Base de dados : MEDLINE
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[PMID]:29265666
[Au] Autor:Hoffecker JF; Hoffecker IT
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309-0450.
[Ti] Título:Technological complexity and the global dispersal of modern humans.
[So] Source:Evol Anthropol;26(6):285-299, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6505
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) dispersed out of Africa roughly 120,000 years ago and again after 75,000 years ago. The early dispersal was geographically restricted to the Arabian Peninsula, Levant, and possibly parts of southern Asia. The later dispersal was ultimately global in scope, including areas not previously occupied by Homo. One explanation for the contrast between the two out-of-Africa dispersals is that the modern humans who expanded into Eurasia 120,000 years ago lacked the functionally and structurally complex technology of recent hunter-gatherers. This technology, which includes, for example, mechanical projectiles, snares and traps, and sewn clothing, provides not only expanded dietary breadth and increased rates of foraging efficiency and success in places where plant and animal productivity is low, but protection from cold weather in places where winter temperatures are low. The absence of complex technology before 75,000 years ago also may explain why modern humans in the Levant did not develop sedentary settlements and agriculture 120,000 years ago (i.e., during the Last Interglacial).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vestuário/história
Migração Humana/história
Tecnologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Agricultura/história
Antropologia
Ásia
Australásia
Cavernas
Evolução Cultural/história
Dieta Paleolítica
Europa (Continente)
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/evan.21553


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[PMID]:29040340
[Au] Autor:Abrahams MI; Peres CA; Costa HCM
[Ad] Endereço:School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186653, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not "emptied" the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable hunting of wildlife for food, thereby providing a conservative assessment of game depletion. Given this 'best-case' camera trap and interview-based evidence for hunting depletion, regions with higher human population densities, external trade in wildlife and limited access to alternative protein will likely exhibit more severe depletion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição Animal
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Dieta Paleolítica/estatística & dados numéricos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens
Biomassa
Peso Corporal
Brasil
Feminino
Florestas
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Densidade Demográfica
Distribuição Espacial da População
Vertebrados
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171018
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186653


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[PMID]:28531221
[Au] Autor:Ren L; Li X; Kang L; Brunson K; Liu H; Dong W; Li H; Min R; Liu X; Dong G
[Ad] Endereço:MOE Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental System, College of Earth Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China.
[Ti] Título:Human paleodiet and animal utilization strategies during the Bronze Age in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0177867, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca. 2500 Cal BP) in northwest Yunnan Province. The δ13C results for human samples from Shilinggang demonstrate that people's diets were mainly dominated by C3-based foodstuffs, probably due to both direct consumption of C3 food and as a result of C3 foddering of consumed animals. Auxiliary C4 food signals can also be detected. High δ15N values indicate that meat was an important component of the diet. Analysis of faunal samples indicates that people primarily fed pigs and dogs with human food waste, while sheep/goats and cattle were foddered with other food sources. We compare stable isotope and archaeobotanical data from Shilinggang with data from other Bronze Age sites in Yunnan to explore potential regional variation in subsistence strategies. Our work suggests that people adopted different animal utilization and subsistence strategies in different parts of Yunnan during the Bronze Age period, probably as local adaptations to the highly diversified and isolated environments in the region.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Osso e Ossos/química
Isótopos de Carbono/análise
Dieta Paleolítica/história
Fósseis/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
China
Comportamento Alimentar
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Carbon Isotopes)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170908
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170908
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170523
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0177867


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[PMID]:28355257
[Au] Autor:Wilkins J; Brown KS; Oestmo S; Pereira T; Ranhorn KL; Schoville BJ; Marean CW
[Ad] Endereço:Human Evolution Research Institute, Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Private Bag, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Lithic technological responses to Late Pleistocene glacial cycling at Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, South Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(3):e0174051, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:There are multiple hypotheses for human responses to glacial cycling in the Late Pleistocene, including changes in population size, interconnectedness, and mobility. Lithic technological analysis informs us of human responses to environmental change because lithic assemblage characteristics are a reflection of raw material transport, reduction, and discard behaviors that depend on hunter-gatherer social and economic decisions. Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6), Western Cape, South Africa is an ideal locality for examining the influence of glacial cycling on early modern human behaviors because it preserves a long sequence spanning marine isotope stages (MIS) 5, 4, and 3 and is associated with robust records of paleoenvironmental change. The analysis presented here addresses the question, what, if any, lithic assemblage traits at PP5-6 represent changing behavioral responses to the MIS 5-4-3 interglacial-glacial cycle? It statistically evaluates changes in 93 traits with no a priori assumptions about which traits may significantly associate with MIS. In contrast to other studies that claim that there is little relationship between broad-scale patterns of climate change and lithic technology, we identified the following characteristics that are associated with MIS 4: increased use of quartz, increased evidence for outcrop sources of quartzite and silcrete, increased evidence for earlier stages of reduction in silcrete, evidence for increased flaking efficiency in all raw material types, and changes in tool types and function for silcrete. Based on these results, we suggest that foragers responded to MIS 4 glacial environmental conditions at PP5-6 with increased population or group sizes, 'place provisioning', longer and/or more intense site occupations, and decreased residential mobility. Several other traits, including silcrete frequency, do not exhibit an association with MIS. Backed pieces, once they appear in the PP5-6 record during MIS 4, persist through MIS 3. Changing paleoenvironments explain some, but not all temporal technological variability at PP5-6.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arqueologia
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise
Paleontologia
Dinâmica Populacional
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Clima
Dieta Paleolítica/história
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
Camada de Gelo
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170829
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170829
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170330
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174051


