Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : E05.318.389 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 777 [refinar]
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[PMID]:29210224
[Au] Autor:Braaker S; Moretti M; Boesch R; Ghazoul J; Obrist MK; Bontadina F
[Ti] Título:Assessing habitat connectivity for ground-dwelling animals in an urban environment.
[So] Source:Ecol Appl;24(7):1583-95, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1051-0761
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To ensure viable species populations in fragmented landscapes, individuals must be able to move between suitable habitat patches. Despite the increased interest in biodiversity assessment in urban environments, the ecological relevance of habitat connectivity in highly fragmented landscapes remains largely unknown. The first step to understanding the role of habitat connectivity in urban ecology is the challenging task of assessing connectivity in the complex patchwork of contrasting habitats that is found in cities. We developed a data-based framework, minimizing the use of subjective assumptions, to assess habitat connectivity that consists of the following sequential steps: (1) identification of habitat preference based on empirical habitat-use data; (2) derivation of habitat resistance surfaces evaluating various transformation functions; (3) modeling of different connectivity maps with electrical circuit theory (Circuitscape), a method considering all possible pathways across the landscape simultaneously; and (4) identification of the best connectivity map with information-theoretic model selection. We applied this analytical framework to assess habitat connectivity for the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus, a model species for ground-dwelling animals, in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, using GPS track points from 40 individuals. The best model revealed spatially explicit connectivity "pinch points," as well as multiple habitat connections. Cross-validation indicated the general validity of the selected connectivity model. The results show that both habitat connectivity and habitat quality affect the movement of urban hedgehogs (relative importance of the two variables was 19.2% and 80.8%, respectively), and are thus both relevant for predicting urban animal movements. Our study demonstrates that even in the complex habitat patchwork of cities, habitat connectivity plays a major role for ground-dwelling animal movement. Data-based habitat connectivity maps can thus serve as an important tool for city planners to identify habitat corridors and plan appropriate management and conservation measures for urban animals. The analytical framework we describe to model such connectivity maps is generally applicable to different types of habitat-use data and can be adapted to the movement scale of the focal species. It also allows evaluation of the impact of future landscape changes or management scenarios on habitat connectivity in urban landscapes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Ecossistema
Ouriços-Cacheiros/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cidades
Monitoramento Ambiental
Mapeamento Geográfico
Suíça
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29185667
[Au] Autor:Bastin JF; Barbier N; Couteron P; Adams B; Shapiro A; Bogaert J; De Cannière C
[Ti] Título:Aboveground biomass mapping of African forest mosaics using canopy texture analysis: toward a regional approach.
[So] Source:Ecol Appl;24(8):1984-2001, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1051-0761
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity to characterize forest canopy structure and to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) at less expense than methods based on airborne remote sensing data. Among the methods for processing these VHR images, Fourier textural ordination (FOTO) presents a good method to detect forest canopy structural heterogeneity and therefore to predict AGB variations. Notably, the method does not saturate at intermediate AGB values as do pixelwise processing of available space borne optical and radar signals. However, a regional-scale application requires overcoming two difficulties: (1) instrumental effects due to variations in sun­scene­sensor geometry or sensor-specific responses that preclude the use of wide arrays of images acquired under heterogeneous conditions and (2) forest structural diversity including monodominant or open canopy forests, which are of particular importance in Central Africa. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a rigorous regional study of canopy texture by harmonizing FOTO indices of images acquired from two different sensors (Geoeye-1 and QuickBird-2) and different sun­scene­sensor geometries and by calibrating a piecewise biomass inversion model using 26 inventory plots (1 ha) sampled across very heterogeneous forest types. A good agreement was found between observed and predicted AGB (residual standard error [RSE] = 15%; R2 = 0.85; P < 0.001) across a wide range of AGB levels from 26 Mg/ha to 460 Mg/ha, and was confirmed by cross validation. A high-resolution biomass map (100-m pixels) was produced for a 400-km2 area, and predictions obtained from both imagery sources were consistent with each other (r = 0.86; slope = 1.03; intercept = 12.01 Mg/ha). These results highlight the horizontal structure of forest canopy as a powerful descriptor of the entire forest stand structure and heterogeneity. In particular, we show that quantitative metrics resulting from such textural analysis offer new opportunities to characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the structure of dense forests and may complement the toolbox used by tropical forest ecologists, managers or REDD+ national monitoring, reporting and verification bodies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomassa
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Florestas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Central
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Análise de Fourier
Mapeamento Geográfico
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
Astronave
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29185661
[Au] Autor:Batllori E; Miller C; Parisien MA; Parks SA; Moritz MA
[Ti] Título:Is U.S. climatic diversity well represented within the existing federal protection network?
