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[PMID]:29304035
[Au] Autor:Frost K; Bertocci G; Smalley C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Bioengineering, J.B. Speed School of Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0186829, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD") passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82%) and manual WhMDs (80%) compared to scooters (39%), and this difference was significant (p< 0.01). Nonuse or misuse of the occupant restraint system occurred during 88% of WhMD trips, and was most frequently due to vehicle operator neglect in applying the shoulder belt. Despite the absence of incidents or injuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Veículos Automotores
Equipamentos de Proteção/utilização
Cintos de Segurança
Cadeiras de Rodas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle
Pessoas com Deficiência
Seres Humanos
Kentucky
Estudos Retrospectivos
Segurança
Cintos de Segurança/utilização
Equipamentos de Autoajuda/utilização
Gravação em Vídeo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180210
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180210
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186829


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[PMID]:28678610
[Au] Autor:Viano DC; Parenteau CS; Burnett R; Prasad P
[Ad] Endereço:a ProBiomechanics LLC , Bloomfield Hills , Michigan.
[Ti] Título:Occupant responses in conventional and ABTS seats in high-speed rear sled tests.
[So] Source:Traffic Inj Prev;19(1):54-59, 2018 01 02.
[Is] ISSN:1538-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: This study compared biomechanical responses of a normally seated Hybrid III dummy on conventional and all belts to seat (ABTS) seats in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests. It determined the difference in performance with modern (≥2000 MY) seats compared to older (<2000 MY) seats and ABTS seats. METHODS: The seats were fixed in a sled buck subjected to a 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled test. The pulse was a 15 g double-peak acceleration with 150 ms duration. The 50th percentile Hybrid III was lap-shoulder belted in the FMVSS 208 design position. The testing included 11 <2000 MY, 8 ≥2000 MY, and 7 ABTS seats. The dummy was fully instrumented, including head accelerations, upper and lower neck 6-axis load cells, chest acceleration, thoracic and lumbar spine load cells, and pelvis accelerations. The peak responses were normalized by injury assessment reference values (IARVs) to assess injury risks. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student's t test. High-speed video documented occupant kinematics. RESULTS: Biomechanical responses were lower with modern (≥2000 MY) seats than older (<2000 MY) designs. The lower neck extension moment was 32.5 ± 9.7% of IARV in modern seats compared to 62.8 ± 31.6% in older seats (P =.01). Overall, there was a 34% reduction in the comparable biomechanical responses with modern seats. Biomechanical responses were lower with modern seats than ABTS seats. The lower neck extension moment was 41.4 ± 7.8% with all MY ABTS seats compared to 32.5 ± 9.7% in modern seats (P =.07). Overall, the ABTS seats had 13% higher biomechanical responses than the modern seats. CONCLUSIONS: Modern (≥2000 MY) design seats have lower biomechanical responses in 40.2 km/h rear sled tests than older (<2000 MY) designs and ABTS designs. The improved performance is consistent with an increase in seat strength combined with improved occupant kinematics through pocketing of the occupant into the seatback, higher and more forward head restraint, and other design changes. The methods and data presented here provide a basis for standardized testing of seats. However, a complete understanding of seat safety requires consideration of out-of-position (OOP) occupants in high-speed impacts and consideration of the much more common, low-speed rear impacts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aceleração
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Desenho de Equipamento
Cabeça/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia
Masculino
Manequins
Pescoço/fisiologia
Pelve/fisiologia
Vértebras Torácicas/fisiologia
Tórax/fisiologia
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170706
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15389588.2017.1347782


