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Pesquisa : F01.145.113.780.688 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29177898
[Au] Autor:Fan LP; Ouyang F; Su JW; Ge F
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Título:Adaptation of Defensive Strategies by the Pea Aphid Mediates Predation Risk from the Predatory Lady Beetle.
[So] Source:J Chem Ecol;44(1):40-50, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1573-1561
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Within a species, individual animals adopt various defensive strategies to resist natural enemies, but the defensive strategies that are adopted in response to variations in predation risk are poorly understood. Here, we assessed consecutive foraging processes on cohorts of two biotypes (green and red) of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by the predatory lady beetle Propylea japonica, to investigate the adaptive mechanism underlying the defensive strategy. We observed the behavioral responses of individuals (continue feeding or escape, i.e., walk away or drop off from initial feeding site), simultaneously quantified the amount of alarm pheromone, (E)-ß-farnesene (EßF) released from cohorts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and recorded the foraging times of predators in intervals. The results indicated that: (1) the anti-predator responses differed markedly between biotypes and among the stages of the consecutive foraging processes. (2) Few green cohorts tended to release EßF during the first foraging; those that did released only a low dose that did not increase the number of escapes. However, the amount of EßF rose rapidly following the second foraging process, which caused an intense escape response. In contrast, more red cohorts released greater amounts of EßF, which caused more individuals to escape from their innate feeding sites during the first foraging. During the second foraging, more red individuals tended to escape without releasing EßF in greater quantities. (3) The foraging time was effectively shortened in each biotype cohort that adopted diverse defensive strategies. This study of the defensive strategies of the pea aphid may contribute to understanding the intraspecific differences in aphid defense mechanisms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Afídeos/fisiologia
Coleópteros/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Afídeos/química
Reação de Fuga/efeitos dos fármacos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Feromônios/análise
Feromônios/química
Feromônios/farmacologia
Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos
Risco
Sesquiterpenos/análise
Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Pheromones); 0 (Sesquiterpenes); 18794-84-8 (beta-farnesene)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10886-017-0908-y


  2 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28902870
[Au] Autor:Augustin H; McGourty K; Allen MJ; Madem SK; Adcott J; Kerr F; Wong CT; Vincent A; Godenschwege T; Boucrot E; Partridge L
[Ad] Endereço:Max Planck Institute for Biology of Aging, Köln, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Reduced insulin signaling maintains electrical transmission in a neural circuit in aging flies.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(9):e2001655, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Lowered insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) can extend healthy lifespan in worms, flies, and mice, but it can also have adverse effects (the "insulin paradox"). Chronic, moderately lowered IIS rescues age-related decline in neurotransmission through the Drosophila giant fiber system (GFS), a simple escape response neuronal circuit, by increasing targeting of the gap junctional protein innexin shaking-B to gap junctions (GJs). Endosomal recycling of GJs was also stimulated in cultured human cells when IIS was reduced. Furthermore, increasing the activity of the recycling small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Rab4 or Rab11 was sufficient to maintain GJs upon elevated IIS in cultured human cells and in flies, and to rescue age-related loss of GJs and of GFS function. Lowered IIS thus elevates endosomal recycling of GJs in neurons and other cell types, pointing to a cellular mechanism for therapeutic intervention into aging-related neuronal disorders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Drosophila/fisiologia
Insulina/metabolismo
Somatomedinas/metabolismo
Transmissão Sináptica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conexinas/metabolismo
Reação de Fuga/fisiologia
Feminino
Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia
Masculino
Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Connexins); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Somatomedins); EC 3.6.5.2 (rab GTP-Binding Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170914
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001655


  3 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28875359
[Au] Autor:Mesterton-Gibbons M; Dai Y; Goubault M; Hardy ICW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Mathematics, Florida State University, 1017 Academic Way, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4510, USA. mesterto@math.fsu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Volatile Chemical Emission as a Weapon of Rearguard Action: A Game-Theoretic Model of Contest Behavior.
[So] Source:Bull Math Biol;79(11):2413-2449, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1522-9602
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We use a game-theoretic model to explore whether volatile chemical (spiroacetal) emissions can serve as a weapon of rearguard action. Our basic model explores whether such emissions serve as a means of temporary withdrawal, preventing the winner of the current round of a contest from translating its victory into permanent possession of a contested resource. A variant of this model explores an alternative possibility, namely, that such emissions serve as a means of permanent retreat, attempting to prevent a winner from inflicting costs on a fleeing loser. Our results confirm that the underlying logic of either interpretation of weapons of rearguard action is sound; however, empirical observations on parasitoid wasp contests suggest that the more likely function of chemical weapons is to serve as a means of temporary withdrawal. While our work is centered around the particular biology of contest behavior in parasitoid wasps, it also provides the first contest model to explicitly consider self-inflicted damage costs and thus responds to a recent call by empiricists for theory in this area.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Teoria do Jogo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia
Reação de Fuga/fisiologia
Conceitos Matemáticos
Modelos Biológicos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
Vespas/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170907
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11538-017-0335-9


