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[PMID]:28455636
[Au] Autor:Duprey EB; Oshri A; Caughy MO
[Ad] Endereço:The Youth Development Institute, Human Development and Family Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. erinn.duprey@uga.edu.
[Ti] Título:Childhood Neglect, Internalizing Symptoms and Adolescent Substance Use: Does the Neighborhood Context Matter?
[So] Source:J Youth Adolesc;46(7):1582-1597, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1573-6601
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Childhood neglect is associated with risk behaviors in adolescence, including substance use. There is evidence that internalizing behaviors may serve as a mechanism linking childhood neglect and substance use; however, further research is needed to examine this developmental pathway. According to developmental and ecological approaches, the neighborhood context and the developmental timing of maltreatment should both be considered when examining the sequelae of childhood neglect. Hence, the present study uses a longitudinal sample of youth (N = 965, 49.1% female, 59.2% African-American) to examine the influence of timing in the relationship between childhood neglect and adolescent psychopathology, and to examine the indirect effects of child neglect on substance use via internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Furthermore, the role of neighborhood disorder in this indirect effect was tested. Five data collection time points were used: Time 1(M = 4.557, SD = .701), Time 2 (M = 6.422, SD = .518), Time 3 (M = 12.370, SD = .443), Time 4 (M = 14.359, SD = .452), and Time 5 (M = 16.316, SD = .615). The findings showed that internalizing problems mediated the link between the severity of neglect in early childhood and adolescent substance use, and this pathway was moderated by neighborhood disorder. These results have implications for preventative interventions aimed toward reducing substance use for at-risk adolescents.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia
Controle Interno-Externo
Distribuição Espacial da População
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos
Pré-Escolar
Ajustamento Emocional
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
Masculino
Distribuição Espacial da População/estatística & dados numéricos
Assunção de Riscos
Mudança Social
Estatística como Assunto
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10964-017-0672-x


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[PMID]:29231005
[Au] Autor:He JF; Hong W; Shao Y; Han HQ; Xie B
[Ad] Endereço:Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China.
[Ti] Título:[Application of MOAS for Evaluating of Violence Risk in the Inpatients with Mental Disorders].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(1):28-31, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] País de publicação:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To explore the value of Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) on predicting serious aggressive behavior in the inpatients with mental disorders and to provide theoretical basis for violence risk assessments in the inpatients with mental disorders. METHODS: Total 918 inpatients in a psychiatric hospital were evaluated by trained medical workers using MOAS in September 2009, and their serious violent behavior were followed up for 2 years. The value of MOAS on predicting violence in the inpatients with mental disorders was analyzed by SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: (1) Compared to the patients without serious aggressive behaviors, the patients with serious aggressive behavior within 2 years showed significantly higher scores (P<0.05) on verbal aggression, aggression against property, physical aggression and total weighted score of MOAS; (2) Significant correlation was found between the score of verbal aggression and the serious acts of violence within 2 years (P<0.05); (3) Scores of verbal aggression, physical aggression and total weighted score of MOAS had predictive value on serious aggressive behaviors within 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: MOAS has certain value on predicting the serious aggressive behaviors of patients with mental disorders within 2 years.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agressão/psicologia
Hospitais Psiquiátricos
Pacientes Internados
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
Violência/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Feminino
Seguimentos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
Medição de Risco
Fatores de Risco
Assunção de Riscos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.01.007


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[PMID]:29173742
[Au] Autor:Wei C; Eisenberg RE; Ramos-Olazagasti MA; Wall M; Chen C; Bird HR; Canino G; Duarte CS
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute (CUMC/NYSPI), New York.
[Ti] Título:Developmental Psychopathology in a Racial/Ethnic Minority Group: Are Cultural Risks Relevant?
[So] Source:J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry;56(12):1081-1088.e1, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1527-5418
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). METHOD: This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. RESULTS: Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. CONCLUSION: Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtorno da Conduta/etnologia
Cultura
Hispano-Americanos/psicologia
Grupos Minoritários/psicologia
Poder Familiar/psicologia
Assunção de Riscos
Estresse Psicológico/etnologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Modelos Psicológicos
Modelos Estatísticos
Cidade de Nova Iorque
Estudos Prospectivos
Porto Rico/etnologia
Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27771817
[Au] Autor:Cooley LA; Hoots B; Wejnert C; Lewis R; Paz-Bailey G; NHBS Study Group
[Ad] Endereço:Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, MS-E46, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. LCooley@cdc.gov.
[Ti] Título:Policy Changes and Improvements in Health Insurance Coverage Among MSM: 20 U.S. Cities, 2008-2014.
[So] Source:AIDS Behav;21(3):615-618, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1573-3254
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent policy changes have improved the ability of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to secure health insurance. We wanted to assess changes over time in self-reported health insurance status among MSM participating in CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) in 2008, 2011, and 2014. We analyzed NHBS data from sexually active MSM interviewed at venues in 20 U.S. cities. To determine if interview year was associated with health insurance status, we used a Poisson model with robust standard errors. Among included MSM, the overall percentage of MSM with health insurance rose 16 % from 2008 (68 %) to 2014 (79 %) (p value for trend < 0.001). The change in coverage over time was greatest in key demographic segments with lower health insurance coverage all three interview years, by age, education, and income. Corresponding with recent policy changes, health insurance improved among MSM participating in NHBS, with greater improvements in historically underinsured demographic segments. Despite these increases, improved coverage is still needed. Improved access to health insurance could lead to a reduction in health disparities among MSM over time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Política de Saúde
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
Homossexualidade Masculina
Cobertura do Seguro/tendências
Seguro Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Cidades
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico
Infecções por HIV/economia
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Assunção de Riscos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10461-016-1567-7