[So] Source:Ecol Appl;24(8):1898-907, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1051-0761
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Establishing protection networks to ensure that biodiversity and associated ecosystem services persist under changing environments is a major challenge for conservation planning. The potential consequences of altered climates for the structure and function of ecosystems necessitates new and complementary approaches be incorporated into traditional conservation plans. The conterminous United States of America (CONUS) has an extensive system of protected areas managed by federal agencies, but a comprehensive assessment of how this network represents CONUS climate is lacking. We present a quantitative classification of the climate space that is independent from the geographic locations to evaluate the climatic representation of the existing protected area network. We use this classification to evaluate the coverage of each agency's jurisdiction and to identify current conservation deficits. Our findings reveal that the existing network poorly represents CONUS climatic diversity. Although rare climates are generally well represented by the network, the most common climates are particularly underrepresented. Overall, 83% of the area of the CONUS corresponds to climates underrepresented by the network. The addition of some currently unprotected federal lands to the network would enhance the coverage of CONUS climates. However, to fully palliate current conservation deficits, large-scale private-land conservation initiatives will be critical.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodiversidade
Clima
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência
Governo Federal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mapeamento Geográfico
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 777 MEDLINE  
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
[PMID]:28954008
[Au] Autor:Bressan-Neto M; da Silva Herrero CFP; Pacola LM; Nunes AA; Defino HLA
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Biomecanica, Medicina e Reabilitacao do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, BR.
[Ti] Título:Community Care Administration of Spinal Deformities in the Brazilian Public Health System.
[So] Source:Clinics (Sao Paulo);72(8):485-490, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1980-5322
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE:: Underfunding of the surgical treatment of complex spinal deformities has been an important reason for the steadily growing waiting lists in publicly funded healthcare systems. The aim of this study is to characterize the management of the treatment of spinal deformities in the public healthcare system. METHODS:: A cross-sectional study of 60 patients with complex pediatric spinal deformities waiting for treatment in December 2013 was performed. The evaluated parameters were place of origin, waiting time until first assessment at a specialized spine care center, waiting time for the surgical treatment, and need for implants not reimbursed by the healthcare system. RESULTS:: Ninety-one percent of the patients lived in São Paulo State (33% from Ribeirão Preto - DRS XIII). Patients waited for 0.5 to 48.0 months for referral, and the waiting times for surgery ranged from 2 to 117 months. Forty-five percent of the patients required implants for the surgical procedure that were not available. CONCLUSION:: The current management of patients with spinal deformities in the public healthcare system does not provide adequate treatment for these patients in our region. They experience long waiting periods for referral and prolonged waiting times to receive surgical treatment; additionally, many of the necessary procedures are not reimbursed by the public healthcare system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades
Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Análise de Variância
Brasil
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Mapeamento Geográfico
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia
Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Fatores de Tempo
Listas de Espera
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170928
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 777 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28910302
[Au] Autor:Wong KLM; Benova L; Campbell OMR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology & Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:A look back on how far to walk: Systematic review and meta-analysis of physical access to skilled care for childbirth in Sub-Saharan Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184432, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To (i) summarize the methods undertaken to measure physical accessibility as the spatial separation between women and health services, and (ii) establish the extent to which distance to skilled care for childbirth affects utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: We defined spatial separation as the distance/travel time between women and skilled care services. The use of skilled care at birth referred to either the location or attendant of childbirth. The main criterion for inclusion was any quantification of the relationship between spatial separation and use of skilled care at birth. The approaches undertaken to measure distance/travel time were summarized in a narrative format. We obtained pooled adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from studies that controlled for financial means, education and (perceived) need of care in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: 57 articles were included (40 studied distance and 25 travel time), in which distance/travel time were found predominately self-reported or estimated in a geographic information system based on geographic coordinates. Approaches of distance/travel time measurement were generally poorly detailed, especially for self-reported data. Crucial features such as start point of origin and the mode of transportation for travel time were most often unspecified. Meta-analysis showed that increased distance to maternity care had an inverse association with utilization (n = 10, pooled aOR = 0.90/1km, 95%CI = 0.85-0.94). Distance from a hospital for rural women showed an even more pronounced effect on utilization (n = 2, pooled aOR = 0.58/1km increase, 95%CI = 0.31,1.09). The effect of spatial separation appears to level off beyond critical point when utilization was generally low. CONCLUSION: Although the reporting and measurements of spatial separation in low-resource settings needs further development, we found evidence that a lack of geographic access impedes use. Utilization is conditioned on access, researchers and policy makers should therefore prioritize quality data for the evidence-base to ensure that women everywhere have the potential to access obstetric care.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Parto Obstétrico/métodos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/utilização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África ao Sul do Saara
Feminino
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
Mapeamento Geográfico
Parto Domiciliar
Seres Humanos
Parto
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170915
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184432


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[PMID]:28891456
[Au] Autor:Xu CD; Xiao GX
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,China.