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[PMID]:28179490
[Au] Autor:Whalen KA; Judd S; McCullough ML; Flanders WD; Hartman TJ; Bostick RM
[Ad] Endereço:Departments of Epidemiology and.
[Ti] Título:Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults.
[So] Source:J Nutr;147(4):612-620, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1541-6100
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases. We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age. Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort ( = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors. For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; trend < 0.01) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.73; trend < 0.01). The corresponding HRs for all-cancer mortality were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.95; trend = 0.03) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.84; trend = 0.01), and for all-cardiovascular disease mortality they were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.00; trend = 0.06) and HR: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.88; trend = 0.01). Findings from this biracial prospective study suggest that diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade
Dieta Mediterrânea
Dieta Paleolítica
Neoplasias/mortalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Afroamericanos
Idoso
Estudos de Coortes
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170620
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170620
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3945/jn.116.241919


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[PMID]:28038772
[Au] Autor:Grimoud AM; Gibbon VE
[Ad] Endereço:Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Faculté d'Odontologie, 3 chemin des maraîchers, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France. Electronic address: annemarie.grimoud@wanadoo.fr.
[Ti] Título:Dental wear quantity and direction in Chalcolithic and Medieval populations from southwest France.
[So] Source:Homo;68(1):1-9, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1618-1301
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to verify if dental wear changed due to the dietary shift between the Chalcolithic and Middle Ages from relatively hard and fibrous foods to soft cooked cereals. This was accomplished by comparing dental wear quantity and direction between people from two archaeological sites, Les Treilles during the Chalcolithic (mixed subsistence farmers) and Marsan from the Middle Ages (agriculturalists) in southwest France. The materials studied include 65 mandibles, 32 from Les Treilles and 33 from Marsan; 549 teeth were studied. The results show statistically significant difference in wear quantity and direction, the Chalcolithic population (Les Treilles) had the greatest levels of wear in a mainly oblique direction, with the anterior teeth heavily affected by wear. Comparatively, the Medieval sample (Marsan) had lesser levels of wear in a mainly horizontal direction, and the most heavily worn teeth were the molars and incisors. The quantity of wear seems to correlate well with changes in diet, the high level of wear on the anterior teeth in the Chalcolithic sample corresponds with the consumption of a mixed diet of fibrous and tough foods. At Marsan, the lower wear quantity was likely due to a diet of soft boiled cereals, requiring less mastication. However, wear direction appears dependent on several factors and may correlate with more mixed subsistence practices. This study demonstrates the need for additional research into the complex actions of mastication and its effect on dental wear, as well as standardised methodology for the examination of dental wear in archaeological samples.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta/história
Desgaste dos Dentes/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura/história
Culinária/história
Dieta Paleolítica/história
Grãos Comestíveis/história
França
História Antiga
História Medieval
Seres Humanos
Paleodontologia
Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170724
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170724
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170101
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27564655
[Au] Autor:Fontanals-Coll M; Eulàlia Subirà M; Díaz-Zorita Bonilla M; Gibaja JF
[Ad] Endereço:GRAPAC, Grup de Recerca Aplicada al Patrimoni Cultural, Unitat d'Antropologia Biològica, Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), 08193, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Título:First insight into the Neolithic subsistence economy in the north-east Iberian Peninsula: paleodietary reconstruction through stable isotopes.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;162(1):36-50, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: The study of subsistence strategies among Neolithic communities in north-east Iberia, late-fifth to early-fourth millennia cal BC, enables a more in-depth study of the activities and behavior of the inhabitants of this region, where paleodiets have been little studied. The objectives of this study are, therefore, to determine the diet and subsistence patterns of those communities and to consider whether any relation existed between their subsistence strategies and environmental, geographic, and/or social factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone samples from 25 middle Neolithic human individuals at seven archeological sites and comparative faunal samples were analyzed, and compared with contemporary series in Mediterranean Europe. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ C and δ N) of bone collagen were studied to determine the dietary patterns. RESULTS: Dietary habits proved to be similar between communities, apart from some interpopulational variations in subsistence strategies. Their diet was based on C terrestrial resources with a major vegetal protein component. DISCUSSION: The reported variations in interpopulational subsistence strategies among the compared Mediterranean societies do not seem to be directly related to the settlement region. Together with archeological data, this indicates the influence of socioeconomic factors in the Neolithic human diet. A general tendency toward a lesser use of aquatic resources is seen in this period in Iberia and the rest of the Mediterranean, as also documented for contemporary communities in the west and north of Europe. The data obtained will be important for further studies of socioeconomic patterns in European Neolithic societies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Isótopos de Carbono/análise
Dieta Paleolítica/história
Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Antropologia Física
Osso e Ossos/química
Criança
Colágeno/química
Dieta/economia
Comportamento Alimentar
Feminino
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Espanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Carbon Isotopes); 0 (Nitrogen Isotopes); 9007-34-5 (Collagen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170623
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170623
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160827
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23083