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[PMID]:28657420
[Au] Autor:Parenteau CS; Viano DC
[Ad] Endereço:a ProBiomechanics LLC , Bloomfield Hills , Michigan.
[Ti] Título:Driver and front passenger injury in frontal crashes: Update on the effect of unbelted rear occupants.
[So] Source:Traffic Inj Prev;19(1):28-34, 2018 01 02.
[Is] ISSN:1538-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: This is a study of the influence of an unbelted rear occupant on the risk of severe injury to the front seat occupant ahead of them in frontal crashes. It provides an update to earlier studies. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the risk for severe injury (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score [MAIS] 4+F) to belted drivers and front passengers in frontal crashes by the presence of a belted or unbelted passenger seated directly behind them or without a rear passenger. Frontal crashes were identified with GAD1 = F without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front and rear outboard occupants were included without ejection (ejection = 0). Injury severity was defined by MAIS and fatality (F) by TREATMNT = 1 or INJSEV = 4. Weighted data were determined. The risk for MAIS 4+F was determined using the number of occupants with known injury status MAIS 0+F. Standard errors were determined. RESULTS: The risk for severe injury was 0.803 ± 0.263% for the driver with an unbelted left rear occupant and 0.100 ± 0.039% with a belted left rear occupant. The driver's risk was thus 8.01 times greater with an unbelted rear occupant than with a belted occupant (P <.001). With an unbelted right rear occupant behind the front passenger, the risk for severe injury was 0.277 ± 0.091% for the front passenger. The corresponding risk was 0.165 ± 0.075% when the right rear occupant was belted. The front passenger's risk was 1.68 times greater with an unbelted rear occupant behind them than a belted occupant (P <.001). The driver's risk for MAIS 4+F was highest when their seat was deformed forward. The risk was 9.94 times greater with an unbelted rear occupant than with a belted rear occupant when the driver's seat deformed forward. It was 13.4 ± 12.2% with an unbelted occupant behind them and 1.35 ± 0.95% with a belted occupant behind them. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with prior literature, seat belt use by a rear occupant significantly lowered the risk for severe injury to belted occupants seated in front of them. The reduction was greater for drivers than for front passengers. It was 87.5% for the driver and 40.6% for the front passenger. These results emphasize the need for belt reminders in all seating positions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Cintos de Segurança/utilização
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Risco
Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170629
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15389588.2017.1344355


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[PMID]:29205223
[Au] Autor:Xiao S; Yang J; Crandall JR
[Ad] Endereço:School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China.
[Ti] Título:Investigation of chest injury mechanism caused by different seatbelt loads in frontal impact.
[So] Source:Acta Bioeng Biomech;19(3):53-62, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1509-409X
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The purpose of this quantitative study is to investigate the differences of the injury mechanism caused by two different types of seatbelt loads on the occupant's chest. METHODS: The finite element analysis is employed to compare the different responses of the human body model, including comparison of kinematics, chest accelerations, seatbelt forces and chest injury outcomes regarding chest deflections and rib fractures. RESULTS: The calculated rib strain-stress response from simulations in force-limiting seatbelt are higher than that in the regular seatbelt. The forward movement and torso twist are both great in simulations with force-limiting seatbelt. Moreover, there are obvious differences in the injury outcomes of chest deflections and rib fracture risks under the different seatbelt loads. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that the chest deflections and rib fracture risks are negatively correlated under the load of the force-limiting seatbelt, However, they are positively correlated to and determined by the seatbelt peak load of the regular seatbelt. This paper can provide a reference for study of the chest injury mechanism and protection efficiency of seatbelt.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aceleração/efeitos adversos
Modelos Biológicos
Estimulação Física/efeitos adversos
Cintos de Segurança/efeitos adversos
Traumatismos Torácicos/etiologia
Traumatismos Torácicos/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito
Simulação por Computador
Seres Humanos
Costelas/fisiopatologia
Estresse Mecânico
Tórax/fisiopatologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29185685
[Au] Autor:Hildwine F
[Ti] Título:Take A Seat: New ambulance seating improves safety, size and functionality.
[So] Source:JEMS;41(10):38-42, 2016 10.
[Is] ISSN:0197-2510
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle
Ambulâncias
Desenho de Equipamento
Segurança de Equipamentos
Equipamentos de Proteção
Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Postura/fisiologia
Cintos de Segurança
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:H
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29065063
[Au] Autor:Morse AM; Aitken ME; Mullins SH; Miller BK; Pomtree MM; Ulloa EM; Montgomery JS; Saylors ME
[Ad] Endereço:From the Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas.
[Ti] Título:Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.
[So] Source:J Trauma Acute Care Surg;83(5S Suppl 2):S179-S183, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:2163-0763
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. METHODS: We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. RESULTS: Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p < 0.0001) that were 4 feet 9 inches or higher fit properly in the large SUV, only 87 (83%) of 105 students (p = 0.02) fit properly in the pickup truck, and only 91 (89%) of 102 students (p = 0.74) fit properly in the minivan. CONCLUSION: Substantial proportions of children meeting current height guidelines for an adult seat belt do not meet safety requirements for fit, especially in larger, commonly used vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic level 1.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tamanho Corporal
Sistemas de Proteção para Crianças/normas
Guias como Assunto
Cintos de Segurança/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito
Automóveis/normas
Criança
Desenho de Equipamento
Fidelidade a Diretrizes
Seres Humanos
Sociedades Médicas
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000001543