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[PMID]:29260214
[Au] Autor:Caputi TL; Smith D; Ayers JW
[Ad] Endereço:Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
[Ti] Título:Suicide Risk Behaviors Among Sexual Minority Adolescents in the United States, 2015.
[So] Source:JAMA;318(23):2349-2351, 2017 12 19.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Assunção de Riscos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia
Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Feminino
Heterossexualidade
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos
Ideação Suicida
Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
Inquéritos e Questionários
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.16908


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[PMID]:29373590
[Au] Autor:Lopez-Guzman S; Konova AB; Louie K; Glimcher PW
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Risk preferences impose a hidden distortion on measures of choice impulsivity.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191357, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience) in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from) mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques. Economists have pointed to interactions between measurements of time preferences and risk preferences that may distort estimations of the discount rate. However, although becoming standard practice in economics, discount rates and risk preferences are rarely measured simultaneously in the same subjects in other fields, and the magnitude of the imposed distortion is unknown in the assessment of individual differences. Here, we show that standard models of temporal discounting -such as a hyperbolic discounting model widely present in the literature which fails to account for risk attitudes in the estimation of discount rates- result in a large and systematic pattern of bias in estimated discounting parameters. This can lead to the spurious attribution of differences in impulsivity between individuals when in fact differences in risk attitudes account for observed behavioral differences. We advance a model which, when applied to standard choice tasks typically used in psychology and neuroscience, provides both a better fit to the data and successfully de-correlates risk and impulsivity parameters. This results in measures that are more accurate and thus of greater utility to the many fields interested in individual differences in impulsivity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Escolha
Comportamento Impulsivo
Assunção de Riscos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Atitude
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191357


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[PMID]:29229609
[Au] Autor:Desai M; Field N; Grant R; McCormack S
[Ad] Endereço:HIV and STI Department, Public Health England, London NW9 5EQ, UK.
[Ti] Título:Recent advances in pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV.
[So] Source:BMJ;359:j5011, 2017 12 11.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-the use of antiretroviral drugs by non-infected people to prevent the acquisition of HIV-is a promising preventive option, important public health questions remain. Daily oral emtricitabine (FTC)-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is highly efficacious in preventing the acquisition of HIV in people at risk as a result of a range of different types of sexual exposure. There is good evidence of efficacy in women and men, and when men who have sex with men use event based dosing. Studies have been conducted in several countries and epidemics. Because adherence to this treatment varies greatly there are questions about its public health benefit. Oral FTC-TDF is extremely safe, with minimal impact on kidney, bone, or pregnancy outcomes, and there is no evidence that its effectiveness has been reduced by risk compensation during open label and programmatic follow-up. It is too early to assess the impact of this treatment on the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at a population level. Many challenges remain. Access to pre-exposure prophylaxis is limited and disparities exist, including those governed by race and sex. Different pricing and access models need to be explored to avoid further widening inequalities. The optimal combination prevention program needs to be defined, and this will depend on local epidemiology, service provision, and cost effectiveness. This review updates the evidence base for pre-exposure prophylaxis regarding its effectiveness, safety, and risk compensation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico
Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/uso terapêutico
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
HIV/efeitos dos fármacos
Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem
Análise Custo-Benefício
Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/administração & dosagem
Feminino
HIV/isolamento & purificação
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Infecções por HIV/virologia
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Assunção de Riscos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
Resultado do Tratamento
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Retroviral Agents); 0 (Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.j5011