[Ti] Título:Spatiotemporal risk mapping of hand, foot and mouth disease and its association with meteorological variables in children under 5 years.
[So] Source:Epidemiol Infect;145(14):2912-2920, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1469-4409
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space-time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. The highest risk period was in the summer, with an average monthly incidence of 4·17/103, whereas the index in wintertime was 0·16/103. Meteorological variables influenced temporal changes in HFMD. A 1 °C rise in air temperature was associated with an 11·5% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·122). A 1% rise in relative humidity was related to a 9·51% increase in the number of HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·100). A 1 hPa increment in air pressure was related to a 0·11% decrease in HFMD (corresponding RR 0·999). A 1 h increase in sunshine was associated with a 0·28% rise in HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·003). A 1 m/s rise in wind speed was related to a 6·2% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·064). High-risk areas were mainly large cities, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and their neighbouring areas. These findings can contribute to risk control and implementation of disease-prevention policies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia
Conceitos Meteorológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Teorema de Bayes
Pré-Escolar
China/epidemiologia
Feminino
Mapeamento Geográfico
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Risco
Estações do Ano
Análise Espacial
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170912
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0950268817001984


  7 / 777 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28826426
[Au] Autor:Gleason BL; Foster S; Wilt GE; Miles B; Lewis B; Cauthen K; King M; Bayor F; Conteh S; Sesay T; Kamara SI; Lambert G; Finley P; Beyeler W; Moore T; Gaudioso J; Kilmarx PH; Redd JT
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),Atlanta, Georgia,USA.
[Ti] Título:Geospatial analysis of household spread of Ebola virus in a quarantined village - Sierra Leone, 2014.
[So] Source:Epidemiol Infect;145(14):2921-2929, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1469-4409
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Surtos de Doenças
Ebolavirus/fisiologia
Características da Família
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia
Quarentena
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mapeamento Geográfico
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia
Seres Humanos
Fatores de Risco
Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
Análise Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170823
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0950268817001856


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[PMID]:28825982
[Au] Autor:Peter BG; Mungai LM; Messina JP; Snapp SS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Geography, Environment, and Spatial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; Center for Global Change and Earth Observations, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Electronic address: bpeter@msu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Nature-based agricultural solutions: Scaling perennial grains across Africa.
