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  1 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29253373
[Au] Autor:Bearak JM; Burke KL; Jones RK
[Ad] Endereço:Guttmacher Institute, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: jbearak@guttmacher.org.
[Ti] Título:Disparities and change over time in distance women would need to travel to have an abortion in the USA: a spatial analysis.
[So] Source:Lancet Public Health;2(11):e493-e500, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:2468-2667
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Abortion can help women to control their fertility and is an important component of health care for women. Although women in the USA who live further from an abortion clinic are less likely to obtain an abortion than women who live closer to an abortion clinic, no national study has examined inequality in access to abortion and whether inequality has increased as the number of abortion clinics has declined. METHODS: For this analysis, we obtained data on abortion clinics for 2000, 2011, and 2014 from the Guttmacher Institute's Abortion Provider Census. Block groups and the percentage of women aged 15-44 years by census tract were obtained from the US Census Bureau. Distance to the nearest clinic was calculated for the population-weighted centroid of every block group. We calculated the median distance to an abortion clinic for women in each county and the median and 80th percentile distances for each state by weighting block groups by the number of women of reproductive age (15-44 years). FINDINGS: In 2014, women in the USA would have had to travel a median distance of 10·79 miles (17·36 km) to reach the nearest abortion clinic, although 20% of women would have had to travel 42·54 miles (68·46 km) or more. We found substantially greater variation within than between states because, even in mostly rural states, women and clinics were concentrated in urban areas. We identified spatial disparities in abortion access, which were broadly unchanged, at least as far back as 2000. INTERPRETATION: We showed substantial and persistent spatial disparities in access to abortion in the USA. These results contribute to an emerging literature documenting similar disparities in other high-income countries. FUNDING: An anonymous grant to the Guttmacher Institute.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aborto Induzido
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências
Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Gravidez
Análise Espacial
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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Suffys, Philip N
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[PMID]:29244821
[Au] Autor:Fontes ANB; Lima LNGC; Mota RMS; Almeida RLF; Pontes MA; Gonçalves HS; Frota CC; Vissa VD; Brennan PJ; Guimaraes RJPS; Kendall C; Kerr LRFS; Suffys PN
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Molecular Biology Applied to Mycobacteria, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae for better understanding of leprosy transmission in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006117, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010. Among the 1,519 new patients detected during the study period, 998 (65.7%) were MB and we performed DNA extraction and genotyping on 160 skin biopsy samples, resulting in 159 (16%) good multilocus VNTR types. Thirty-eight of these patients also provided VNTR types from M. leprae in nasal swabs. The SNP-Type was obtained for 157 patients and 87% were of type 4. Upon consideration all VNTR markers, 156 different genotypes and three pairs with identical genotypes were observed; no epidemiologic relation could be observed between individuals in these pairs. Considerable variability in differentiating index (DI) was observed between the different markers and the four with highest DI [(AT)15, (TA)18, (AT)17 and (GAA)21] frequently demonstrated differences in copy number when comparing genotypes from both type of samples. Excluding these markers from analysis resulted in 83 genotypes, 20 of which included 96 of the patients (60.3%). These clusters were composed of two (n = 8), three (n = 6), four (n = 1), five (n = 2), six (n = 1), 19 (n = 1) and 23 (n = 23) individuals and suggests that recent transmission is contributing to the maintenance of leprosy in Fortaleza. When comparing epidemiological and clinical variables among patients within clustered or with unique M. leprae genotypes, a positive bacterial index in skin biopsies and knowledge of working with someone with the disease were significantly associated with clustering. A tendency to belong to a cluster was observed with later notification of disease (mean value of 3.4 months) and having disability grade 2. A tendency for lack of clustering was observed for patients who reported to have lived with another leprosy case but this might be due to lack of inclusion of household contacts in the study. Although clusters were spread over the city, kernel analysis revealed that some of the patients belonging to the two major clusters were spatially related to some neighborhoods that report poverty and high disease incidence in children. Finally, inclusion of genotypes from nasal swabs might be warranted. A major limitation of the study is that sample size of 160 patients from a two year period represents only 15% of the new patients and this could have weakened statistical outcomes. This is the first molecular epidemiology study of leprosy in Brazil and although the high clustering level suggests that recent transmission is the major cause of disease in Fortaleza; the existence of two large clusters needs further investigation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hanseníase/transmissão
Mycobacterium leprae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil/epidemiologia
Análise por Conglomerados
Genótipo
Geografia
Seres Humanos
Hanseníase/microbiologia
Repetições Minissatélites/genética
Epidemiologia Molecular
Fatores de Risco
Análise Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006117


