Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : F01.145.466 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 3316 [refinar]
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[PMID]:29351568
[Au] Autor:Sirico F; Miressi S; Castaldo C; Spera R; Montagnani S; Di Meglio F; Nurzynska D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191424, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses) than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Suplementos Nutricionais
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Estudos Transversais
Escolaridade
Feminino
Hábitos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
Pessoal de Saúde/educação
Seres Humanos
Itália
Masculino
Esportes
Estudantes/psicologia
Inquéritos e Questionários
Perda de Peso
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191424


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[PMID]:29335427
[Au] Autor:Renteria R; Baltz ET; Gremel CM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
[Ti] Título:Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):211, 2018 01 15.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits. We find CIE results in decreased excitability of orbital frontal cortex (OFC) excitatory circuits supporting goal-directed control, and, strikingly, selectively reduces OFC output to the direct output pathway in dorsal medial striatum. Increasing the activity of OFC circuits restores goal-directed control in CIE-exposed mice. Our findings show habitual control in alcohol dependence can arise through disrupted communication between top-down, goal-directed processes onto basal ganglia pathways controlling action selection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Gânglios da Base/efeitos dos fármacos
Etanol/farmacologia
Hábitos
Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Gânglios da Base/metabolismo
Gânglios da Base/fisiologia
Encéfalo/citologia
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos
Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Neurônios/fisiologia
Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
Transmissão Sináptica/genética
Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Central Nervous System Depressants); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02615-9


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[PMID]:29251979
[Au] Autor:Monem RG; Fillmore MT
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky.
[Ti] Título:Measuring heightened attention to alcohol in a naturalistic setting: A validation study.
[So] Source:Exp Clin Psychopharmacol;25(6):496-502, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1936-2293
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli is believed to be an important contributor to the development and maintenance of drug abuse. There is a considerable body of research examining attentional bias, much of which has typically utilized image-display tasks as a means to assess the phenomenon. Little, however, is known about the nature of this bias in an individual's natural environment. The current study sought to implement a novel approach to assessing attentional bias in vivo. Participants wore portable eye-tracking glasses that recorded video from their point of view and measured fixation time to objects they observed. They entered a room that was designed to represent a recreational setting in which both alcohol- and nonalcoholic-neutral beverages were placed along with other stimuli. In two different testing sessions, participants were free to visually explore the room. Participants showed similar fixation times to alcohol and neutral beverages during Session 1. Attentional bias to alcoholic beverages was observed in Session 2 because fixation time decreased to neutral but not to alcoholic beverages. The magnitude of attentional bias was positively associated with drinking habits, with heavier drinkers demonstrating a higher degree of bias to alcohol. These findings provide an ecological model of how attentional bias can develop as the net result of attention being sustained to alcoholic stimuli while diminishing to other stimuli over time. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia
Bebidas Alcoólicas
Viés de Atenção
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Análise de Variância
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia
Feminino
Hábitos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estimulação Luminosa
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Autorrelato
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180224
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180224
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/pha0000157


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[PMID]:27254114
[Au] Autor:Fletcher FE; Conduit R; Foster-Owens MD; Rinehart NJ; Rajaratnam SMW; Cornish KM
[Ad] Endereço:a School of Psychological Sciences , Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Monash University , Melbourne , Australia.
[Ti] Título:The Association Between Anxiety Symptoms and Sleep in School-Aged Children: A Combined Insight From the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Actigraphy.
[So] Source:Behav Sleep Med;16(2):169-184, 2018 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1540-2010
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The current study assessed the association between anxiety symptoms and sleep in 90 school-aged children, aged 6-12 years (M = 108 months, 52.2% male). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and 14 nights of actigraphy were used to assess sleep. Anxiety was assessed using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). A significant association was found between parent-reported anxiety symptoms and current sleep problems (i.e., CSHQ total scores ≥ 41). An examination of SCAS subscales identified a specific association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and increased parental sleep concerns, including sleep onset delay, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness. Regarding actigraphy, whilst anxiety was not associated with average sleep variables, a relationship was identified between anxiety and the night-to-night variability of actigraphy-derived sleep schedules.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Actigrafia
Ansiedade/complicações
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia
Hábitos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
Sono/fisiologia
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ansiedade/psicologia
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Pais/psicologia
Fases do Sono/fisiologia
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15402002.2016.1180522


