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Pesquisa : F01.145.813.625 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:28375783
[Au] Autor:Nölke AI
[Ad] Endereço:a Business School, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , Scotland.
[Ti] Título:Making Diversity Conform? An Intersectional, Longitudinal Analysis of LGBT-Specific Mainstream Media Advertisements.
[So] Source:J Homosex;65(2):224-255, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1540-3602
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study introduces an intersectional analysis of explicit LGBT portrayals in mainstream advertising between 2009 and 2015. The analysis provides insights into the (in)visibility of the LGBT community over a period of significant social change. It finds that although the number of explicit representations of LGBT characters has risen dramatically, 230 out of 240 intersections of sexuality, class, age, and race remain invisible. In using a new ad format-human interest ads-advertisers move away from hypersexualization, toward real individuals' stories of love and families. Nonetheless, the analysis highlights how the erasure of multiply marginalized groups in mainstream advertising continues to perpetuate a heteronormative, domesticized version of "gayness" and discusses the adverse effects that lie herein. It is proposed that non-LGBT consumers are the underlying target group of LGBT-explicit advertising, causing non-target market effects that alienate large parts of the LGBT community despite their overt inclusion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Publicidade como Assunto
Diversidade Cultural
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero
Conformidade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170405
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/00918369.2017.1314163


  2 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28665960
[Au] Autor:Ellinas C; Allan N; Johansson A
[Ad] Endereço:Engineering Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Dynamics of organizational culture: Individual beliefs vs. social conformity.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0180193, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The complex nature of organizational culture challenges our ability to infer its underlying dynamics from observational studies. Recent computational studies have adopted a distinctly different view, where plausible mechanisms are proposed to describe a wide range of social phenomena, including the onset and evolution of organizational culture. In this spirit, this work introduces an empirically-grounded, agent-based model which relaxes a set of assumptions that describes past work-(a) omittance of an individual's strive for achieving cognitive coherence; (b) limited integration of important contextual factors-by utilizing networks of beliefs and incorporating social rank into the dynamics. As a result, we illustrate that: (i) an organization may appear to be increasingly coherent in terms of its organizational culture, yet be composed of individuals with reduced levels of coherence; (ii) the components of social conformity-peer-pressure and social rank-are influential at different aggregation levels.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cultura Organizacional
Conformidade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180193


  3 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28253011
[Au] Autor:Clegg JM; Wen NJ; Legare CH
[Ad] Endereço:School of Education.
[Ti] Título:Is non-conformity WEIRD? Cultural variation in adults' beliefs about children's competency and conformity.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Gen;146(3):428-441, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1939-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cross-cultural comparisons provide critical insight into variation in reasoning about intelligence. In two studies, the authors used a novel methodology based on multivocal ethnography to assess the role of conformity in U.S. and Ni-Vanuatu adults' judgments of children's intelligence and, as a comparison trait, good behavior. In Study 1, there were cultural differences in the impact of conformity on U.S. and Ni-Vanuatu adults' judgments of children's intelligence and good behavior. When evaluating U.S. children only, U.S. adults were less likely to endorse high conformity children as intelligent, often citing creativity as a justification for their judgments. In contrast, Ni-Vanuatu adults were more likely to endorse Ni-Vanuatu high conformity children as intelligent. Ni-Vanuatu adults were also more likely to endorse high conformity children as well-behaved than U.S. adults. In Study 2, there were no effects of socioeconomic status on U.S. adults' evaluations of conformity. U.S. adults were less likely to endorse high conformity children as intelligent than Ni-Vanuatu adults. Taken together, the data demonstrate that beliefs about the relations between intelligence, conformity, and creativity vary within and across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comparação Transcultural
Cultura
Inteligência
Julgamento
Conformidade Social
Habilidades Sociais
Valores Sociais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Atitude
Criança
Criatividade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Resolução de Problemas
Estados Unidos
Vanuatu
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xge0000275


  4 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28221054
[Au] Autor:Alves H; Koch A; Unkelbach C
[Ad] Endereço:Social Cognition Center Cologne, University of Cologne.
[Ti] Título:The "common good" phenomenon: Why similarities are positive and differences are negative.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Gen;146(4):512-528, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1939-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Positive attributes are more prevalent than negative attributes in the social environment. From this basic assumption, 2 implications that have been overlooked thus far: Positive compared with negative attributes are more likely to be shared by individuals, and people's shared attributes (similarities) are more positive than their unshared attributes (differences). Consequently, similarity-based comparisons should lead to more positive evaluations than difference-based comparisons. We formalized our probabilistic reasoning in a model and tested its predictions in a simulation and 8 experiments (N = 1,181). When participants generated traits about 2 target persons, positive compared with negative traits were more likely to be shared by the targets (Experiment 1a) and by other participants' targets (Experiment 1b). Conversely, searching for targets' shared traits resulted in more positive traits than searching for unshared traits (Experiments 2, 4a, and 4b). In addition, positive traits were more accessible than negative traits among shared traits but not among unshared traits (Experiment 3). Finally, shared traits were only more positive when positive traits were indeed prevalent (Experiments 5 and 6). The current framework has a number of implications for comparison processes and provides a new interpretation of well-known evaluative asymmetries such as intergroup bias and self-superiority effects. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Caráter
Relações Interpessoais
Conformidade Social
Meio Social
Justiça Social
Percepção Social
Fatores Sociológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Simulação por Computador
Feminino
Generalização (Psicologia)
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Modelos Psicológicos
Desejabilidade Social
Valores Sociais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xge0000276