  4 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28854221
[Au] Autor:Shahhoseini Z; Sarvi M
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Disaster Management and Public Safety, School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Collective movements of pedestrians: How we can learn from simple experiments with non-human (ant) crowds.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182913, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Understanding collective behavior of moving organisms and how interactions between individuals govern their collective motion has triggered a growing number of studies. Similarities have been observed between the scale-free behavioral aspects of various systems (i.e. groups of fish, ants, and mammals). Investigation of such connections between the collective motion of non-human organisms and that of humans however, has been relatively scarce. The problem demands for particular attention in the context of emergency escape motion for which innovative experimentation with panicking ants has been recently employed as a relatively inexpensive and non-invasive approach. However, little empirical evidence has been provided as to the relevance and reliability of this approach as a model of human behaviour. METHODS: This study explores pioneer experiments of emergency escape to tackle this question and to connect two forms of experimental observations that investigate the collective movement at macroscopic level. A large number of experiments with human and panicking ants are conducted representing the escape behavior of these systems in crowded spaces. The experiments share similar architectural structures in which two streams of crowd flow merge with one another. Measures such as discharge flow rates and the probability distribution of passage headways are extracted and compared between the two systems. FINDINGS: Our findings displayed an unexpected degree of similarity between the collective patterns emerged from both observation types, particularly based on aggregate measures. Experiments with ants and humans commonly indicated how significantly the efficiency of motion and the rate of discharge depend on the architectural design of the movement environment. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Our findings contribute to the accumulation of evidence needed to identify the boarders of applicability of experimentation with crowds of non-human entities as models of human collective motion as well as the level of measurements (i.e. macroscopic or microscopic) and the type of contexts at which reliable inferences can be drawn. This particularly has implications in the context of experimenting evacuation behaviour for which recruiting human subjects may face ethical restrictions. The findings, at minimum, offer promise as to the potential benefit of piloting such experiments with non-human crowds, thereby forming better-informed hypotheses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Formigas/fisiologia
Aglomeração/psicologia
Reação de Fuga/fisiologia
Pânico/fisiologia
Pedestres/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Modelos Biológicos
Modelos Psicológicos
Movimento/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170831
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182913


  5 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28678826
[Au] Autor:Pusceddu M; Floris I; Buffa F; Salaris E; Satta A
[Ad] Endereço:Dipartimento di Agraria, sezione di Patologia vegetale ed Entomologia, Università di Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Agonistic interactions between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) reveal context-dependent defense strategies.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0180278, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Predator-prey relationships between sympatric species allow the evolution of defense behaviors, such as honeybee colonies defending their nests against predatory wasps. We investigated the predator-prey relationship between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) by evaluating the effectiveness of attack and defense behaviors, which have coevolved in these sympatric species, as well as the actual damage and disturbance caused to the colonies under attack. Attack and defense behaviors were recorded in front of the hive to observe attacks at the hive entrance (68 attacks in 279 h) and at ground level on isolated and weakened honeybees close to the hive (465 attacks in 32 h). We found that V. germanica attacked the hive entrance infrequently due to the low success rate of this strategy and instead preferred a specialized attack method targeting adult honeybees at ground level, demonstrating opportunistic scavenger behavior. Individual honeybees usually responded effectively to an attack by recruiting an average of two nestmates, causing the wasp to flee, whereas collective balling behavior was only observed on four occasions. V. germanica does not appear to disrupt the foraging activity of the colonies under attack. We found that agonistic events supported by other nestmates were typically the most intense ones, involving physical combat and prolonged attacks at the entrance to the hive. These observations support the hypothesis that A. mellifera ligustica can adapt its behavior to match the severity of the threat and the context of the attack.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Agonístico/fisiologia
Abelhas/fisiologia
Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
Vespas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia
Reação de Fuga/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia
Comportamento Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171006
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171006
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170706
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180278


  6 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28641115
[Au] Autor:von Reyn CR; Nern A; Williamson WR; Breads P; Wu M; Namiki S; Card GM
[Ad] Endereço:Janelia Research Campus, HHMI, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA; School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 W. Queen L
[Ti] Título:Feature Integration Drives Probabilistic Behavior in the Drosophila Escape Response.
[So] Source:Neuron;94(6):1190-1204.e6, 2017 Jun 21.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4199
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF. Linear integration improves size detection invariance over prior models and appropriately biases motor selection to rapid, GF-mediated escapes during fast looms. Our findings suggest feature integration, and motor control may occur as simultaneous operations within the same neuron and establish the Drosophila escape circuit as a model system in which these computations may be further dissected at the circuit level. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Reação de Fuga/fisiologia
Neurônios/fisiologia
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Encéfalo/citologia
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Drosophila melanogaster
Imuno-Histoquímica
Microscopia Confocal
Neurônios/citologia
Neurônios/metabolismo
Optogenética
Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
Probabilidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170824
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170824
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170623
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28495959
[Au] Autor:Zhou Y; Loeza-Cabrera M; Liu Z; Aleman-Meza B; Nguyen JK; Jung SK; Choi Y; Shou Q; Butcher RA; Zhong W
[Ad] Endereço:Department of BioSciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005.
[Ti] Título:Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in .
[So] Source:Genetics;206(3):1469-1478, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1943-2631
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo
Quimiotaxia
Reação de Fuga
Feromônios/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo
Canais Iônicos/genética
Canais Iônicos/metabolismo
Feromônios/farmacologia
Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo
Serotonina/metabolismo
Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins); 0 (Ion Channels); 0 (Pheromones); 0 (tax-2 protein, C elegans); 0 (tax-4 protein, C elegans); 333DO1RDJY (Serotonin); 56-12-2 (gamma-Aminobutyric Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170513
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1534/genetics.116.197293