  5 / 3316 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29320810
[Au] Autor:Capacci S; Mazzocchi M; Shankar B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Rimini, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Breaking Habits: The Effect of the French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes.
[So] Source:J Policy Anal Manage;37(1):88-111, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0276-8739
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression discontinuity design. Since the relationship between age-at-interview and school level is not precise, we introduce fuzziness in the model. We find that the ban has generated a 10-gram reduction in sugar intakes from morning snacks at school, and a significant reduction in the frequency of these morning snacks. However, we find no evidence that the intervention affects total daily intakes, and our results are suggestive of compensation effects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente
Açúcares da Dieta
Comportamento Alimentar
Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência
Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência
Lanches
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
França
Hábitos
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dietary Sugars)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180122
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180122
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:T
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180111
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29239585
[Au] Autor:Absetz P; Hankonen N
[Ti] Título:How to help patients adopt and maintain a healthy lifestyle? A review of behavioral evidence of determinants and means.
[So] Source:Duodecim;133(10):1015-21, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0012-7183
[Cp] País de publicação:Finland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A significant part of the population do not follow dietary and exercise recommendations. In Current Care Guidelines, lifestyle counseling is considered as part of good medical care. Lifestyle diseases are, however, not decreasing. Does counseling fail to reach its goal, or is it being provided at all? In the narrative review article based on systematic surveys, we approach the change in lifestyle through both conscious and automatic psychosocial processes. Research evidence indicates that a change in behavior can be supported through both processes. While intervention studies have been so far conducted mainly by influencing conscious processes, evidence of benefits of using automated processes is growing stronger. We present practical measures to support the desire for change and skills and establishments of habits. The same methods may in part be utilized to change professionals in their own behavior so that provision of quick and simple lifestyle counseling becomes a matter actualized in everyday life.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
Estilo de Vida Saudável
Relações Médico-Paciente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aconselhamento
Hábitos
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 3316 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29190055
[Au] Autor:Punkkinen J; Haak R; Kaartinen M; Walamies M
[Ti] Título:Help from habit reversal for supragastric belching.
[So] Source:Duodecim;132(22):2073-9, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0012-7183
[Cp] País de publicação:Finland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Supragastric belching differs from common gastric belching. It can be detected by 24-hour intra-esophageal impedance monitoring. Belching is seldom the only symptom: reflux symptom is present in 95% and dysphagia in 65% of the patients. In supragastric belching, the air does not come from the stomach but instead from the esophagus. Belching is caused by the patient him/herself swallowing air into the esophagus. This voluntary but unconscious symptom is treated by therapy in which explaining the mechanism of belching for the patient and learning of correct diaphragmatic breathing technique play a central role. Habit reversal is utilized for teaching the patient to react correctly to preemptive symptoms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aerofagia/prevenção & controle
Eructação/prevenção & controle
Hábitos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aerofagia/complicações
Aerofagia/fisiopatologia
Impedância Elétrica
Eructação/etiologia
Eructação/fisiopatologia
Esôfago/fisiopatologia
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29186135
[Au] Autor:Barfield ET; Gerber KJ; Zimmermann KS; Ressler KJ; Parsons RG; Gourley SL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Regulation of actions and habits by ventral hippocampal trkB and adolescent corticosteroid exposure.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(11):e2003000, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task. In both adolescents and adults, CORT also caused a shift in the balance between full-length tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB) and a truncated form of this neurotrophin receptor, favoring the inactive form throughout multiple corticolimbic brain regions. In adolescents, phosphorylation of the trkB substrate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 42/44 (ERK42/44) in the ventral hippocampus was also diminished, a long-term effect that persisted for at least 12 wk. Administration of the trkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) during adolescence at doses that stimulated ERK42/44 corrected long-lasting corticosterone-induced behavioral abnormalities. Meanwhile, viral-mediated overexpression of truncated trkB in the ventral hippocampus reduced local ERK42/44 phosphorylation and was sufficient to induce habit-based and depression-like behaviors. Together, our findings indicate that ventral hippocampal trkB is essential to goal-directed action selection, countering habit-based behavior otherwise facilitated by developmental stress hormone exposure. They also reveal an early-life sensitive period during which trkB-ERK42/44 tone determines long-term behavioral outcomes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal
Corticosterona/farmacologia
Depressão
Hábitos
Hipocampo/metabolismo
Receptor trkB/fisiologia
Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Corticosteroides/farmacologia
Animais
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos
Depressão/induzido quimicamente
Depressão/genética
Depressão/metabolismo
Flavonas/farmacologia
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos
Hipocampo/fisiologia
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos
Motivação/genética
Receptor trkB/genética
Receptor trkB/metabolismo
Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (6,7-dihydroxyflavone); 0 (Adrenal Cortex Hormones); 0 (Flavones); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptor, trkB); W980KJ009P (Corticosterone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2003000