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[PMID]:27235022
[Au] Autor:Otten J; Stomby A; Waling M; Isaksson A; Tellström A; Lundin-Olsson L; Brage S; Ryberg M; Svensson M; Olsson T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Benefits of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
[So] Source:Diabetes Metab Res Rev;33(1), 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1520-7560
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59 ± 8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). RESULTS: For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg (IQR: -6.6, -4.1; p < 0.001) in the PD group and by 6.7 kg (-8.2, -5.3; p < 0.001) in the PD-EX group. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved by 45% in the PD (p < 0.001) and PD-EX (p < 0.001) groups. HbA decreased by 0.9% (-1.2, -0.6; p < 0.001) in the PD group and 1.1% (-1.7, -0.7; p < 0.01) in the PD-EX group. Leptin decreased by 62% (p < 0.001) in the PD group and 42% (p < 0.001) in the PD-EX group. Maximum oxygen uptake increased by 0.2 L/min (0.0, 0.3) in the PD-EX group, and remained unchanged in the PD group (p < 0.01 for the difference between intervention groups). Male participants decreased lean mass by 2.6 kg (-3.6, -1.3) in the PD group and by 1.2 kg (-1.3, 1.0) in the PD-EX group (p < 0.05 for the difference between intervention groups). CONCLUSIONS: A Paleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia
Dieta Paleolítica
Terapia por Exercício
Índice Glicêmico
Resistência à Insulina
Obesidade/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Glicemia/análise
Terapia Combinada
Feminino
Seguimentos
Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Consumo de Oxigênio
Prognóstico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Glycated Hemoglobin A); 0 (hemoglobin A1c protein, human)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160529
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/dmrr.2828


  9 / 60 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27942038
[Au] Autor:Carignano Torres P; Morsello C; Parry L; Pardini R
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(12):e0167691, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources-especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests-is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Dieta Paleolítica
Agricultura Florestal/ética
Florestas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Brasil
Feminino
Agricultura Florestal/economia
Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia
Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
População Rural
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170629
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170629
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0167691


  10 / 60 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27886812
[Au] Autor:Singels E; Potts AJ; Cowling RM; Marean CW; De Vynck J; Esler KJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, 3001 J.S. Marais Building, Victoria Street, Private Bag X01, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. Electronic address: elzanne.singels@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Foraging potential of underground storage organ plants in the southern Cape, South Africa.
[So] Source:J Hum Evol;101:79-89, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8606
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Underground storage organs (USOs) serve as a staple source of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherer societies and they feature prominently in discussions of diets of early modern humans. While the way of life of hunter-gatherers in South Africa's Cape no longer exists, there is extensive ethnographic, historical, and archaeological evidence of hunter-gatherers' use of USOs. This is to be expected, given that the Cape supports the largest concentration of plant species with USOs globally. The southern Cape is the location of several Middle Stone Age sites that are highly significant to research on the origins of behaviourally modern humans, and this provided the context for our research. Here, we evaluate the foraging potential of USOs by identifying how abundant edible biomass is in the southern Cape, how easily it is gathered, and how nutritious it is. One hundred 5 × 5 m plots were assessed in terms of USO species and abundance. Nearly all of the sites sampled (83%) contained edible USOs and some had high concentrations of edible biomass. Extrapolating from these sites suggests that the edible USO biomass falls within the range of biomass observed in areas supporting extant hunter-gatherer communities. The nutritional content for six USO species was assessed; these contained between 40 and 228 calories/100 g. Furthermore, foraging events were staged to provide an indication of the potential return rates for the same six USOs. The target species grow near the soil surface, mostly in sandy soils, and were gathered with minimal effort. Some 50% of the foraging events conducted yielded enough calories to meet the daily requirements of a hunter-gatherer within two hours. In conclusion, we demonstrate that USOs are a readily available source of carbohydrates in the southern Cape landscape and, therefore, there is a strong possibility that USOs played a critical role in providing food for early humans.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta Paleolítica
Comportamento Alimentar
Tubérculos/classificação
Plantas/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Austral
Arqueologia
Ecossistema
Ingestão de Energia
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161126
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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