  5 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28167383
[Au] Autor:Roberts SO; Ho AK; Gelman SA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: sothello@umich.edu.
[Ti] Título:Group presence, category labels, and generic statements influence children to treat descriptive group regularities as prescriptive.
[So] Source:J Exp Child Psychol;158:19-31, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0457
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Children use descriptive regularities of social groups (what is) to generate prescriptive judgments (what should be). We examined whether this tendency held when the regularities were introduced through group presence, category labels, or generic statements. Children (ages 4-9years, N=203) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions that manipulated how descriptive group regularities were presented: group presence (e.g., "These ones [a group of three individuals] eat this kind of berry"), category labels (e.g., "This [individual] Hibble eats this kind of berry"), generic statements (e.g., [showing an individual] "Hibbles eat this kind of berry"), or control (e.g., "This one [individual] eats this kind of berry"). Then, children saw conforming and non-conforming individuals and were asked to evaluate their behavior. As predicted, children evaluated non-conformity negatively in all conditions except the control condition. Together, these results suggest that minimal perceptual and linguistic cues provoke children to treat social groups as having normative force.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Generalização (Psicologia)
Julgamento
Linguística
Semântica
Conformidade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Pré-Escolar
Sinais (Psicologia)
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Valores Sociais
Estereotipagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28077218
[Au] Autor:Rogers A; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M; Lewis V; Krug I; Richardson B
[Ad] Endereço:Deakin University.
[Ti] Título:A Person-by-Situation Account of Why Some People More Frequently Engage in Upward Appearance Comparison Behaviors in Everyday Life.
[So] Source:Behav Ther;48(1):19-28, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1878-1888
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although the influence of stable, trait-like factors (such as trait body dissatisfaction and appearance internalization) on instances of appearance comparison has been well documented, the additive and interactive influence of contextual factors (such as one's current body satisfaction) on comparison behaviors is unknown. Therefore, the present study tested a Person×Situation model in which both state and trait body image variables interacted to predict engagement in various forms of comparison (upward, downward, and lateral). Participants included 161 women who completed a baseline measure of trait body dissatisfaction and internalization, and then completed, via an iPhone app, an ecological momentary assessment phase in which they reported momentary experiences of mood and comparison behaviors at up to 6 random times per day for 7days. Multilevel analyses revealed that upward comparisons (comparisons against more attractive people) were more likely for individuals with heightened trait and/or state negative body image, but these predictive effects of state and trait on appearance comparisons appear largely independent of each other. Furthermore, neither state nor trait body image variables were related to the other forms of comparison, and time lag at the state-level between predictor and outcome did not seem to influence the strength of these associations. Present findings are consistent with the notion that how an individual feels in the moment about their appearance may influence engagement in deleterious appearance behaviors. However, further testing is needed to confirm these causal hypotheses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Imagem Corporal/psicologia
Satisfação Pessoal
Autorrelato
Conformidade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Controle Interno-Externo
Percepção Social
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170113
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28068133
[Au] Autor:Heath PJ; Brenner RE; Vogel DL; Lannin DG; Strass HA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Iowa State University.
[Ti] Título:Masculinity and barriers to seeking counseling: The buffering role of self-compassion.
[So] Source:J Couns Psychol;64(1):94-103, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0022-0167
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Less than 1/3 of college men seek psychological help per year when experiencing mental health concerns. Many believe this is because socialized masculine norms are incongruent with help-seeking decisions. In line with this, adherence to masculine norms, like emotional control and self-reliance, is consistently linked to factors associated with lower use of counseling. Identifying constructs that buffer, or reduce, the relationship between masculine norm adherence and common barriers to seeking help, like help-seeking self-stigma and resistance to self-disclosing, could shed light on mechanisms through which effective interventions could be developed. As such, this study examined whether self-compassion, or the ability to show oneself kindness and understanding in the face of challenges, moderated the relationship between masculine norm adherence and both help-seeking self-stigma and the risks associated with self-disclosing to a counselor in a sample of 284 undergraduate men (Mage = 19.68, range = 18-30). Results indicate that self-compassion is associated with lower levels of help-seeking self-stigma and disclosure risks. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, self-compassion buffered the relationship between overall masculine norm adherence and each of these barriers. Furthermore, when specific masculine norms were examined, self-compassion buffered the relationship between emotional control and disclosure risks. These results support the need for future research focused on the development and assessment of self-compassion based interventions aimed at decreasing the barriers undergraduate men experience toward seeking psychological help. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aconselhamento
Masculinidade
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Empatia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia
Autorrevelação
Conformidade Social
Estigma Social
Estudantes/psicologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170123
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170123
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/cou0000185