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[PMID]:28747353
[Au] Autor:Hoskins TD; Gantz JD; Chaffee BR; Arlinghaus K; Wiebler J; Hughes M; Fernandes JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 hoskintd@miamiOH.edu.
[Ti] Título:Effectiveness of a Low-Cost, Graduate Student-Led Intervention on Study Habits and Performance in Introductory Biology.
[So] Source:CBE Life Sci Educ;16(3), 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1931-7913
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Institutions have developed diverse approaches that vary in effectiveness and cost to improve student performance in introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. We developed a low-cost, graduate student-led, metacognition-based study skills course taught in conjunction with the introductory biology series at Miami University. Our approach aimed to improve performance for underachieving students by combining an existing framework for the process of learning (the study cycle) with concrete tools (outlines and concept maps) that have been shown to encourage deep understanding. To assess the effectiveness of our efforts, we asked 1) how effective our voluntary recruitment model was at enrolling the target cohort, 2) how the course impacted performance on lecture exams, 3) how the course impacted study habits and techniques, and 4) whether there are particular study habits or techniques that are associated with large improvements on exam scores. Voluntary recruitment attracted only 11-17% of our target cohort. While focal students improved on lecture exams relative to their peers who did not enroll, gains were relatively modest, and not all students improved. Further, although students across both semesters of our study reported improved study habits (based on pre and post surveys) and on outlines and concept maps (based on retrospectively scored assignments), gains were more dramatic in the Fall semester. Multivariate models revealed that, while changes in study habits and in the quality of outlines and concept maps were weakly associated with change in performance on lecture exams, relationships were only significant in the Fall semester and were sometimes counterintuitive. Although benefits of the course were offset somewhat by the inefficiency of voluntary recruitment, we demonstrate the effectiveness our course, which is inexpensive to implement and has advantage of providing pedagogical experience to future educators.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biologia/educação
Estudantes
Ensino/recursos humanos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Avaliação Educacional
Hábitos
Seres Humanos
Aprendizagem
Análise Multivariada
Universidades
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29196330
[Au] Autor:Gadbury-Amyot CC; Redford GJ; Bohaty BS
[Ad] Endereço:Dr. Gadbury-Amyot is Associate Dean and Professor, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City; Dr. Redford is Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City; and Dr. Bohaty is Nelson Professor and Chair, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City and Pediatric Dentistry Residency Program Director, Children's Mercy Hospital. amyotc@umkc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Dental Students' Study Habits in Flipped/Blended Classrooms and Their Association with Active Learning Practices.
[So] Source:J Dent Educ;81(12):1430-1435, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1930-7837
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In recognition of the importance for dental education programs to take a student-centered approach in which students are encouraged to take responsibility for their learning, a pediatric dentistry course redesign aimed at promoting greater active and self-directed learning was implemented at one U.S. dental school. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the students' self-reported study habits and active learning practices necessary for meaningful learning in the flipped/blended classroom. A convenience sample of two classes of second-year dental students in spring 2014 (SP14, n=106) and spring 2015 (SP15, n=106) was invited to participate in the study. Of the SP14 students, 84 participated, for a response rate of 79%; of the SP15 students, 94 participated, for a response rate of 87%. Students' self-reported responses to questions about study strategies with the prerecorded lecture materials and assigned reading materials were examined. Non-parametric analyses resulted in a cohort effect, so data are reported by class. In the SP15 class, 72% reported watching all/more than half of the prerecorded lectures versus 62% of the SP14 class, with a majority watching more than one lecture per week. In the SP15 cohort, 68% used active learning strategies when watching the lectures versus 58.3% of the SP14 cohort. The time of day preferred by the majority of both cohorts for interacting with course materials was 7-11 pm. Both SP14 and SP15 students reported being unlikely to read assigned materials prior to coming to class. Overall, the course redesign appeared to engage students in self-directed active learning. However, the degree to which active learning practices were taking place to achieve meaningful learning was questionable given students' self-reported study strategies. More work is needed to examine strategies for promoting study practices that will lead to meaningful learning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Educação em Odontologia/métodos
Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Avaliação Educacional
Hábitos
Seres Humanos
Aprendizagem
Odontopediatria/educação
Ensino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171211
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171211
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:D; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.21815/JDE.017.103



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