjustment for coinciding change in blood pressure did not substantively alter the association for the top-ranked metabolites. Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta
Comportamento Alimentar
Hipertensão/sangue
Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia
Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Aminoácidos/sangue
Pressão Sanguínea
Estudos Cross-Over
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Dieta Hipossódica
Feminino
Frutas
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Seres Humanos
Hipertensão/dietoterapia
Masculino
Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos
Meia-Idade
Extratos Vegetais/sangue
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
Verduras
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amino Acids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Sodium Chloride, Dietary); 0 (Sodium, Dietary)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3945/ajcn.116.150136


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[PMID]:28814394
[Au] Autor:Tsaban G; Wolak A; Avni-Hassid H; Gepner Y; Shelef I; Henkin Y; Schwarzfuchs D; Cohen N; Bril N; Rein M; Serfaty D; Kenigsbuch S; Tene L; Zelicha H; Yaskolka-Meir A; Komy O; Bilitzky A; Chassidim Y; Ceglarek U; Stumvoll M; Blüher M; Thiery J; Dicker D; Rudich A; Stampfer MJ; Shai I
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
[Ti] Título:Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.
[So] Source:Am J Clin Nutr;106(4):984-995, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1938-3207
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse. We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens. During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity. We performed whole-body MRI and volumetrically quantified IPF and EPF among 80 participants to follow the 18-mo changes. The participants [mean age: 48.6 y; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m ); 31.7; 90% men] had baseline IPF and EPF (mean ± SD) volumes of 172.4 ± 53.3 mL and 194.9 ± 71.5 mL, respectively. The 18-mo moderate weight loss of 3.7 kg was similar in both groups, but the reduction in waist circumference was higher in the MED/LC group (-6.9 ± 6.6 cm) than in the LF diet group (-2.3 ± 6.5 cm; = 0.01). After 18 mo, the IPF volume had reduced twice as much in the MED/LC group compared with the LF group [-37 ± 26.2 mL (-22% ± 15%) compared with -15.5 ± 26.2 mL (-8% ± 15%), respectively; < 0.05, after adjustment for changes in weight or visceral adipose tissue]. The EPF volume had reduced similarly in both groups [-41.6 ± 30.2 mL (-23% ± 16%) in the MED/LC group compared with -37.9 ± 28.3 mL (-19% ± 14%) in the LF group; > 0.1]. After controlling for weight loss, IPF and EPF volume reduction paralleled changes in lipid profile but not with improved glycemic profile variables: the IPF relative reduction was associated with a decrease in triglycerides (TGs) (ß = 0.090; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.154; = 0.007) and the ratio of TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (ß = 2.689; 95% CI: 0.373, 5.003; = 0.024), and the EPF relative reduction was associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.452; 95% CI: -0.880, -0.023; = 0.039) and a decrease in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (ß = 3.766; 95% CI: 1.092, 6.440; = 0.007). Moderate but persistent dietary-induced weight loss substantially decreased both IPF and EPF volumes. Reduction of pericardial adipose tissues is independently associated with an improved lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet, rich in unsaturated fats and restricted carbohydrates, is superior to an LF diet in terms of the IPF burden reduction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530724.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo
Dieta Redutora/métodos
Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia
Obesidade/dietoterapia
Pericárdio/metabolismo
Perda de Peso/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adiposidade
Adulto
Índice de Massa Corporal
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Dieta Mediterrânea
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal
Lipídeos/sangue
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Nozes
Obesidade/sangue
Obesidade Abdominal/sangue
Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia
Circunferência da Cintura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dietary Carbohydrates); 0 (Dietary Fats); 0 (Lipids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170818
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3945/ajcn.117.157115


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[PMID]:28737771
[Au] Autor:Quail DF; Olson OC; Bhardwaj P; Walsh LA; Akkari L; Quick ML; Chen IC; Wendel N; Ben-Chetrit N; Walker J; Holt PR; Dannenberg AJ; Joyce JA
[Ad] Endereço:Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.
[Ti] Título:Obesity alters the lung myeloid cell landscape to enhance breast cancer metastasis through IL5 and GM-CSF.
[So] Source:Nat Cell Biol;19(8):974-987, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4679
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Obesity is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation, which can disrupt homeostasis within tissue microenvironments. Given the correlation between obesity and relative risk of death from cancer, we investigated whether obesity-associated inflammation promotes metastatic progression. We demonstrate that obesity causes lung neutrophilia in otherwise normal mice, which is further exacerbated by the presence of a primary tumour. The increase in lung neutrophils translates to increased breast cancer metastasis to this site, in a GM-CSF- and IL5-dependent manner. Importantly, weight loss is sufficient to reverse this effect, and reduce serum levels of GM-CSF and IL5 in both mouse models and humans. Our data indicate that special consideration of the obese patient population is critical for effective management of cancer progression.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo
Interleucina-5/metabolismo
Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo
Pulmão/metabolismo
Infiltração de Neutrófilos
Neutrófilos/metabolismo
Obesidade/metabolismo
Pneumonia/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adiposidade
Transferência Adotiva
Animais
Neoplasias da Mama/genética
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia
Linhagem Celular Tumoral
Técnicas de Cocultura
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Progressão da Doença
Feminino
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/sangue
Interleucina-5/sangue
Pulmão/patologia
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética
Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle
Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD
Camundongos SCID
Camundongos Transgênicos
Neutrófilos/patologia
Neutrófilos/transplante
Obesidade/complicações
Obesidade/dietoterapia
Obesidade/patologia
Pneumonia/etiologia
Pneumonia/patologia
Pneumonia/prevenção & controle
Transdução de Sinais
Fatores de Tempo
Microambiente Tumoral
Perda de Peso
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (IL5 protein, human); 0 (Interleukin-5); 83869-56-1 (Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170921
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170921
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/ncb3578



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