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[PMID]:28934184
[Au] Autor:Beck LF; Downs J; Stevens MR; Sauber-Schatz EK
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia.
[Ti] Título:Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.
[So] Source:MMWR Surveill Summ;66(17):1-13, 2017 Sep 22.
[Is] ISSN:1545-8636
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PROBLEM/CONDITION: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. REPORTING PERIOD: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a census of U.S. motor-vehicle crashes involving one or more deaths, was used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths among adults aged ≥18 years. Passenger-vehicle occupants were defined as persons driving or riding in passenger cars, light trucks, vans, or sport utility vehicles. Death rates per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population and the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash, were calculated. BRFSS, an annual, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years, was used to estimate prevalence of seat belt use. FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). RESULTS: Within each census region, age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates per 100,000 population increased with increasing rurality, from the most urban to the most rural counties: South, 6.8 to 29.2; Midwest, 5.3 to 25.8; West, 3.9 to 40.0; and Northeast, 3.5 to 10.8. (For the Northeast, data for the most rural counties were not reported because of suppression criteria; comparison is for the most urban to the second-most rural counties.) Similarly, the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash increased as rurality increased. Self-reported seat belt use in the United States decreased with increasing rurality, ranging from 88.8% in the most urban counties to 74.7% in the most rural counties. Similar differences in age-adjusted death rates and seat belt use were observed in states with primary and secondary seat belt enforcement laws. INTERPRETATION: Rurality was associated with higher age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates, a higher proportion of unrestrained passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths, and lower seat belt use among adults in all census regions and regardless of state seat belt enforcement type. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: Seat belt use decreases and age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates increase with increasing levels of rurality. Improving seat belt use remains a critical strategy to reduce crash-related deaths in the United States, especially in rural areas where seat belt use is lower and age-adjusted death rates are higher than in urban areas. States and communities can consider using evidence-based interventions to reduce rural-urban disparities in seat belt use and passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
Cintos de Segurança/utilização
População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental
Bases de Dados Factuais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Medição de Risco
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.ss6617a1


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[PMID]:28800595
[Au] Autor:Noh Y; Yoon Y
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, South Korea.
[Ti] Título:Elderly road collision injury outcomes associated with seat positions and seatbelt use in a rapidly aging society-A case study in South Korea.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183043, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Aging has long been regarded as one of the most critical factors affecting crash injury outcomes. In South Korea, where the elderly population is projected to reach 35.9% by 2050, the implications of an increasing number of elderly vehicle users on road safety are evident. In this research, the confounding effect of occupant age in a vehicle in terms of seat position and seatbelt use was investigated. In addition, elderly occupants were divided into a younger-old group aged between 65 and 74 years and an older-old group aged 75 years and older in an effort to assess whether the conventional elderly age standard of 65 years should be reconsidered. METHODS: A multinomial logit framework was adopted to predict two-level injury severity using collision data between 2008 and 2015. Predictor variables included gender, age group, seat position, seatbelt, road type, road slope, road surface, road line, and type of vehicle. Five models, a base model with no interactions and four interaction models which were combinations of age group, seatbelt use and seat position, were devised and evaluated. RESULTS: With no interacting term, age was the most prominent predictor. Elderly occupants were most likely to suffer from severe injury without a seatbelt in all seat positions, and the use of a seatbelt reduced this likelihood the most in the elderly group as well. Front passenger seats had the highest risk to elderly occupants, while the driver seat was statistically insignificant. When the elderly group was divided into the younger-old group and the older-old group, the older-olds were found to be much more vulnerable compared to the younger-olds. In particular, older drivers were five times more likely to suffer a severe injury without a seatbelt. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of injury severity of elderly occupants was reduced the most with the use of a seatbelt, demonstrating the importance of using seat restraints. The sharp increase in the risk of injury of the older-old group suggests that the age standard of 65 years as the elderly group with regard to traffic safety may require reconsideration due to the growing number of elderly vehicle users on the road. Our results provide practical evidence with which to formulate new safety policies, including mandatory seatbelt use, driving age limits and insurance pricing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Modelos Estatísticos
Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
Cintos de Segurança/utilização
Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia
Fatores Etários
Idoso
Envelhecimento/psicologia
Condução de Veículo/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
República da Coreia
Fatores de Risco
Fatores Sexuais
Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171006
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171006
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170812
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183043