  3 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28534647
[Au] Autor:Prato CG; Kaplan S; Patrier A; Rasmussen TK
[Ad] Endereço:a School of Civil Engineering , The University of Queensland , St. Lucia , Brisbane , Australia.
[Ti] Título:Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modeling pedestrian injury severity.
[So] Source:Traffic Inj Prev;19(1):88-93, 2018 01 02.
[Is] ISSN:1538-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by focusing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6,539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about the built environment and exposure at the crash locations. A linearized spatial logit model estimated the probability of pedestrians sustaining a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. RESULTS: This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits being related to the most severe outcomes. This study provides novel perspectives by showing positive spatial correlations of crashes with the same severity outcomes and emphasizing the role of the built environment in the proximity of the crash. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the need for thinking about traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs, and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasizes the role of the built environment, because shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity. Often, these areas have in common a larger pedestrian mass that is more likely to make other road users more aware and attentive, whereas the same does not seem to apply to areas with lower pedestrian density.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
Pedestres
Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Criança
Dinamarca/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Modelos Logísticos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Pedestres/psicologia
Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos
Análise Espacial
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15389588.2017.1329535


  4 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28748837
[Au] Autor:Cikman A; Aydin M; Gulhan B; Karakecili F; Ozcicek A; Kesik OA; Parlak M; Ozcelik F; Gültepe B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan University, Erzincan, Turkey.
[Ti] Título:The seroprevalence of in Erzincan, Turkey: Identification of the risk factors and their relationship with geographical features.
[So] Source:J Vector Borne Dis;54(2):157-163, 2017 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0972-9062
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) bacterium, the causative agent of Q fever has regained importance due to the increasing cases of infections and outbreaks. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in human populations of Erzincan province located in the eastern Turkey, identify the risk factors, and to explore the relationship between geographical features. METHODS: A total of 368 people residing in the rural (306) and urban (62) areas of the province were included in the study. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of C. burnetii phase II IgG antibody using ELISA (Virion/ Serion, Wurzburg, Germany). Spatial analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between seroprevalence and geographical features. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii was found to be 8.7% (32/368). In rural residents it was 8.5% (26/306), while in urban population it was 9.7% (6/62). Cattle breeding and contact with animal afterbirth waste were found to be major risk factors, and were significantly correlated with seropositive cases (p<0.05). The seropositive cases were only observed in the areas between 1067 and 1923 masl. Of the total seropositive cases, 65.6% were within 1000 m and 87.5% within 4000 m of rivers and their main tributaries. Around 59.4% cases were observed in areas with a slope of 0 to 5°. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that C. burnetii seroprevalence was higher than expected, and significantly differs according to geographical features of a region. Significant risk factors include raising cattle and exposure to infected animals or their birth products/secretions. It is also more frequent in areas with higher number of rivers and streams, higher altitude and lower slope.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
Coxiella burnetii/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Animais
Bovinos
Estudos Transversais
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Feminino
Geografia
Seres Humanos
Imunoglobulina G/sangue
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores de Risco
População Rural
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Análise Espacial
Turquia/epidemiologia
População Urbana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Immunoglobulin G)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:29236883
[Au] Autor:Sousa DCB; Pitombo CS; Rocha SS; Salgueiro AR; Delgado JPM
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Federal da Bahia. Escola Politécnica. Departamento de Engenharia de Transportes e Geodésia. Salvador, BA, Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Violence in public transportation: an approach based on spatial analysis.
[So] Source:Rev Saude Publica;51:127, 2017 Dec 11.
[Is] ISSN:1518-8787
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng; por
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To carry out a spatial analysis of the occurrence of acts of violence (specifically robberies) in public transportation, identifying the regions of greater incidence, using geostatistics, and possible causes with the aid of a multicriteria analysis in the Geographic Information System. METHODS: The unit of analysis is the traffic analysis zone of the survey named Origem-Destino, carried out in Salvador, state of Bahia, in 2013. The robberies recorded by the Department of Public Security of Bahia in 2013 were located and made compatible with the limits of the traffic analysis zones and, later, associated with the respective centroids. After determining the regions with the highest probability of robbery, we carried out a geographic analysis of the possible causes in the region with the highest robbery potential, considering the factors analyzed using a multicriteria analysis in a Geographic Information System environment. RESULTS: The execution of the two steps of this study allowed us to identify areas corresponding to the greater probability of occurrence of robberies in public transportation. In addition, the three most vulnerable road sections (Estrada da Liberdade, Rua Pero Vaz, and Avenida General San Martin) were identified in these areas. In these sections, the factors that most contribute with the potential for robbery in buses are: F1 - proximity to places that facilitate escape, F3 - great movement of persons, and F2 - absence of policing, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Indicator Kriging (geostatistical estimation) can be used to construct a spatial probability surface, which can be a useful tool for the implementation of public policies. The multicriteria analysis in the Geographic Information System environment allowed us to understand the spatial factors related to the phenomenon under analysis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos
Roubo/estatística & dados numéricos
Transportes
População Urbana
Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Seres Humanos
Veículos Automotores
Setor Público
Análise Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171214
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28453513
[Au] Autor:Opiro R; Saarman NP; Echodu R; Opiyo EA; Dion K; Halyard A; Dunn AW; Aksoy S; Caccone A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda.
[Ti] Título:Genetic diversity and population structure of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Northern Uganda: Implications for vector control.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(4):e0005485, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Uganda is the only country where the chronic and acute forms of human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness both occur and are separated by < 100 km in areas north of Lake Kyoga. In Uganda, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of the Trypanosoma parasites responsible for these diseases as well for the animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT), or Nagana. We used highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker to provide fine scale spatial resolution of genetic structure of G. f. fuscipes from 42 sampling sites from the northern region of Uganda where a merger of the two disease belts is feared. Based on microsatellite analyses, we found that G. f. fuscipes in northern Uganda are structured into three distinct genetic clusters with varying degrees of interconnectivity among them. Based on genetic assignment and spatial location, we grouped the sampling sites into four genetic units corresponding to northwestern Uganda in the Albert Nile drainage, northeastern Uganda in the Lake Kyoga drainage, western Uganda in the Victoria Nile drainage, and a transition zone between the two northern genetic clusters characterized by high level of genetic admixture. An analysis using HYBRIDLAB supported a hybrid swarm model as most consistent with tsetse genotypes in these admixed samples. Results of mtDNA analyses revealed the presence of 30 haplotypes representing three main haplogroups, whose location broadly overlaps with the microsatellite defined clusters. Migration analyses based on microsatellites point to moderate migration among the northern units located in the Albert Nile, Achwa River, Okole River, and Lake Kyoga drainages, but not between the northern units and the Victoria Nile drainage in the west. Effective population size estimates were variable with low to moderate sizes in most populations and with evidence of recent population bottlenecks, especially in the northeast unit of the Lake Kyoga drainage. Our microsatellite and mtDNA based analyses indicate that G. f. fuscipes movement along the Achwa and Okole rivers may facilitate northwest expansion of the Rhodesiense disease belt in Uganda. We identified tsetse migration corridors and recommend a rolling carpet approach from south of Lake Kyoga northward to minimize disease dispersal and prevent vector re-colonization. Additionally, our findings highlight the need for continuing tsetse monitoring efforts during and after control.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Variação Genética
Controle de Insetos/métodos
Insetos Vetores
Filogeografia
Moscas Tsé-Tsé/classificação
Moscas Tsé-Tsé/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Análise por Conglomerados
DNA Mitocondrial/química
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Feminino
Técnicas de Genotipagem
Haplótipos
Masculino
Repetições de Microssatélites
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Análise Espacial
Uganda
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005485


  7 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29040314
[Au] Autor:Wang L; Qian C; Kats P; Kontokosta C; Sobolevsky S
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Urban Science and Progress, New York University, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Structure of 311 service requests as a signature of urban location.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186314, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:While urban systems demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity, many urban planning, economic and political decisions heavily rely on a deep understanding of local neighborhood contexts. We show that the structure of 311 Service Requests enables one possible way of building a unique signature of the local urban context, thus being able to serve as a low-cost decision support tool for urban stakeholders. Considering examples of New York City, Boston and Chicago, we demonstrate how 311 Service Requests recorded and categorized by type in each neighborhood can be utilized to generate a meaningful classification of locations across the city, based on distinctive socioeconomic profiles. Moreover, the 311-based classification of urban neighborhoods can present sufficient information to model various socioeconomic features. Finally, we show that these characteristics are capable of predicting future trends in comparative local real estate prices. We demonstrate 311 Service Requests data can be used to monitor and predict socioeconomic performance of urban neighborhoods, allowing urban stakeholders to quantify the impacts of their interventions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecologia
Fatores Socioeconômicos
População Urbana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Boston
Censos
Chicago
Planejamento de Cidades
Previsões
Habitação
Seres Humanos
Aprendizado de Máquina
Cidade de Nova Iorque
Distribuição Espacial da População
Análise Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171018
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186314