  8 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28424344
[Au] Autor:Gingins S; Roche DG; Bshary R
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland simon.gingins@unine.ch.
[Ti] Título:Mutualistic cleaner fish maintains high escape performance despite privileged relationship with predators.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1853), 2017 Apr 26.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Predatory reef fishes regularly visit mutualistic cleaner fish ( ) to get their ectoparasites removed but show no interest in eating them. The concept of compensated trait loss posits that characters can be lost if a mutualistic relationship reduces the need for a given trait. Thus, selective pressures on escape performance might have relaxed in due to its privileged relationship with predators. However, the cost of failing to escape a predatory strike is extreme even if predation events on cleaners are exceptionally rare. Additionally, cleaners must escape from non-predatory clients that regularly punish them for eating mucus instead of parasites. Therefore, strong escape capabilities might instead be maintained in cleaner fish because they must be able to flee when in close proximity to predators or dissatisfied clients. We compared the fast-start escape performance of with that of five closely related wrasse species and found that the mutualistic relationship that cleaners entertain with predators has not led to reduced escape performance. Instead, conflicts in cleaning interactions appear to have maintained selective pressures on this trait, suggesting that compensated trait loss might only evolve in cases of high interdependence between mutualistic partners that are not tempted to cheat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Perciformes/fisiologia
Comportamento Predatório
Simbiose
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores Etários
Animais
Austrália
Evolução Biológica
Recifes de Corais
Reação de Fuga/fisiologia
Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170622
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170622
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170421
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28404819
[Au] Autor:Umbers KD; De Bona S; White TE; Lehtonen J; Mappes J; Endler JA
[Ad] Endereço:School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia k.umbers@westernsydney.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Deimatism: a neglected component of antipredator defence.
[So] Source:Biol Lett;13(4), 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1744-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Deimatic or 'startle' displays cause a receiver to recoil reflexively in response to a sudden change in sensory input. Deimatism is sometimes implicitly treated as a form of aposematism (unprofitability associated with a signal). However, the fundamental difference is, in order to provide protection, deimatism does not require a predator to have any learned or innate aversion. Instead, deimatism can confer a survival advantage by exploiting existing neural mechanisms in a way that releases a reflexive response in the predator. We discuss the differences among deimatism, aposematism, and forms of mimicry, and their ecological and evolutionary implications. We highlight outstanding questions critical to progress in understanding deimatism.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal
Evolução Biológica
Reação de Fuga
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Reflexo/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170517
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170517
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 5257 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28404783
[Au] Autor:Nair A; Nguyen C; McHenry MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.
[Ti] Título:A faster escape does not enhance survival in zebrafish larvae.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1852), 2017 Apr 12.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An escape response is a rapid manoeuvre used by prey to evade predators. Performing this manoeuvre at greater speed, in a favourable direction, or from a longer distance have been hypothesized to enhance the survival of prey, but these ideas are difficult to test experimentally. We examined how prey survival depends on escape kinematics through a novel combination of experimentation and mathematical modelling. This approach focused on zebrafish ( ) larvae under predation by adults and juveniles of the same species. High-speed three-dimensional kinematics were used to track the body position of prey and predator and to determine the probability of behavioural actions by both fish. These measurements provided the basis for an agent-based probabilistic model that simulated the trajectories of the animals. Predictions of survivorship by this model were found by Monte Carlo simulations to agree with our observations and we examined how these predictions varied by changing individual model parameters. Contrary to expectation, we found that survival may not be improved by increasing the speed or altering the direction of the escape. Rather, zebrafish larvae operate with sufficiently high locomotor performance due to the relatively slow approach and limited range of suction feeding by fish predators. We did find that survival was enhanced when prey responded from a greater distance. This is an ability that depends on the capacity of the visual and lateral line systems to detect a looming threat. Therefore, performance in sensing, and not locomotion, is decisive for improving the survival of larval fish prey. These results offer a framework for understanding the evolution of predator-prey strategy that may inform prey survival in a broad diversity of animals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reação de Fuga
Longevidade
Comportamento Predatório
Natação
Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Cadeia Alimentar
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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