[So] Source:Environ Res;159:283-290, 2017 11.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Modern plant breeding tends to focus on maximizing yield, with one of the most ubiquitous implementations being shorter-duration crop varieties. It is indisputable that these breeding efforts have resulted in greater yields in ideal circumstances; however, many farmed locations across Africa suffer from one or more conditions that limit the efficacy of modern short-duration hybrids. In view of global change and increased necessity for intensification, perennial grains and long-duration varieties offer a nature-based solution for improving farm productivity and smallholder livelihoods in suboptimal agricultural areas. Specific conditions where perennial grains should be considered include locations where biophysical and social constraints reduce agricultural system efficiency, and where conditions are optimal for crop growth. Using a time-series of remotely-sensed data, we locate the marginal agricultural lands of Africa, identifying suboptimal temperature and precipitation conditions for the dominant crop, i.e., maize, as well as optimal climate conditions for two perennial grains, pigeonpea and sorghum. We propose that perennial grains offer a lower impact, sustainable nature-based solution to this subset of climatic drivers of marginality. Using spatial analytic methods and satellite-derived climate information, we demonstrate the scalability of perennial pigeonpea and sorghum across Africa. As a nature-based solution, we argue that perennial grains offer smallholder farmers of marginal lands a sustainable solution for enhancing resilience and minimizing risk in confronting global change, while mitigating social and edaphic drivers of low and variable production.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/métodos
Clima
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Grãos Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Mapeamento Geográfico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Cajanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171120
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171120
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170822
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28817618
[Au] Autor:Waldner F; Hansen MC; Potapov PV; Löw F; Newby T; Ferreira S; Defourny P
[Ad] Endereço:Université catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute-Environmental Sciences, 2 Croix du Sud, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
[Ti] Título:National-scale cropland mapping based on spectral-temporal features and outdated land cover information.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0181911, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The lack of sufficient ground truth data has always constrained supervised learning, thereby hindering the generation of up-to-date satellite-derived thematic maps. This is all the more true for those applications requiring frequent updates over large areas such as cropland mapping. Therefore, we present a method enabling the automated production of spatially consistent cropland maps at the national scale, based on spectral-temporal features and outdated land cover information. Following an unsupervised approach, this method extracts reliable calibration pixels based on their labels in the outdated map and their spectral signatures. To ensure spatial consistency and coherence in the map, we first propose to generate seamless input images by normalizing the time series and deriving spectral-temporal features that target salient cropland characteristics. Second, we reduce the spatial variability of the class signatures by stratifying the country and by classifying each stratum independently. Finally, we remove speckle with a weighted majority filter accounting for per-pixel classification confidence. Capitalizing on a wall-to-wall validation data set, the method was tested in South Africa using a 16-year old land cover map and multi-sensor Landsat time series. The overall accuracy of the resulting cropland map reached 92%. A spatially explicit validation revealed large variations across the country and suggests that intensive grain-growing areas were better characterized than smallholder farming systems. Informative features in the classification process vary from one stratum to another but features targeting the minimum of vegetation as well as short-wave infrared features were consistently important throughout the country. Overall, the approach showed potential for routinely delivering consistent cropland maps over large areas as required for operational crop monitoring.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Produtos Agrícolas
Mapeamento Geográfico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
Geografia
Modelos Teóricos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170818
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0181911


  10 / 777 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28797037
[Au] Autor:Barrington-Leigh C; Millard-Ball A
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Health and Social Policy; and School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada.
[Ti] Título:The world's user-generated road map is more than 80% complete.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0180698, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OpenStreetMap, a crowdsourced geographic database, provides the only global-level, openly licensed source of geospatial road data, and the only national-level source in many countries. However, researchers, policy makers, and citizens who want to make use of OpenStreetMap (OSM) have little information about whether it can be relied upon in a particular geographic setting. In this paper, we use two complementary, independent methods to assess the completeness of OSM road data in each country in the world. First, we undertake a visual assessment of OSM data against satellite imagery, which provides the input for estimates based on a multilevel regression and poststratification model. Second, we fit sigmoid curves to the cumulative length of contributions, and use them to estimate the saturation level for each country. Both techniques may have more general use for assessing the development and saturation of crowd-sourced data. Our results show that in many places, researchers and policymakers can rely on the completeness of OSM, or will soon be able to do so. We find (i) that globally, OSM is ∼83% complete, and more than 40% of countries-including several in the developing world-have a fully mapped street network; (ii) that well-governed countries with good Internet access tend to be more complete, and that completeness has a U-shaped relationship with population density-both sparsely populated areas and dense cities are the best mapped; and (iii) that existing global datasets used by the World Bank undercount roads by more than 30%.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
Mapeamento Geográfico
Mapas como Assunto
Imagens de Satélites
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cidades
Bases de Dados Factuais
Seres Humanos
Veículos Automotores
Instalações de Transporte
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171006
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171006
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170811
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180698



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BIREME/OPAS/OMS - Centro Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde