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[PMID]:29320506
[Au] Autor:Weltzien S; Marsh LE; Hood B
[Ad] Endereço:School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Thinking of me: Self-focus reduces sharing and helping in seven- to eight-year-olds.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0189752, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:By 7-to 8-years of age, most children readily adhere to prosocial norms aimed at benefiting others through giving up time and effort (helping) or resources (sharing). Two studies explored whether sharing and helping by 7-to 8-year olds (N = 180) could be influenced by priming children's attention on themselves or their friends through a semi-structured interview. Results revealed that self-priming led to reductions in both sharing and helping compared to friendship-priming or a control condition. These findings are considered as indicative of the fragile state of prosocial behaviours at this age that can be easily shifted towards more selfish biases by simple priming.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Ajuda
Comportamento Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180210
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180210
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180111
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189752


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[PMID]:29324852
[Au] Autor:Primes G; Fieder M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
[Ti] Título:Real-life helping behaviours in North America: A genome-wide association approach.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190950, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In humans, prosocial behaviour is essential for social functioning. Twin studies suggest this distinct human trait to be partly hardwired. In the last decade research on the genetics of prosocial behaviour focused on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, dopamine, and their respective pathways. Recent trends towards large scale medical studies targeting the genetic basis of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia pave the way for new directions also in behavioural genetics. Based on data from 10,713 participants of the American Health and Retirement Study we estimated heritability of helping behaviour-its total variance explained by 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms-to be 11%. Both, fixed models and mixed linear models identified rs11697300, an intergene variant on chromosome 20, as a candidate variant moderating this particular helping behaviour. We assume that this so far undescribed area is worth further investigation in association with human prosocial behaviour.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cromossomos Humanos Par 20
Comportamento de Ajuda
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
Técnicas de Genotipagem
Seres Humanos
Modelos Lineares
Estudos Longitudinais
Meia-Idade
Análise de Componente Principal
Autorrelato
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190950


  3 / 2833 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28469015
[Au] Autor:Vitikainen EIK; Marshall HH; Thompson FJ; Sanderson JL; Bell MBV; Gilchrist JS; Hodge SJ; Nichols HJ; Cant MA
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK emma.vitikainen@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Biased escorts: offspring sex, not relatedness explains alloparental care patterns in a cooperative breeder.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1854), 2017 May 17.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Kin selection theory predicts that animals should direct costly care where inclusive fitness gains are highest. Individuals may achieve this by directing care at closer relatives, yet evidence for such discrimination in vertebrates is equivocal. We investigated patterns of cooperative care in banded mongooses, where communal litters are raised by adult 'escorts' who form exclusive caring relationships with individual pups. We found no evidence that escorts and pups assort by parentage or relatedness. However, the time males spent escorting increased with increasing relatedness to the other group members, and to the pup they had paired with. Thus, we found no effect of relatedness in partner choice, but (in males) increasing helping effort with relatedness once partner choices had been made. Unexpectedly, the results showed clear assortment by sex, with female carers being more likely to tend to female pups, and male carers to male pups. This sex-specific assortment in helping behaviour has potential lifelong impacts on individual development and may impact the future size and composition of natal groups and dispersing cohorts. Where relatedness between helpers and recipients is already high, individuals may be better off choosing partners using other predictors of the costs and benefits of cooperation, without the need for possibly costly within-group kin discrimination.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Cooperativo
Comportamento de Ajuda
Herpestidae/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180131
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180131
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27776077
[Au] Autor:Gan T; Wang L; Zhang L; Fang W; Gu R
[Ad] Endereço:aDepartment of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou bCAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Título:The neural correlates of evaluating the outcome of prosocial-helping decisions.
[So] Source:Neuroreport;27(17):1293-1298, 2016 Dec 07.
[Is] ISSN:1473-558X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study used the event-related potential technique to explore the neural correlates of outcome evaluation about helping others during a decision task. The results showed that the amplitude of feedback-related negativity elicited by 'failed outcome' (indicating a failure in helping others) was larger than that elicited by 'successful outcome' (indicating a success in helping others). Failed outcome also elicited a larger and longer P300 than successful outcome. The feedback-related negativity and P300 reflect the automatic process in an early stage and the control process in a late stage of outcome evaluation, respectively. Accordingly, these event-related potential results have shown the time course of outcome evaluation about helping others, and suggest that brain response to outcome information of helping others is generally similar to those in economic decision tasks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mapeamento Encefálico
Encéfalo/fisiologia
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
Comportamento de Ajuda
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Análise de Variância
Eletroencefalografia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29076845
[Au] Autor:Sofer D
[Ti] Título:Help for the Helpers.
[So] Source:Am J Nurs;117(11):16-17, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1538-7488
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Family caregivers are receiving much-needed support, but is it enough?
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cuidadores/organização & administração
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração
Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atividades Cotidianas
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Feminino
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração
Comportamento de Ajuda
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Qualidade de Vida
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171028
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000526738.21399.8d


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[PMID]:29016612
[Au] Autor:Park S; Shin J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Education, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Título:The influence of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185521, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Peer influence on students' maladaptive behaviors has been well documented; however, the influence on positive development is less acknowledged. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine anonymous peer influence on college students' prosocial behavior, specifically behavior for the improvement of society (i.e., donating money or participating in social campaigns) via an experimental approach. The effects of indirect peer influence (IP) and direct peer influence (DP) on college students' prosocial behavior were examined. METHODS: A total of 125 college students participated in an online survey and laboratory experiment. Self-reported helping behavior, social concern goals, and empathy were measured by the online survey. In the laboratory experiments, reading of a prosocial paragraph (IP) and confederates' prosocial behavior (DP) were manipulated. Participation in a signature campaign and money donation for illness were observed. Furthermore, 19 participants among those who donated were asked about their reasons for participating in such prosocial behavior. RESULTS: Prosocial behavior of anonymous peers (confederates) exerts a profound influence on college students' participation in a signature campaign and money donation, whereas the reading of a prosocial paragraph has no effect. Furthermore, no participants reported peer influence as a reason for engaging in prosocial behavior. CONCLUSION: This finding supports and extends recent research examining the positive impacts of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is not only a foundational and consistent aspect of personality, as previous studies report, but is also highly malleable and unstable in response to immediate situations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
Empatia/fisiologia
Personalidade
Comportamento Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Comportamento de Ajuda
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Grupo Associado
Infuência dos Pares
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185521


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[PMID]:28542456
[Au] Autor:Bäckström M; Björklund F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Increasing systematicity leads to better selection decisions: Evidence from a computer paradigm for evaluating selection tools.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0178276, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A computerized paradigm was created to allow for testing in the laboratory whether increasing systematicity helps the recruiter make better selection decisions. Participants were introduced to the job and the applicants on the computer screen and asked to select who they thought should be considered for the job and who should not. Level of systematicity, i.e. the extent to which the recruitment is methodical and uses prepared tools, was manipulated between subjects. Depending on experimental condition participants were helped by means of a tool for extracting judgment criteria (job analysis) and a tool for making judgments related to selected criteria (including calculation of a final score). The general prediction that increased systematicity leads to the selection of more qualified candidates was supported by the results, particularly when the motivation to put time and effort into the task was higher. The results support the claim from Industrial/Organizational psychologists that systematicity is a desirable characteristic in selection processes. The fact that increasing systematicity led to better selection decisions in a controlled laboratory experiment, along with process-related measures, suggests that this kind of paradigm could be useful when evaluating new tools for improving selection decisions, before they are tested in large (and costly) field studies of actual personnel selection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia
Emprego/psicologia
Seleção de Pessoal/métodos
Competência Profissional
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Comportamento de Ajuda
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Cultura Organizacional
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178276


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[PMID]:28432863
[Au] Autor:Meneses TMX; Oliveira MIC; Boccolini CS
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.
[So] Source:J Pediatr (Rio J);93(4):382-388, 2017 Jul - Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1678-4782
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). RESULTS: 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Ajuda
Bancos de Leite/estatística & dados numéricos
Leite Humano
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Brasil
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Atenção Primária à Saúde
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170423
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28340383
[Au] Autor:Hammond SI; Al-Jbouri E; Edwards V; Feltham LE
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, 136 Jean Jacques Lussier, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address: shammond@uottawa.ca.
[Ti] Título:Infant helping in the first year of life: Parents' recollection of infants' earliest prosocial behaviors.
[So] Source:Infant Behav Dev;47:54-57, 2017 05.
[Is] ISSN:1934-8800
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Prosocial behavior is widely thought to emerge early in the second year of life. This paper presents evidence that helping emerges early in the first year of life. Parents of 80 children asked to recollect the earliest instance of their child helping recalled help in two contexts: chores (e.g., cleaning up) and care and self-care (e.g., feeding and dressing). A subset of parents recalled helping even before eight months of age, most often in the context of self-care tasks. The presence of helping this early in the lifespan is situated in recent research, and its implications for current theories of early prosocial behavior are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Ajuda
Comportamento do Lactente
Comportamento Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Rememoração Mental
Pais
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171126
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171126
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170325
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 2833 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28335785
[Au] Autor:Bakke HK; Wisborg T
[Ad] Endereço:Mo i Rana Hospital, Helgeland Hospital Trust, Mo i Rana, Norway. hakonkvalebakke@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:We need to include bystander first aid in trauma research.
[So] Source:Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med;25(1):32, 2017 Mar 23.
[Is] ISSN:1757-7241
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The chain of trauma survival is a concept that originated in the area of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and was adapted to the treatment of trauma. In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest research into bystander first aid has resulted in improved outcome. Whereas, in trauma research the first link of the chain of survival is almost ignored. METHODS: In OHCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders has been subject of a vast amount of research, as well as measures and programs to raise the rate of bystander CPR to cardiac arrest victims. These efforts have resulted in improved survival. The research effort has been well grounded in the research community, as demonstrated by its natural inclusion in the uniform reporting template (Utstein) for the treatment of OHCA. In trauma the bystander may contribute by providing an open airway, staunch bleedings, or prevent hypothermia. In trauma however, while the chain of survival has been adopted along with it distinct links, including bystander first aid, the consensus-based uniform reporting template for trauma (the Utstein template) does not include the bystander first aid efforts. There is extremely little research on what first aid measures bystanders provide to trauma victims, and on what impact such measures have on outcome. An important step to improve research on bystander first aid in trauma would be to include this as part of the uniform reporting template for trauma CONCLUSION: The lack of research on bystander first aid makes the first link in the trauma chain of survival the weakest link. We, the trauma research community, should either improve our research and knowledge in this area, or remove the link from the chain of survival.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reanimação Cardiopulmonar
Primeiros Socorros
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
Comportamento de Ajuda
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Serviços Médicos de Emergência
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170325
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13049-017-0372-2



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