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[PMID]:28436738
[Au] Autor:Viano DC; Parenteau CS
[Ad] Endereço:a ProBiomechanics LLC , Bloomfield Hills , Michigan.
[Ti] Título:Brainstem injury in motor vehicle crashes.
[So] Source:Traffic Inj Prev;18(7):730-735, 2017 Oct 03.
[Is] ISSN:1538-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk for brainstem injury by crash type, belt use, and crash severity (delta-V). NASS-CDS electronic cases were reviewed to see whether the transition from vehicles without advanced airbags and seat belts and side airbags and curtains to vehicles with the safety technologies has influenced the risk for brainstem injury. METHODS: 1994-2013 NASS-CDS was analyzed to determine the number of brainstem injuries in nonejected adults (15+ years old) in vehicle crashes. Crashes were grouped by front, side, rear, and rollover. The effect of belt use was investigated. Light vehicles were included with model year (MY) 1994+. Occupants with severe head injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 4+) and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4+F injury were also determined. The risk for injury with standard errors was determined using the MAIS 0+F exposure by belt use and crash type. NASS-CDS electronic cases were studied with brainstem injury in 2001-2013 MY vehicles. RESULTS: NASS-CDS indicates there are 872 ± 133 cases of brainstem injury per year. About 16.0% of AIS 4+ head injury involves the brainstem. For belted occupants, the highest risk for brainstem injury was in side impacts at 0.065 ± 0.010%. In contrast, the highest risk for brainstem injury was 0.310 ± 0.291% in rear impacts and 0.310 ± 0.170% in rollovers for unbelted occupants. The risk for brainstem injury increased with crash severity. The highest risk for brainstem injury was 3.54 ± 1.45% in crashes with >72 km/h (>45 mph) delta-V. Exponential functions fit the change in risk with delta-V. Eighteen NASS-CDS electronic cases showed that brainstem injury occurred in very severe collisions where the occupant experienced multiple injuries from intrusion or impact on vehicle structures stiffened by deformation. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for brainstem injury in belted occupants has remained essentially constant over 20 years, whereas the risk for MAIS 4+F injury has declined 38.3%. The prevention of brainstem injuries must address the extreme speed of collisions and weight mismatches that overwhelm structures, seat belts, frontal airbags, side airbags, and curtains in modern vehicles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Tronco Encefálico/lesões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Escala Resumida de Ferimentos
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Risco
Cintos de Segurança/utilização
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170831
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170831
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170425
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15389588.2017.1299144


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[PMID]:28402687
[Au] Autor:Stockman I; Bohman K; Jakobsson L
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Applied Mechanics , Chalmers University of Technology , Gothenburg , Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on child-sized dummies during run-off-road events.
[So] Source:Traffic Inj Prev;18(sup1):S96-S102, 2017 May 29.
[Is] ISSN:1538-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Run-off-road events occur frequently and can result in severe consequences. Several potential injury-causing mechanisms can be observed in the diverse types of run-off-road events. Real-world data show that different types of environments, such as rough terrain, ditch types, and whether multiple events occur, may be important contributing factors to occupant injury. Though countermeasures addressing front seat occupants have been presented, studies on rear seat occupant retention in situations such as run-off-road events are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on rear-seated child-sized anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during 2 different types of run-off-road events. METHODS: The study was carried out using 2 test setups: a rig test with a vehicle rear seat mounted on a multi-axial robot simulating a road departure event into a side ditch and an in-vehicle test setup with a Volvo XC60 entering a side ditch with a grass slope, driving inside the ditch, and returning back to the road from the ditch. Potential subsequent rollovers or impacts were not included in the test setups. Three different ATDs were used. The Q6 and Q10 were seated on an integrated booster cushion and the Hybrid III (HIII) 5th percentile female was positioned directly on the seat. The seat belt retractor was equipped with a pre-pretensioner (electrical reversible retractor) with 3 force level settings. In addition, reference tests with the pre-pretensioner inactivated were run. Kinematics and the shoulder belt position were analyzed. RESULTS: In rig tests, the left-seated ATD was exposed to rapid inboard lateral loads relative to the vehicle. The displacement for each ATD was reduced when the pre-pretensioner was activated compared to tests when it was inactivated. Maximum inboard displacement occurred earlier in the event for all ATDs when the pre-pretensioner was activated. Shoulder belt slip-off occurred for the Q6 and Q10 in tests where the pre-pretensioner was inactivated. During in-vehicle tests, the left-seated ATD was exposed to an inboard movement when entering the road again after driving in the ditch. The maximum inboard head displacement was reduced in tests where the pre-pretensioner was activated compared to tests in which it was inactivated. CONCLUSIONS: During both test setups, the activation of the pre-pretensioner resulted in reduced lateral excursion of the Q6, Q10, and HIII 5th percentile female due to the shoulder belt remaining on the shoulder and supporting the side of the lower torso. The results provide new insights into the potential benefits of using a pre-pretensioner to reduce kinematic responses during complex run-off-road events through supporting the seat belt to remain on the shoulder. This study addresses potential countermeasures to improve real-world protection of rear-seated children, and it provides a broader perspective including the influence of precrash kinematics.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Sistemas de Proteção para Crianças
Cintos de Segurança
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Criança
Desenho de Equipamento
Cabeça/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Manequins
Ombro/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170731
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170731
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15389588.2017.1312000



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