Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : E05.104 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 522 [refinar]
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[PMID]:29384341
[Au] Autor:Meacham D
[Ti] Título:The Subject of Enhancement: Augmented Capacities, Extended Cognition, and Delicate Ecologies of the Mind.
[So] Source:New Bioeth;21(1):5-19, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2050-2885
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper argues for an inflationary and capacity-relative understanding of human enhancement technology. In doing so it echoes the approach followed by Buchanan (2011a, 2011b). Particular emphasis is placed on the point that capacities themselves are relative to demands placed on the organism by its environment. In the case of human beings, this environment is to a very large extent institutionally structured. On the basis of the inflationary and capacity-relative concept of enhancement, I argue that the subject of enhancement must be understood in terms of a bundle of capacities that is both extended (Clark 1998) and ecological. This consequence of the inflationary enhancement concept has some surprising upshots, namely that the subject itself must be considered as a technological enhancement and not a 'platform' or subjectum upon which the enhancement enterprise builds. This conclusion clashes, I argue, with some of the presuppositions of liberal philosophy, which starts by assuming a reflective subject. The paper ends with some reflection on the desirability of reflective subjectivity for human flourishing and addressing the ecological crisis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico
Filosofia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cognição
Ecologia
Meio Ambiente
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 522 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541176
[Au] Autor:Lawrence D
[Ti] Título:More Human than Human.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):476-490, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inteligência Artificial
Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Pessoalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Princípios Morais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001158


  3 / 522 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541174
[Au] Autor:Cirkovic MM
[Ti] Título:Enhancing a Person, Enhancing a Civilization: A Research Program at the Intersection of Bioethics, Future Studies, and Astrobiology.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):459-468, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:There are manifold intriguing issues located within largely unexplored borderlands of bioethics, future studies (including global risk analysis), and astrobiology. Human enhancement has for quite some time been among the foci of bioethical debates, but the same cannot be said about its global, transgenerational, and even cosmological consequences. In recent years, discussions of posthuman and, in general terms, postbiological civilization(s) have slowly gained a measure of academic respect, in parallel with the renewed interest in the entire field of future studies and the great strides made in understanding of the origin and evolution of life and intelligence in their widest, cosmic context. These developments promise much deeper synergic answers to questions regarding the long-term future of enhancement: how far can it go? Is human enhancement a further step toward building a true postbiological civilization? Should we actively participate and help shape this process? Is the future of humanity "typical" in the same Copernican sense as our location in space and time is typical in the galaxy, and if so, can we derive important insights about the evolutionary pathways of postbiological evolution from astrobiological and Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) studies? These and similar questions could be understood as parts of a possible unifying research program attempting to connect cultural and moral evolution with what we know and understand about their cosmological and biological counterparts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Civilização
Exobiologia
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
Inteligência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Previsões
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001134


  4 / 522 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541172
[Au] Autor:Holm S
[Ti] Título:Commentary: Modeling the Social Dynamics of Moral Enhancement While Illustrating Some Basic Divergences in the Enhancement Debate.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):446-448, 2017 07.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Princípios Morais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170810
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170810
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001110


  5 / 522 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541169
[Au] Autor:Specker J; Schermer MHN
[Ti] Título:Imagining Moral Bioenhancement Practices: Drawing Inspiration from Moral Education, Public Health Ethics, and Forensic Psychiatry.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):415-426, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this article, we consider contexts or domains in which (future) moral bioenhancement interventions possibly or most likely will be implemented. By looking closely at similar or related existing practices and their relevant ethical frameworks, we hope to identify ethical considerations that are relevant for evaluating potential moral bioenhancement interventions. We examine, first, debates on the proper scope of moral education; second, proposals for identifying early risk factors for antisocial behaviour; and third, the difficult balancing of individual freedom and third party concerns in (forensic) psychiatry. In imagining moral bioenhancement in practice, we observe that unlike other forms of enhancement, moral enhancement fundamentally asks how the interests and preferences of the individual and the interests of others should be weighed (in view of public safety and managing public risk). Highly diverse domains such as education, mental health, and the judicial domain might be involved, and moral bioenhancement might challenge existing institutional settings. Given these highly varied contexts and domains, it appears unlikely that there will be a distinct set of practices that will be referred to as "moral bioenhancement."
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Desenvolvimento Moral
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Psiquiatria Legal
Liberdade
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116001080


  6 / 522 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28541165
[Au] Autor:Hauskeller M
[Ti] Título:Is It Desirable to Be Able to Do the Undesirable? Moral Bioenhancement and the Little Alex Problem.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(3):365-376, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:It has been argued that moral bioenhancement is desirable even if it would make it impossible for us to do what is morally required. Others find this apparent loss of freedom deplorable. However, it is difficult to see how a world in which there is no moral evil can plausibly be regarded as worse than a world in which people are not only free to do evil, but also where they actually do it, which would commit us to the seemingly paradoxical view that, under certain circumstances, the bad can be better than the good. Notwithstanding, this view is defended here.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Redução do Dano
Desenvolvimento Moral
Status Moral
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Liberdade
Seres Humanos
Literatura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S096318011600102X


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[PMID]:28361727
[Au] Autor:Krutzinna JI
[Ti] Título:Beyond an Open Future.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(2):313-325, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Discussions about the ethical permissibility of pediatric cognitive enhancement frequently revolve around arguments about welfare, and often include an appeal to the child's right to an open future. Both proponents and opponents of cognitive enhancement claim that their respective positions best serve the interests of the child by promoting an open future. This article argues that this right to an open future argument only captures some of the risks to the welfare of children, therefore requiring a broader ethical approach. Further, it suggests that a thorough moral assessment of the ends pursued is needed before concluding on the moral permissibility of cognitive enhancement in children, which ultimately hinges on the effect on the overall welfare of the child, beyond an open future.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Temas Bioéticos
Melhoramento Biomédico/ética
Bem-Estar da Criança/ética
Cognição/ética
Previsões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Neurociência Cognitiva/ética
Seres Humanos
Princípios Morais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S096318011600089X


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[PMID]:28300281
[Au] Autor:Persson I; Savulescu J
[Ti] Título:Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.
[So] Source:Bioethics;31(4):286-295, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1467-8519
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico
Características Humanas
Princípios Morais
Comportamento Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Altruísmo
Dissidências e Disputas
Empatia
Seres Humanos
Psicologia Social
Distância Social
Valores Sociais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170317
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/bioe.12314


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[PMID]:28077346
[Au] Autor:Dove E; Astell AJ
[Ad] Endereço:Research & Academics, Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences, Whitby, ON, Canada.
[Ti] Título:The Use of Motion-Based Technology for People Living With Dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Literature Review.
[So] Source:J Med Internet Res;19(1):e3, 2017 Jan 11.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8871
[Cp] País de publicação:Canada
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The number of people living with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is increasing substantially. Although there are many research efforts directed toward the prevention and treatment of dementia and MCI, it is also important to learn more about supporting people to live well with dementia or MCI through cognitive, physical, and leisure means. While past research suggests that technology can be used to support positive aging for people with dementia or MCI, the use of motion-based technology has not been thoroughly explored with this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize the current literature involving the use of motion-based technology for people living with dementia or MCI by identifying themes while noting areas requiring further research. METHODS: A systematic review of studies involving the use of motion-based technology for human participants living with dementia or MCI was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five questions are addressed concerning (1) context of use; (2) population included (ie, dementia, MCI, or both); (3) hardware and software selection; (4) use of motion-based technology in a group or individual setting; and (5) details about the introduction, teaching, and support methods applied when using the motion-based technology with people living with dementia or MCI. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review confirm the potential of motion-based technology to improve the lives of people living with dementia or MCI. The use of this technology also spans across several contexts including cognitive, physical, and leisure; all of which support multidimensional well-being. The literature provides evidence that people living with dementia or MCI can learn how to use this technology and that they enjoy doing so. However, there is a lack of information provided in the literature regarding the introduction, training, and support methods applied when using this form of technology with this population. Future research should address the appropriate introduction, teaching, and support required for people living with dementia or MCI to use the motion-based technology. In addition, it is recommended that the diverse needs of these specific end-users be considered in the design and development of this technology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Melhoramento Biomédico/métodos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia
Demência/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170810
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170810
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2196/jmir.6518


  10 / 522 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28030677
[Au] Autor:Topol EJ
[Ad] Endereço:Scripps Genomic Medicine, Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California.
[Ti] Título:Pure Genius, the TV Series: Is There an ICD-10 Code for Hyperbole?
[So] Source:JAMA;317(1):10-11, 2017 Jan 03.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tecnologia Biomédica
Arquitetura Hospitalar
Classificação Internacional de Doenças
Medicina nas Artes
Televisão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Melhoramento Biomédico
Seres Humanos
Metáfora
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161229
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.19011



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