  8 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28061756
[Au] Autor:Koeneman MA; Chorus A; Hopman-Rock M; Chinapaw MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Body@Work, Research Center for Physical Activity, Work and Health, TNO-VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:A novel method to promote physical activity among older adults in residential care: an exploratory field study on implicit social norms.
[So] Source:BMC Geriatr;17(1):8, 2017 Jan 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2318
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) levels of older adults living in a care setting are known to be very low. This is a significant health(care) problem, as regular PA has many health benefits also at advanced age. Research on automatic processes underlying PA behaviour in physically inactive older adults is yet non-existing. Since people are unconsciously influenced by people around them (i.e. by 'social norms') automatic processes could be used to promote PA. We developed an explorative intervention method to assess the effects of automatically processed (implicit) descriptive social norms ('What most people do') on behavioral intention and participation in PA offered in a local residential care setting. METHODS: Forty-seven care clients met the inclusion criteria. Participants (response 45%; unaware of the intention of the research) were randomly assigned to an experimental (N = 10) or a control group (N = 11). The experimental group was exposed to photos and text heading on active peers (physically active implicit descriptive norm) using a draft newsletter article they were asked to comment on, whereas the control group was exposed to a newsletter with photos and text heading of inactive peers (physically inactive implicit descriptive norm). Subsequently, we tested (Fishers exact p < 0.10) whether this unaware exposure predicted intention (implicit and explicit) to participate in PA offered and organized by the care center (e.g. walking, gymnastics) and self-reported participation in organised PA at three months follow-up. Participants were debriefed later. RESULTS: Mean age was 87 years (SD = 3.6; range 80-95) and 53% of the participants were male. At baseline, there were no significant differences in self-rated health and PA between the experimental and control group. Results indicated that implicit descriptive norm information was associated with implicit PA intention (p = .056, Fisher's exact test). No significant effects were found on explicit intention. At 3 months follow-up the experimental group self-reported 80% participation in PA versus 22% in the control group (Fisher's exact test p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Implicit descriptive social norm information could indeed be a potentially effective way to encourage inactive older adults in residential care to engage in organized PA.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exercício/psicologia
Promoção da Saúde
Conformidade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Atitude Frente à Saúde
Feminino
Promoção da Saúde/métodos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Atividade Motora
Participação do Paciente
Facilitação Social
Normas Sociais
Caminhada/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170620
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170620
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170108
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12877-016-0394-z


  9 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27914116
[Au] Autor:Roberts SO; Gelman SA; Ho AK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.
[Ti] Título:So It Is, So It Shall Be: Group Regularities License Children's Prescriptive Judgments.
[So] Source:Cogn Sci;41 Suppl 3:576-600, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1551-6709
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:When do descriptive regularities (what characteristics individuals have) become prescriptive norms (what characteristics individuals should have)? We examined children's (4-13 years) and adults' use of group regularities to make prescriptive judgments, employing novel groups (Hibbles and Glerks) that engaged in morally neutral behaviors (e.g., eating different kinds of berries). Participants were introduced to conforming or non-conforming individuals (e.g., a Hibble who ate berries more typical of a Glerk). Children negatively evaluated non-conformity, with negative evaluations declining with age (Study 1). These effects were replicable across competitive and cooperative intergroup contexts (Study 2) and stemmed from reasoning about group regularities rather than reasoning about individual regularities (Study 3). These data provide new insights into children's group concepts and have important implications for understanding the development of stereotyping and norm enforcement.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Infantil
Julgamento
Conformidade Social
Normas Sociais
Percepção Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Princípios Morais
Estereotipagem
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cogs.12443


  10 / 2973 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27869454
[Au] Autor:Wong YJ; Ho MR; Wang SY; Miller IS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology, Indiana University Bloomington.
[Ti] Título:Meta-analyses of the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and mental health-related outcomes.
[So] Source:J Couns Psychol;64(1):80-93, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0022-0167
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite theoretical postulations that individuals' conformity to masculine norms is differentially related to mental health-related outcomes depending on a variety of contexts, there has not been any systematic synthesis of the empirical research on this topic. Therefore, the authors of this study conducted meta-analyses of the relationships between conformity to masculine norms (as measured by the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-94 and other versions of this scale) and mental health-related outcomes using 78 samples and 19,453 participants. Conformity to masculine norms was modestly and unfavorably associated with mental health as well as moderately and unfavorably related to psychological help seeking. The authors also identified several moderation effects. Conformity to masculine norms was more strongly correlated with negative social functioning than with psychological indicators of negative mental health. Conformity to the specific masculine norms of self-reliance, power over women, and playboy were unfavorably, robustly, and consistently related to mental health-related outcomes, whereas conformity to the masculine norm of primacy of work was not significantly related to any mental health-related outcome. These findings highlight the need for researchers to disaggregate the generic construct of conformity to masculine norms and to focus instead on specific dimensions of masculine norms and their differential associations with other outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Masculinidade
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
Conformidade Social
Valores Sociais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Comportamento Sexual
Comportamento Social
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170123
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170123
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161122
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/cou0000176



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