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[PMID]:28746167
[Au] Autor:Kunzweiler CP; Bailey RC; Okall DO; Graham SM; Mehta SD; Otieno FO
[Ad] Endereço:*Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL; †Nyanza Reproductive Health Society, Kisumu, Kenya; and ‡Departments of Medicine, Global Health, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
[Ti] Título:Factors Associated With Prevalent HIV Infection Among Kenyan MSM: The Anza Mapema Study.
[So] Source:J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr;76(3):241-249, 2017 11 01.
[Is] ISSN:1944-7884
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: To inform future HIV treatment and care programs for men who have sex with men (MSM), we assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with previously diagnosed HIV-positive and out-of-care (PDOC) or newly diagnosed HIV-positive and out-of-care (NDOC) HIV infection among MSM enrolled in the prospective Anza Mapema cohort study. METHODS: Participants were aged 18 years and older, reported oral or anal sex with a man in the past 6 months and were not already in HIV care or taking antiretroviral therapy in the past 3 months. At enrollment, men were tested for HIV infection and completed questionnaires through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify associations with PDOC or NDOC HIV infection, relative to HIV-negative status. RESULTS: Among 711 enrolled men, 75 (10.5%) were seropositive including 21 PDOC and 54 NDOC men. In multivariable modeling, PDOC status was more likely than HIV-negative status among men who had experienced upsetting sexual experiences during childhood, had recently experienced MSM trauma, and did not report harmful alcohol use. NDOC infection status was more common among men aged 30 years and older and who had completed ≤8 years of education, relative to HIV-negative status. CONCLUSIONS: Most HIV-positive men were unaware of their infection, indicating that HIV testing and counseling services tailored to this population are needed. To improve linkage to and retention in care, HIV testing and care services for MSM should screen and provide support for those with hazardous alcohol use and those who have experienced childhood sexual abuse or MSM trauma.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Quênia/epidemiologia
Modelos Logísticos
Masculino
Estudos Prospectivos
Fatores de Risco
Assunção de Riscos
Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000001512


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[PMID]:29342172
[Au] Autor:Nugroho A; Erasmus V; Coulter RWS; Koirala S; Nampaisan O; Pamungkas W; Richardus JH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Driving factors of retention in care among HIV-positive MSM and transwomen in Indonesia: A cross-sectional study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191255, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Little is known about the prevalence of and factors that influence retention in HIV-related care among Indonesian men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (transwomen, or waria in Indonesian term). Therefore, we explored the driving factors of retention in care among HIV-positive MSM and waria in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study involved 298 self-reported HIV-positive MSM (n = 165) and waria (n = 133). Participants were recruited using targeted sampling and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. We applied a four-step model building process using multivariable logistic regression to examine how sociodemographic, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors were associated with retention in care. Overall, 78.5% of participants were linked to HIV care within 3 months after diagnosis or earlier, and 66.4% were adequately retained in care (at least one health care visit every three months once a person is diagnosed with HIV). Being on antiretroviral therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.93-12.3), using the Internet to find HIV-related information (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.00-4.59), and having medical insurance (AOR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.27-6.34) were associated with adequate retention in care. Involvement with an HIV-related organization was associated negatively with retention in care (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.24-0.95). Future interventions should increase health insurance coverage and utilize the Internet to help MSM and waria to remain in HIV-related care, thereby assisting them in achieving viral suppression.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Infecções por HIV/terapia
Homossexualidade Masculina
Pessoas Transgênero
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Infecções por HIV/psicologia
Alfabetização em Saúde
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Indonésia/epidemiologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Modelos Psicológicos
Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
Prevalência
Assunção de Riscos
Comportamento Sexual
Parceiros Sexuais
Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191255


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[PMID]:29364957
[Au] Autor:Wayne NL; Miller GA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills in novice drivers.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190885, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Given that novice drivers tend to be young, and teenagers and young adult drivers are involved in the greatest number of accidents, it is important that we understand what factors impact the driving skills of this population of drivers. The primary aim of the present study was to understand the impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills of novice drivers under real-world driving conditions. Novice driving students having less than five hours driving experience previous to a normal driving lesson were evaluated on their self-confidence (self-reported) prior to the lesson and driving skill evaluated by their instructor during the course of the lesson. Information was collected about gender, age, whether or not the students were involved in organized athletics, and the extent of their video game playing. There was no impact of gender or extent of video game playing on driving skills. Females were significantly less self-confident with driving than males, but this did not translate to gender differences in driving skills. Being involved in organized athletics-either currently or in the past-significantly enhanced driving skills in both females and males. Finally, novice drivers' age was negatively correlated with driving skills. That is, younger novice drivers (especially males) had better driving skills than older novice drivers. This is counter to popular belief that young drivers lack technical driving skills because they have less experience behind the wheel. Based on the results of the current study, we hypothesize that the relatively high accident rate of younger drivers (especially male drivers) is most likely due to inattention to safety considerations rather than lack of technical driving ability.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Condução de Veículo
Esportes/fisiologia
Esportes/psicologia
Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia
Adolescente
Adulto
Fatores Etários
Condução de Veículo/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Los Angeles
Masculino
Destreza Motora
Desempenho Psicomotor
Assunção de Riscos
Autoavaliação
Fatores Sexuais
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190885



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