  8 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29028800
[Au] Autor:Kapwata T; Morris N; Campbell A; Mthiyane T; Mpangase P; Nelson KN; Allana S; Brust JCM; Moodley P; Mlisana K; Gandhi NR; Shah NS
[Ad] Endereço:Environment and Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Spatial distribution of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0181797, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal. We calculated distance and time from participants' home to the closest hospital or clinic, as well as to the actual facility that diagnosed XDR TB, using tools within ArcGIS Network analyst. Speed of travel was assigned to road classes based on Department of Transport regulations. Results were compared to guidelines for the provision of social facilities in South Africa: 5km to a clinic and 30km to a hospital. RESULTS: During 2011-2014, 1027 new XDR TB cases were diagnosed throughout all 11 districts of KwaZulu-Natal, of whom 404 (39%) were enrolled and had geospatial data collected. Participants would have had to travel a mean distance of 2.9 km (CI 95%: 1.8-4.1) to the nearest clinic and 17.6 km (CI 95%: 11.4-23.8) to the nearest hospital. Actual distances that participants travelled to the health facility that diagnosed XDR TB ranged from <10 km (n = 143, 36%) to >50 km (n = 109, 27%), with a mean of 69 km. The majority (77%) of participants travelled farther than the recommended distance to a clinic (5 km) and 39% travelled farther than the recommended distance to a hospital (30 km). Nearly half (46%) of participants were diagnosed at a health facility in eThekwini district, of whom, 36% resided outside the Durban metropolitan area. CONCLUSIONS: XDR TB cases are widely distributed throughout KwaZulu-Natal province with a denser focus in eThekwini district. Patients travelled long distances to the health facility where they were diagnosed with XDR TB, suggesting a potential role for migration or transportation in the XDR TB epidemic.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
África do Sul/epidemiologia
Análise Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171014
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0181797


  9 / 1898 MEDLINE  
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Carneiro, Mariângela
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[PMID]:28985218
[Au] Autor:Silva TAMD; Coura-Vital W; Barbosa DS; Oiko CSF; Morais MHF; Tourinho BD; Melo DPO; Reis IA; Carneiro M
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratório de Epidemiologia das Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Spatial and temporal trends of visceral leishmaniasis by mesoregion in a southeastern state of Brazil, 2002-2013.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(10):e0005950, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding in Brazil and in other South American countries, a process that has been associated with the urbanization of the disease. This study analyzes the spatial and temporal distribution of VL in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais and identifies the areas with higher risks of transmission. METHODOLOGY: An ecological study with spatial and time series analyzes of new confirmed cases of VL notified to the Brazilian Notifiable Disease Information System between 2002 and 2013, considering the 12 mesoregions of Minas Gerais. Two complementary methodologies were used: thematic maps of incidence and Poisson (log-linear) generalized linear model. Thematic maps using crude and smoothed cumulative incidences were generated for four trienniums. Poisson Regression measured the variation of the average number of cases from one year to the following, for each mesoregion. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 5,778 cases analyzed revealed a heterogeneous spatial and temporal distribution of VL in Minas Gerais. Six mesoregions (Central Mineira, Jequitinhonha, Metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Northwest of Minas, North of Minas, and Vale do Rio Doce) were responsible for the expansion and maintenance of VL, with incidence rates as high as 26/100,000 inhabitants. The Vale do Rio Doce and Jequitinhonha mesoregions showed a considerable increase in the incidence rates in the last period studied. The other six mesoregions reported only sporadic cases and presented low and unsteady incidence rates, reaching a maximum of 1.2/100,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results contribute to further the current understanding about the expansion of VL in Minas Gerais and may help guide actions for disease control.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia
Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil/epidemiologia
Cães/parasitologia
Ecologia
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia
Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle
Modelos Lineares
Distribuição de Poisson
Análise de Regressão
Análise Espacial
Fatores de Tempo
População Urbana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171007
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005950


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[PMID]:28967881
[Au] Autor:Smith KS; Liu LL; Ganesan S; Michor F; De S
[Ad] Endereço:Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.
[Ti] Título:Nuclear topology modulates the mutational landscapes of cancer genomes.
[So] Source:Nat Struct Mol Biol;24(11):1000-1006, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1545-9985
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Nuclear organization of genomic DNA affects processes of DNA damage and repair, yet its effects on mutational landscapes in cancer genomes remain unclear. Here we analyzed genome-wide somatic mutations from 366 samples of six cancer types. We found that lamina-associated regions, which are typically localized at the nuclear periphery, displayed higher somatic mutation frequencies than did the interlamina regions at the nuclear core. This effect was observed even after adjustment for features such as GC percentage, chromatin, and replication timing. Furthermore, mutational signatures differed between the nuclear core and periphery, thus indicating differences in the patterns of DNA-damage or DNA-repair processes. For instance, smoking and UV-related signatures, as well as substitutions at certain motifs, were more enriched in the nuclear periphery. Thus, the nuclear architecture may influence mutational landscapes in cancer genomes beyond the previously described effects of chromatin structure and replication timing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Núcleo Celular
Análise Mutacional de DNA
Genoma
Taxa de Mutação
Neoplasias/genética
Neoplasias/patologia
Mutação Puntual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Dano ao DNA
Reparo do DNA
Seres Humanos
Análise Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171003
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nsmb.3474



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